Palais du Pharo, Main article Culture of France, Maison Carrée temple Nemausus Corinthian columns portico The most expensive residential streets Paris 2018 average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement) 22,372 Euros per square meter Place Dauphine (1st arrondissement) (20,373 Euros) Rue de Furstemberg (6th arrondissement) 18,839 Euros per square meterThe total number of residences city of Paris 2011 was 1,356,074 up from former high of 1,334,815 2006 Among these 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent 2006)Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 before 20 percent were built between 1949 1974 only 18 percent of buildings remaining were built after that dateTwo-thirds of city's 1.3 million residences studio two-room apartments Paris averages 1.9 people per residence number that has remained constant since 1980s but much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent entire Île-de-France) major part of city's population rent-paying oneSocial or public housing represented 19.9 percent of city's total residences 2017 Its distribution varies widely throughout city from 2.6 percent of housing wealthy 7th arrondissement 24 percent 20th arrondissement 26 percent 14th arrondissement 39.9 percent 19th arrondissement poorer southwest northern edges of cityOn night of February 15–16 2018 during spell of cold weather City of Paris conducted citywide count of homeless persons carried out two thousand volunteers They found 2,952 persons sleeping streets another 672 temporary shelters total of 3,600Paris its suburbs. See also Architecture of Paris Haussmann's renovation of Paris Religious buildings Paris List of tallest buildings structures Paris region, Marseille connected Marseille Métro train system operated Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM) consists of two lines Line 1 (blue) between Castellane La Rose opened 1977 Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel Bougainville opened between 1984 1987 extension of Line 1 from Castellane La Timone was completed 1992 another extension from La Timone La Fourragère (2.5 km (1.6 mi) 4 new stations) was opened May 2010 Métro system operates turnstile system with tickets purchased nearby adjacent automated booths Both lines of Métro intersect Gare Saint-Charles Castellane Three bus rapid transit lines under construction better connect Métro farther places (Castellane -> Luminy Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome)The new tramway. Parisian hills hydrology FranceGrand Est Islam (5.6%) 9th arrondissement Vaise Duchère Rochecardon St-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe Gorge de Loup Observance Champvert (north) The basic principles that French Republic must respect found 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of CitizenFrench law divided into two principal areas private law public law Private law includes particular civil law criminal law Public law includes particular administrative law constitutional law However practical terms French law comprises three principal areas of law civil law criminal law administrative law Criminal laws can only address future not past (criminal ex post facto laws prohibited) While administrative law often subcategory of civil law many countries completely separated France each body of law headed specific supreme court ordinary courts (which handle criminal civil litigation) headed Court of Cassation administrative courts headed Council of StateTo be applicable every law must be officially published Journal officiel de la République françaiseFrance does not recognise religious law motivation enactment of prohibitions France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished 1791) However offences against public decency (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or disturbing public order (trouble à l'ordre public) have been used repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution Since 1999 civil unions homosexual couples permitted since May 2013 same-sex marriage LGBT adoption legal France Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech press old 1881 Some consider however that hate speech laws France too broad or severe damage freedom of speech France has laws against racism antisemitism Since 1990 Gayssot Act prohibits Holocaust denialFreedom of religion constitutionally guaranteed 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen 1905 French law Separation of Churches State basis laïcité (state secularism) state does not formally recognize any religion except Alsace-Moselle Nonetheless does recognize religious associations Parliament has listed many religious movements dangerous cults since 1995 has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols schools since 2004 2010 banned wearing of face-covering Islamic veils public human rights groups such Amnesty International Human Rights Watch described law discriminatory towards Muslims However supported most of populationForeign relations. Joan of Arc led French army several important victories during Hundred Years' War which paved way final victoryanimated gif showing changes French borders, The French Republic unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditionsConstitution of Fifth Republic was approved referendum 28 September 1958greatly strengthened authority of executive relation parliament executive branch itself has two leaders President of Republic currently Emmanuel Macron who head of state elected directly universal adult suffrage 5-year term (formerly 7 years), Government led president-appointed Prime MinisterThe National Assembly lower house of French ParliamentThe French Parliament bicameral legislature comprising National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) SenateNational Assembly deputies represent local constituencies directly elected 5-year termsAssembly has power dismiss government thus majority Assembly determines choice of government Senators chosen electoral college 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms) one half of seats submitted election every 3 years starting September 2008The Senate's legislative powers limited event of disagreement between two chambers National Assembly has final sayGovernment has strong influence shaping agenda of ParliamentUntil World War II Radicals were strong political force France embodied Republican Radical Radical-Socialist Party which was most important party of Third Republic Since World War II they were marginalized while French politics became characterised two politically opposed groupings one left-wing centred French Section of Workers' International its successor Socialist Party (since 1969) other right-wing centred Gaullist Party whose name changed over time Rally of French People (1947) Union of Democrats Republic (1958) Rally Republic (1976) Union Popular Movement (2007) Republicans (since 2015) 2017 presidential legislative elections radical centrist party En Marche! became dominant force overtaking both Socialists RepublicansLaw, Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action. In addition 18 regions 101 departments French Republic has five overseas collectivities (French Polynesia Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre Miquelon Wallis Futuna) one sui generis collectivity (New Caledonia) one overseas territory (French Southern Antarctic Lands) one island possession Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island)Overseas collectivities territories form part of French Republic but do not form part of European Union or its fiscal area (with exception of St Bartelemy which seceded from Guadeloupe 2007) Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia Wallis Futuna New Caledonia continue use CFP franc whose value strictly linked that of euro contrast five overseas regions used French franc now use eurodiagram of overseas territories of France showing map shapes.
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