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Economic conditions political unrest Europe rest of world brought several other waves of immigrants during 20th century Greeks Italians started arriving end of 19th century first half of 20th century up 40% of city's population was of Italian origin Russians 1917 Armenians 1915 1923 Vietnamese 1920s 1954 after 1975 Corsicans during 1920s 1930s Spanish after 1936 North Africans (both Arab Berber) inter-war period Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945 pieds-noirs from former French Algeria 1962 then from Comoros 2006 was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered be of Maghrebi origin mostly from Algeria second largest group Marseille terms of single nationalities were from Comoros amounting some 45,000 peopleCurrently over one third of population of Marseille can trace their roots back Italy Marseille also has second-largest Corsican Armenian populations of France Other significant communities include Maghrebis Turks Comorians Chinese VietnameseIn 1999 several arrondissements about 40% of young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent)Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel work city of Marseille attracted better job opportunities good climate of this Mediterranean city main nationalities Romanians PolesReligion, ECE Lyon (École de Commerce Européenne de Lyon). Fernand Braudel remarked Historians of Lyon not sufficiently aware of bi-polarity between Paris Lyon which constant structure French development...from late Middle Ages Industrial Revolution late 15th century fairs introduced Italian merchants made Lyon economic counting house of France Even Bourse (treasury) built 1749 resembled public bazaar where accounts were settled open air When international banking moved Genoa then Amsterdam Lyon remained banking centre of FranceDuring Renaissance city's development was driven silk trade which strengthened its ties Italy Italian influence Lyon's architecture still visible among historic buildings later 1400s 1500s Lyon was also key centre of literary activity book publishing both of French writers (such Maurice Scève Antoine Heroet Louise Labé) of Italians exile (such Luigi Alamanni Gian Giorgio Trissino)Lyon under siege 1793. Ring roads of Paris Prime Minister, Maison Carrée temple Nemausus Corinthian columns portico [icon] Marseille listed major centre of art history city has many museums galleries there many ancient buildings churches of historical interestCentral Marseille. Main articles Music Paris History of music Paris, This section needs expansion You can help adding it (June 2017) Main article French Armed Forces. Animated gif showing expansion of Franks across Europe The largest opera houses of Paris 19th-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris Opéra) modern Opéra Bastille former tends toward more classic ballets operas latter provides mixed repertoire of classic modernmiddle of 19th century there were three other active competing opera houses Opéra-Comique (which still exists) Théâtre-Italien Théâtre Lyrique (which modern times changed its profile name Théâtre de la Ville) Philharmonie de Paris modern symphonic concert hall of Paris opened January 2015 Another musical landmark Théâtre des Champs-Élysées where first performances of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes took place 1913The Comédie Française (Salle Richelieu).
France uses civil legal system that is law arises primarily from written statutes judges not make law but merely interpret (though amount of judicial interpretation certain areas makes equivalent case law) Basic principles of rule of law were laid Napoleonic Code (which was turn largely based royal law codified under Louis XIV) agreement with principles of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental society Guy Canivet first president of Court of Cassation wrote about management of prisons Freedom rule its restriction exception any restriction of Freedom must be provided Law must follow principles of necessity proportionality That is Law should lay out prohibitions only if they needed if inconveniences caused this restriction do not exceed inconveniences that prohibition supposed remedycolor drawing of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen from 1789, The origins of French art were very much influenced Flemish art Italian art time of Renaissance Jean Fouquet most famous medieval French painter said have been first travel Italy experience Early Renaissance first hand Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired Italian painters such Primaticcio Rosso Fiorentino who both worked France Two of most famous French artists of time of Baroque era Nicolas Poussin Claude Lorrain lived Italypainting Claude Monet of woman with parasol facing left field from Musée d'Orsay, Basilica of St-Martin-d'Ainay one of rare surviving Romanesque basilica-style churches Lyon. Tourists from around world make Louvre most-visited art museum worldGreater Paris comprising Paris its three surrounding departments received 23.6 million visitors 2017 measured hotel arrivals These included 12 million foreign visitors 11.5 million French visitors Of foreign visitors greatest number came from United States (2 million) Great Britain (1.1 million) Germany (802.6 thousand) China (774.4 thousand)In 2016 measured MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index Paris was third-busiest airline destination world with 18.03 million visitors behind Bangkok (21.47 million) London (19.88 million) According Paris Convention Visitors Bureau 393,008 workers Greater Paris or 12.4% of total workforce engaged tourism-related sectors such hotels catering transport leisureMonuments attractions. The official population of city of Paris was 2,206,488 of January 1 2018 according INSEE official French statistical agency This decline of 37,345 (- 1,66 %) from 2014 This drop was attributed partly lower birth rate partly possible loss of housing city due short-term rentals tourismParis fifth largest municipality European Union following London Berlin Madrid Rome Eurostat statistical agency of EU places Paris (6.5 million people) second behind London (8 million) ahead of Berlin (3.5 million) based 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls urban audit core citiesParis Urban Area or unité urbaine statistical area created French statistical agency INSEE measure population of built-up areas around city slightly smaller than Paris Region According INSEE Paris Urban Area had population of 10,550,350 January 2012 census,[not citation given] most populous European Union third most populous Europe behind Istanbul MoscowParis Metropolitan Area second most populous European Union after London with population of 12,341,418 Jan 2012 censusCity proper urban area metropolitan area population from 1800 2010, 7th arrondissement Guillotière (south) Jean Macé Gerland Pierre Mignard Self-portrait between 1670 1690 oil canvas 235 cm × 188 cm (93 × 74 in) Louvre!
Painting sculpture Lyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programFrance (French [fʁɑ̃s]) officially French Republic (French République française French pronunciation [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]) country whose territory consists of metropolitan France Western Europe several overseas regions territories.[XIII] metropolitan area of France extends from Mediterranean Sea English Channel North Sea from Rhine Atlantic Ocean overseas territories include French Guiana South America several islands Atlantic Pacific Indian oceans country's 18 integral regions (five of which situated overseas) span combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) total population of 67.3 million (as of October 2018) France sovereign state unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital Paris country's largest city main cultural commercial centre Other major urban areas include Lyon Marseille Toulouse Bordeaux Lille NiceDuring Iron Age what now metropolitan France was inhabited Gauls Celtic people Rome annexed area 51 BC holding until arrival of Germanic Franks 476 who formed Kingdom of France France emerged major European power Late Middle Ages following its victory Hundred Years' War (1337 1453) During Renaissance French culture flourished global colonial empire was established which 20th century would become second largest world16th century was dominated religious civil wars between Catholics Protestants (Huguenots) France became Europe's dominant cultural political military power 17th century under Louis XIV late 18th century French Revolution overthrew absolute monarchy established one of modern history's earliest republics saw drafting of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen which expresses nation's ideals this dayIn 19th century Napoleon took power established First French Empire His subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped course of continental Europe Following collapse of Empire France endured tumultuous succession of governments culminating with establishment of French Third Republic 1870 France was major participant World War I from which emerged victorious was one of Allies World War II but came under occupation Axis powers 1940 Following liberation 1944 Fourth Republic was established later dissolved course of Algerian War Fifth Republic led Charles de Gaulle was formed 1958 remains today Algeria nearly all other colonies became independent 1960s typically retained close economic military connections with FranceFrance has long been global centre of art science philosophy hosts world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites leading tourist destination receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually France developed country with world's seventh-largest economy nominal GDP, tenth-largest purchasing power parityterms of aggregate household wealth ranks fourth world France performs well international rankings of education health care life expectancy human development France considered great power global affairs, being one of five permanent members of United Nations Security Council with power veto official nuclear-weapon state leading member state of European Union Eurozone, member of Group of 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organisation Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) World Trade Organization (WTO) La FrancophonieEtymology, As of 2009 World Trade Organization (WTO) reported France was world's sixth largest exporter fourth largest importer of manufactured goodsof 2016 World Factbook ranked France seventh largest exporter2008 France was third largest recipient of foreign direct investment among OECD countries $118 billion ranking behind Luxembourg (where foreign direct investment was essentially monetary transfers banks located there) United States ($316 billion) but above United Kingdom ($96.9 billion) Germany ($25 billion) or Japan ($24 billion) same year French companies invested $220 billion outside France ranking France second largest outward direct investor OECD behind United States ($311 billion) ahead of UK ($111 billion) Japan ($128 billion) Germany ($157 billion)Financial services banking insurance sector important part of economy Paris stock exchange (French La Bourse de Paris) old institution created Louis XV 17242000 stock exchanges of Paris Amsterdam Bruxelles merged into Euronext2007 Euronext merged with New York stock exchange form NYSE Euronext world's largest stock exchange Euronext Paris French branch of NYSE Euronext group Europe's 2nd largest stock exchange market behind London Stock ExchangeFrance member of Eurozone (around 330 million consumers) which part of European Single Market (more than 500 million consumers) Several domestic commercial policies determined agreements among European Union (EU) members EU legislation France introduced common European currency Euro 2002French companies have maintained key positions insurance banking industries AXA world's largest insurance company leading French banks BNP Paribas Crédit Agricole ranking world's first sixth largest banks 2010 (by assets) while Société Générale group was ranked world's eighth largest 2009Agriculture, Main article List of museums Paris. Main article Cinema of France, Paris located northern central France north-bending arc of river Seine whose crest includes two islands Île Saint-Louis larger Île de la Cité which form oldest part of city river's mouth English Channel (La Manche) about 233 mi (375 km) downstream from city city spread widely both banks of river Overall city relatively flat lowest point 35 m (115 ft) above sea level Paris has several prominent hills highest of which Montmartre 130 m (427 ft)Excluding outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris covers oval measuring about 87 km2 (34 sq mi) area enclosed 35 km (22 mi) ring road Boulevard Périphériquecity's last major annexation of outlying territories 1860 not only gave its modern form but also created 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs) From 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi) city limits were expanded marginally 86.9 km2 (33.6 sq mi) 1920s 1929 Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed city bringing its area about 105 km2 (41 sq mi)metropolitan area of city 2,300 km2 (890 sq mi)Measured from 'point zero' front of its Notre-Dame cathedral Paris road 450 kilometres (280 mi) southeast of London 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Calais 305 kilometres (190 mi) southwest of Brussels 774 kilometres (481 mi) north of Marseille 385 kilometres (239 mi) northeast of Nantes 135 kilometres (84 mi) southeast of RouenClimate, Most French rulers since Middle Ages made point of leaving their mark city that contrary many other of world's capitals has never been destroyed catastrophe or war modernising its infrastructure through centuries Paris has preserved even its earliest history its street mapits origin before Middle Ages city was composed around several islands sandbanks bend of Seine of those two remain today île Saint-Louis île de la Cité third one 1827 artificially created île aux CygnesModern Paris owes much of its downtown plan architectural harmony Napoleon III his Prefect of Seine Baron Haussmann Between 1853 1870 they rebuilt city centre created wide downtown boulevards squares where boulevards intersected imposed standard facades along boulevards required that facades be built of distinctive cream-grey Paris stone They also built major parks around city centrehigh residential population of its city centre also makes much different from most other western major citiesParis's urbanism laws have been under strict control since early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment building height building distribution concerned recent developments 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised 50 m (160 ft) central areas 180 metres (590 ft) some of Paris's peripheral quarters yet some of city's more central quarters even older building-height laws still remain effect210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held La Défense quarter Tour First tower Courbevoie since its 2011 constructionParisian examples of European architecture date back more than millennium including Romanesque church of Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163) early Gothic Architecture of Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144) Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345) Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248) Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) Les Invalides (1670–1708) 19th century produced neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842) Palais Garnier Opera House (1875) neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919) exuberant Belle Époque modernism of Eiffel Tower (1889) Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include Centre Georges Pompidou Richard Rogers Renzo Piano (1977) Louvre Pyramid I M Pei (1989) Contemporary architecture includes Musée du quad Branly Jean Nouvel (2006) contemporary art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation Frank Gehry (2014)., new Tribunal de Justice Renzo Piano (2018)Housing. Parc de Lacroix-Laval (115 hectares), Autumn Paris Medieval philosophy was dominated Scholasticism until emergence of Humanism Renaissance Modern philosophy began France 17th century with philosophy of René Descartes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Descartes revitalised Western philosophy which had been declined after Greek Roman eras His Meditations First Philosophy changed primary object of philosophical thought raised some of most fundamental problems foreigners such Spinoza Leibniz Hume Berkeley KantFrans Hals painting of René Descartes facing right black coat white collar. Main article Administration of Paris René Descartes founder of modern philosophyFrench philosophers produced some of most important political works of Age of Enlightenment Spirit of Laws Baron de Montesquieu theorised principle of separation of powers which has been implemented all liberal democracies since was first applied United States Voltaire came embody Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties such right free trial freedom of religion19th-century French thought was targeted responding social malaise following French Revolution Rationalist philosophers such Victor Cousin Auguste Comte who called new social doctrine were opposed reactionary thinkers such Joseph de Maistre Louis de Bonald Félicité Robert de Lamennais who blamed rationalist rejection of traditional order De Maistre considered together with Englishman Edmund Burke one of founders of European conservatism while Comte regarded founder of positivism which Émile Durkheim reformulated basis social researchIn 20th century partly reaction perceived excesses of positivism French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such Henri Bergson influenced American pragmatism Whitehead's version of process philosophy Meanwhile French epistemology became prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré Gaston Bachelard Jean Cavaillès Jules Vuillemin Influenced German phenomenology existentialism philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre gained strong influence after World War II late-20th-century-France became craddle of postmodern philosophy with Jean-François Lyotard Jean Baudrillard Jacques Derrida Michel FoucaultMusic.
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