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Since 9 April 1956 Paris exclusively reciprocally twinned only with Main article Demographics of Paris! Main article French literature Main article Culture of France, The Maison Carrée was temple of Gallo-Roman city of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes) one of best-preserved vestiges of Roman EmpireIn 600 BC Ionian Greeks originating from Phocaea founded colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille) shores of Mediterranean Sea This makes France's oldest city same time some Gallic Celtic tribes penetrated parts of current territory of France this occupation spread rest of France between 5th 3rd century BCThe Roman-era Theatre of Autun (Latin Augustodunum) Saône-et-Loire one of main historical sites of BurgundyThe concept of Gaul emerged that time corresponds territories of Celtic settlement ranging between Rhine Atlantic Ocean Pyrenees Mediterranean borders of modern France roughly same those of ancient Gaul which was inhabited Celtic Gauls Gaul was then prosperous country of which southernmost part was heavily subject Greek Roman cultural economic influencesAround 125 BC south of Gaul was conquered Romans who called this region Provincia Nostra (Our Province) which over time evolved into name Provence French Julius Caesar conquered remainder of Gaul overcame revolt carried out Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix 52 BC Gaul was divided Augustus into Roman provinces Many cities were founded during Gallo-Roman period including Lugdunum (present-day Lyon) which considered capital of Gauls These cities were built traditional Roman style with forum theatre circus amphitheatre thermal baths Gauls mixed with Roman settlers eventually adopted Roman culture Roman speech (Latin from which French language evolved) Roman polytheism merged with Gallic paganism into same syncretismFrom 250s 280s AD Roman Gaul suffered serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked several occasions barbarians Nevertheless situation improved first half of 4th century which was period of revival prosperity Roman Gaul312 Emperor Constantin I converted Christianity Subsequently Christians who had been persecuted until then increased rapidly across entire Roman Empire But from beginning of 5th century Barbarian Invasions resumed, Germanic tribes such Vandals Suebi Alans crossed Rhine settled Gaul Spain other parts of collapsing Roman EmpireEarly Middle Ages (5th century–10th century); Mont Blanc highest summit Western Europe marks border with ItalyThe vast majority of France's territory population situated Western Europe called Metropolitan France distinguish from country's various overseas polities bordered North Sea north English Channel northwest Atlantic Ocean west Mediterranean sea southeast land borders consist of Belgium Luxembourg northeast Germany Switzerland east Italy Monaco southeast Andorra Spain south southwest With exception of northeast most of France's land borders roughly delineated natural boundaries geographic features south southeast Pyrenees Alps Jura respectively east Rhine river Due its shape France often referred l'Hexagone (The Hexagon) Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands of which largest Corsica Metropolitan France situated mostly between latitudes 41° 51° N longitudes 6° W 10° E western edge of Europe thus lies within northern temperate zone Its continental part covers about 1000 km from north south from east westFrance has several overseas regions across world which organised along different.
Bourgogne- Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon (17th 18th century) historical hospital with baroque chapel, Parisian hills hydrology Chanel's headquarters storefront window Place Vendôme Paris with awning. Jean Moulin University Main articles Landmarks Paris Historical quarters of Paris List of tourist attractions Paris, For centuries Paris has attracted artists from around world who arrive city educate themselves seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources galleries result Paris has acquired reputation City of Art Italian artists were profound influence development of art Paris 16th 17th centuries particularly sculpture reliefs Painting sculpture became pride of French monarchy French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists adorn their palaces during French Baroque Classicism era Sculptors such Girardon Coysevox Coustou acquired reputations finest artists royal court 17th-century France Pierre Mignard became first painter King Louis XIV during this period 1648 Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture) was established accommodate dramatic interest art capital This served France's top art school until 1793Auguste Renoir Bal du moulin de la Galette 1876 oil canvas 131 cm × 175 cm (52 × 69 in) Musée d'Orsay! French cuisine renowned being one of finest world According regions traditional recipes different North of country prefers use butter preferred fat cooking whereas olive oil more commonly used South Moreover each region of France has iconic traditional specialities Cassoulet Southwest Choucroute Alsace Quiche Lorraine region Beef bourguignon Bourgogne provençal Tapenade etc France's most renowned products wines, including Champagne Bordeaux Bourgogne Beaujolais well large variety of different cheeses such Camembert Roquefort Brie There more than 400 different varietiesA meal often consists of three courses hors d'œuvre or entrée (introductory course sometimes soup) plat principal (main course) fromage (cheese course) and/or dessert sometimes with salad offered before cheese or dessert Hors d'œuvres include terrine de saumon au basilic lobster bisque foie gras French onion soup or croque monsieur plat principal could include pot au feu or steak frites dessert could be mille-feuille pastry macaron éclair crème brûlée mousse au chocolat crêpes or Café liégeoisSome French cheeses with fruits, Main article Administration of Paris With Clovis's conversion Catholicism 498 Frankish monarchy elective secular until then became hereditary of divine rightThe Franks embraced Christian Gallo-Roman culture ancient Gaul was eventually renamed Francia (Land of Franks) Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages except northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense where Germanic languages emerged Clovis made Paris his capital established Merovingian dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death Franks treated land purely private possession divided among their heirs so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's Paris Orléans Soissons Rheims last Merovingian kings lost power their mayors of palace (head of household) One mayor of palace Charles Martel defeated Islamic invasion of Gaul Battle of Tours (732) earned respect power within Frankish kingdoms His son Pepin Short seized crown of Francia from weakened Merovingians founded Carolingian dynasty Pepin's son Charlemagne reunited Frankish kingdoms built vast empire across Western Central EuropeProclaimed Holy Roman Emperor Pope Leo III thus establishing earnest French Government's longtime historical association with Catholic Church, Charlemagne tried revive Western Roman Empire its cultural grandeur Charlemagne's son Louis I (Emperor 814–840) kept empire united however this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death 843 under Treaty of Verdun empire was divided between Louis' three sons with East Francia going Louis German Middle Francia Lothair I West Francia Charles Bald West Francia approximated area occupied by was precursor modern FranceDuring 9th 10th centuries continually threatened Viking invasions France became very decentralised state nobility's titles lands became hereditary authority of king became more religious than secular thus was less effective constantly challenged powerful noblemen Thus was established feudalism France Over time some of king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed threat king example after Battle of Hastings 1066 William Conqueror added King of England his titles becoming both vassal (as Duke of Normandy) equal of (as king of England) king of France creating recurring tensionsLate Middle Ages (10th century–15th century). Charles de Gaulle took active part many major events of 20th century hero of World War I leader of Free French during World War II he then became President where he facilitated decolonisation maintained France major power overcame revolt of May 1968French-marked USAF C-119 flown CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu 1954. Temple du Change (17th 18th century) former stock exchange of Lyon Protestant temple since 18th century.
Marseille second-largest city of France main city of historical province of Provence today capital of department of Bouches-du-Rhône region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur located France's south coast covering area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi) had population of 852,516 2012 Its metropolitan area which covers 3,173 km2 (1,225 sq mi) third-largest France after Paris Lyon with population of 1,831,500 of 2010Known ancient Greeks Romans Massalia (Greek Μασσαλία Massalía), Marseille was important European trading centre remains main commercial port of French Republic Marseille now France's largest city Mediterranean coast largest port commerce freight cruise ships city was European Capital of Culture 2013 European Capital of Sport 2017 hosted matches 1998 World Cup Euro 2016 home Aix-Marseille UniversityGeography. The origins of French art were very much influenced Flemish art Italian art time of Renaissance Jean Fouquet most famous medieval French painter said have been first travel Italy experience Early Renaissance first hand Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired Italian painters such Primaticcio Rosso Fiorentino who both worked France Two of most famous French artists of time of Baroque era Nicolas Poussin Claude Lorrain lived Italypainting Claude Monet of woman with parasol facing left field from Musée d'Orsay.
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