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Parisian hills hydrology See also France 19th century France 20th century Amphitheatre of Three Gauls Roman ruins of amphitheatreMiddle Ages Renaissance. 6th arrondissement Brotteaux Bellecombe Parc de la Tête d'or Cité Internationale The many Renaissance hôtels particuliers of Old Lyon quarter such Hôtel de Bullioud were also built Philibert Delorme17th 18th centuries. École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Main article Parks Lyon See also Paris Middle Ages Paris 16th century Paris 17th century, IDRAC (International School of Management) See also Urban area (France) Urban unit. Francophone minorities, Main article Religion France Lyon background with Fourvière left Ancient Lyon Église Saint-Just (16th 18th century) Classical church.
Tour du Crédit Lyonnais, In addition 18 regions 101 departments French Republic has five overseas collectivities (French Polynesia Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre Miquelon Wallis Futuna) one sui generis collectivity (New Caledonia) one overseas territory (French Southern Antarctic Lands) one island possession Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island)Overseas collectivities territories form part of French Republic but do not form part of European Union or its fiscal area (with exception of St Bartelemy which seceded from Guadeloupe 2007) Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia Wallis Futuna New Caledonia continue use CFP franc whose value strictly linked that of euro contrast five overseas regions used French franc now use eurodiagram of overseas territories of France showing map shapes. Joan of Arc plate armor holding sword facing left with gilded background Hauts-de-. There several popular festivals different neighborhoods with concerts animations outdoor bars like Fête du Panier June 21 June there dozens of free concerts city part of France's Fête de la Musique featuring music from all over world Being free events many Marseille residents attendMarseille hosts Gay Pride event early July 2013 Marseille hosted Europride international LGBT event 10 July–20 beginning of July there International Documentary Festival end of September electronic music festival Marsatac takes place October Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world musicHip hop music, On 7 January 2015 two French Muslim extremists attacked Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo killed thirteen people attack claimed Al-Qaeda Arabian Peninsula, 9 January third terrorist who claimed he was part of ISIL killed four hostages during attack Jewish grocery store Porte de Vincennes11 January estimated 1.5 million people marched Paris show of solidarity against terrorism support of freedom of speech13 November of same year series of coordinated bomb gunfire terrorist attacks Paris Saint-Denis claimed ISIL, killed 130 people injured more than 350On 3 February 2017 two-backpack-carrying machete-wielding attacker shouting Allahu Akbar attacked soldiers guarding Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags assailant was shot no explosives were found18 March of same year Vitry-sur-Seine bar man held patrons hostage then fled later hold gun head of Orly Airport French soldier shouting I am here die name of Allah was shot dead soldier's comrades20 April man shot dead French police officer Champs-Élysées was later shot dead himself19 June man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into police van Champs-Élysées but car only burst into flamesGeography. The GDP of Lyon was 74 billion euro 2012, it's second richest city France after Paris Lyon its region Rhône-Alpes represent one of most important economies Europe and according Loughborough University can be compared Philadelphia Mumbai or Athens with regard its international position city of Lyon working partnership more easily enable establishment of new headquarters territory (ADERLY Chambre du commerce et d'industrie Grand Lyon...) High-tech industries such biotechnology software development video game (Arkane Studios Ivory Tower Eden Games EA France Bandai Namco Entertainment Europe) internet services also growing Other important sectors include medical research technology non-profit institutions universities Lyon home P4-Inserm–ean Merieux Laboratory which conducts top-level vaccine researchThe city home headquarters of many large companies such Groupe SEB Sanofi Pasteur Renault Trucks Norbert Dentressangle LCL S.ADescours & Cabaud Merial Point S BioMérieux Iveco Bus Compagnie Nationale du Rhône GL Events April Group Boiron Feu Vert Panzani Babolat Euronews Lyon Airports LVL Medical inter-governmental agencies IARC Interpol specialisation of some sectors of activities has led creation of many main business centres La Part-Dieu located 3rd arrondissement second biggest business quarter after La Défense Paris with over 1,600,000 m2 (17,222,256.67 sq ft) of office space services more than 55,000 jobs Cité Internationale created architect Renzo Piano located border of Parc de la Tête d'Or 6th arrondissement worldwide headquarters of Interpol located there district of Confluence south of historic centre new pole of economical cultural developmentTourism important part of Lyon economy with one billion euros 2007 3.5 million hotel-nights 2006 provided non-residents Approximately 60% of tourists visit business with rest leisure January 2009 Lyon ranked first France hostels business festivals most important attracting tourists Fête des lumières Nuits de Fourvière every summer Biennale d'art contemporain Nuits SonoresDemographics, On 14 June 1940 German army marched into Paris which had been declared open city16–17 July 1942 following German orders French police gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews including 4,115 children confined them during five days Vel d'Hiv (Vélodrome d'Hiver) from which they were transported train extermination camp Auschwitz None of children came back25 August 1944 city was liberated French 2nd Armoured Division 4th Infantry Division of United States Army General Charles de Gaulle led huge emotional crowd down Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris made rousing speech from Hôtel de VilleIn 1950s 1960s Paris became one front of Algerian War independence August 1961 pro-independence FLN targeted killed 11 Paris policemen leading imposition of curfew Muslims of Algeria (who that time were French citizens) 17 October 1961 unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against curfew led violent confrontations between police demonstrators which least 40 people were killed including some thrown into Seine anti-independence Organisation armée secrète (OAS) their part carried out series of bombings Paris throughout 1961 1962In May 1968 protesting students occupied Sorbonne put up barricades Latin Quarter Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined students movement grew into two-week general strike Supporters of government won June elections large majority May 1968 events France resulted break-up of University of Paris into 13 independent campuses1975 National Assembly changed status of Paris that of other French cities and 25 March 1977 Jacques Chirac became first elected mayor of Paris since 1793Tour Maine-Montparnasse tallest building city 57 storeys 210 metres (689 feet) high was built between 1969 1973 was highly controversial remains only building centre of city over 32 storeys highpopulation of Paris dropped from 2,850,000 1954 2,152,000 1990 middle-class families moved suburbssuburban railway network RER (Réseau Express Régional) was built complement Métro Périphérique expressway encircling city was completed 1973Most of postwar's Presidents of Fifth Republic wanted leave their own monuments Paris President Georges Pompidou started Centre Georges Pompidou (1977) Valéry Giscard d'Estaing began Musée d'Orsay (1986) President François Mitterrand power 14 years built Opéra Bastille (1985–1989) new site of Bibliothèque nationale de France (1996) Arche de la Défense (1985–1989) Louvre Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989) Jacques Chirac (2006) Musée du quai BranlyIn early 21st century population of Paris began increase slowly again more young people moved into city reached 2.25 million 2011 March 2001 Bertrand Delanoë became first Socialist Mayor of Paris 2007 effort reduce car traffic city he introduced Vélib' system which rents bicycles use of local residents visitors Bertrand Delanoë also transformed section of highway along Left Bank of Seine into urban promenade park Promenade des Berges de la Seine which he inaugurated June 2013In 2007 President Nicolas Sarkozy launched Grand Paris project integrate Paris more closely with towns region around it After many modifications new area named Metropolis of Grand Paris with population of 6.7 million was created 1 January 20162011 City of Paris national government approved plans Grand Paris Express totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines connect Paris innermost three departments around Paris airports high-speed rail (TGV) stations estimated cost of €35 billionsystem scheduled be completed 2030On 5 April 2014 Anne Hidalgo Socialist was elected first female Mayor of ParisTerrorist attacks. Further information Energy France Église Saint-Polycarpe (1665–1670) Classical church. Tour Eiffel sunrise from trocadero By end of 12th century Paris had become political economic religious cultural capital of FrancePalais de la Cité royal residence was located western end of Île de la Cité 1163 during reign of Louis VII Maurice de Sully bishop of Paris undertook construction of Notre Dame Cathedral its eastern extremityAfter marshland between river Seine its slower 'dead arm' its north was filled around 10th century, Paris's cultural centre began move Right Bank 1137 new city marketplace (today's Les Halles) replaced two smaller ones Île de la Cité Place de la Grève (Hotel de Ville)latter location housed headquarters of Paris's river trade corporation organisation that later became unofficially (although formally later years) Paris's first municipal governmentIn late 12th century Philip Augustus extended Louvre fortress defend city against river invasions from west gave city its first walls between 1190 1215 rebuilt its bridges either side of its central island paved its main thoroughfares1190 he transformed Paris's former cathedral school into student-teacher corporation that would become University of Paris would draw students from all of EuropeThe Palais de la Cité Sainte-Chapelle viewed from Left Bank from Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (month of June) (1410).
This section needs expansion You can help adding it (June 2017) Originally applied whole Frankish Empire name France comes from Latin Francia or country of Franks Modern France still named today Francia Italian Spanish Frankreich (Frankish Empire) German Frankrijk Dutch all of which have more or less same historical meaningThere various theories origin of name Frank Following precedents of Edward Gibbon Jacob Grimm, name of Franks has been linked with word frank (free) Englishhas been suggested that meaning of free was adopted because after conquest of Gaul only Franks were free of taxation Another theory that derived from Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates javelin or lance throwing axe of Franks was known francisca However has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use Franks not other way aroundHistory. After Revolution Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced France prior revolution with such building Parisian Pantheon or Capitole de Toulouse Built during first French Empire Arc de Triomphe Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent best example of Empire style architectureUnder Napoleon III new wave of urbanism architecture was given birth extravagant buildings such neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built urban planning of time was very organised rigorous example Haussmann's renovation of Paris architecture associated this era named Second Empire English term being taken from Second French Empire this time there was strong Gothic resurgence across Europe France associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc late 19th century Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges such Garabit viaduct remains one of most influential bridge designers of his time although he best remembered iconic Eiffel TowerIn 20th century French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings France More recently French architects have combined both modern old architectural styles Louvre Pyramid example of modern architecture added older building most difficult buildings integrate within French cities skyscrapers they visible from afar instance Paris since 1977 new buildings had be under 37 meters (121 feet) France's largest financial district La Defense where significant number of skyscrapers located Other massive buildings that challenge integrate into their environment large bridges example of way this has been done Millau Viaduct Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel Dominique Perrault Christian de Portzamparc or Paul AndreuLiterature.
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