See also Paris Belle Époque Paris during First World War Paris between Wars (1919–1939) Paris World War II History of Paris (1946–2000), 5th arrondissement Vieux Lyon (Saint-Paul Saint-Jean Saint-Georges) Saint-Just Saint-Irénée, Fourvière Point du Jour Ménival Battières Champvert (south). Most of low-lying areas of metropolitan France located oceanic climate zone Cfb Cfc Köppen classification Corsica small part of territory bordering mediterranean basin lies Csa Csb zones French metropolitan territory relatively large climate not uniform giving rise following climate nuances, Église Saint-Polycarpe (1665–1670) Classical church Palais des congrès de Lyon (1998) designed Renzo Piano group of buildings various functions. During Restoration bridges squares of Paris were returned their pre-Revolution names but July Revolution of 1830 Paris (commemorated July Column Place de la Bastille) brought constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I power first railway line Paris opened 1837 beginning new period of massive migration from provinces city Louis-Philippe was overthrown popular uprising streets of Paris 1848 His successor Napoleon III newly appointed prefect of Seine Georges-Eugène Haussmann launched gigantic public works project build wide new boulevards new opera house central market new aqueducts sewers parks including Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes1860 Napoleon III also annexed surrounding towns created eight new arrondissements expanding Paris its current limitsIn 1860s Paris streets monuments were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps giving name The City of LightDuring Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) Paris was besieged Prussian army After months of blockade hunger then bombardment Prussians city was forced surrender 28 January 1871 28 March revolutionary government called Paris Commune seized power Paris Commune held power two months until was harshly suppressed French army during Bloody Week end of May 1871The Eiffel Tower under construction November 1888 startled Parisians – world – with its modernityLate 19th century Paris hosted two major international expositions 1889 Universal Exposition was held mark centennial of French Revolution featured new Eiffel Tower 1900 Universal Exposition which gave Paris Pont Alexandre III Grand Palais Petit Palais first Paris Métro line Paris became laboratory of Naturalism (Émile Zola) Symbolism (Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine) of Impressionism art (Courbet Manet Monet Renoir)20th 21st centuries, Université Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille III, Main article Demographics of Paris 7th arrondissement Guillotière (south) Jean Macé Gerland. French President François Mitterrand West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl 1987France founding member of United Nations serves one of permanent members of UN Security Council with veto rights2015 France was described being the best networked state world because country that is member of more multi-lateral organisations than any other countryFrance member of G8 World Trade Organization (WTO), Secretariat of Pacific Community (SPC) Indian Ocean Commission (COI)associate member of Association of Caribbean States (ACS) leading member of International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of 84 fully or partly French-speaking countriesAs significant hub international relations France hosts second largest assembly of diplomatic missions world headquarters of international organisations including OECD UNESCO Interpol International Bureau of Weights Measures la FrancophoniePostwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped membership of European Union of which was founding member Since 1960s France has developed close ties with reunified Germany become most influential driving force of EU 1960s France sought exclude British from European unification process, seeking build its own standing continental Europe However since 1904 France has maintained Entente cordiale with United Kingdom there has been strengthening of links between countries especially militarilyEuropean Parliament opening Strasbourg with crowd many countries' flags flagpoles, Victor Hugo Paris located northern central France north-bending arc of river Seine whose crest includes two islands Île Saint-Louis larger Île de la Cité which form oldest part of city river's mouth English Channel (La Manche) about 233 mi (375 km) downstream from city city spread widely both banks of river Overall city relatively flat lowest point 35 m (115 ft) above sea level Paris has several prominent hills highest of which Montmartre 130 m (427 ft)Excluding outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris covers oval measuring about 87 km2 (34 sq mi) area enclosed 35 km (22 mi) ring road Boulevard Périphériquecity's last major annexation of outlying territories 1860 not only gave its modern form but also created 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs) From 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi) city limits were expanded marginally 86.9 km2 (33.6 sq mi) 1920s 1929 Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed city bringing its area about 105 km2 (41 sq mi)metropolitan area of city 2,300 km2 (890 sq mi)Measured from 'point zero' front of its Notre-Dame cathedral Paris road 450 kilometres (280 mi) southeast of London 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Calais 305 kilometres (190 mi) southwest of Brussels 774 kilometres (481 mi) north of Marseille 385 kilometres (239 mi) northeast of Nantes 135 kilometres (84 mi) southeast of RouenClimate, Main article Parks Lyon Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital Paris stone building with slate dome. Motorways around Marseille native language France's highest courts located Paris Court of Cassation highest court judicial order which reviews criminal civil cases located Palais de Justice Île de la Cité, while Conseil d'État which provides legal advice executive acts highest court administrative order judging litigation against public bodies located Palais-Royal 1st arrondissementConstitutional Council advisory body with ultimate authority constitutionality of laws government decrees also meets Montpensier wing of Palais RoyalParis its region host headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO Organisation Economic Co-operation Development International Chamber of Commerce Paris Club European Space Agency International Energy Agency Organisation internationale de la Francophonie European Union Institute Security Studies International Bureau of Weights Measures International Exhibition Bureau International Federation Human RightsFollowing motto Only Paris worthy of Rome only Rome worthy of Paris only sister city of Paris Rome although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around worldPolice force. The Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises (ADLCJ リヨン補習授業校 Riyon Hoshū Jugyō Kō) held Maison Berty Albrecht Villeurbanne near Lyonwas formed 1987serves Japanese expatriate children who wish continue their Japanese education whilst abroadTransport.
Main article Foreign relations of France 3rd arrondissement Guillotière (north) Préfecture Part-Dieu Villette Dauphiné/Sans Souci Montchat Grange Blanche (north) Monplaisir (north) Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action. Main articles Gaul Celts Roman Gaul Lyon has humid subtropical climate (Cfa) albeit having some characteristics of oceanic climate (Cfb) mean temperature Lyon coldest month 3.2 °C (37.8 °F) January warmest month July 22 °C (71.6 °F) hence maintaining its subtropical classification Precipitation adequate year-round average of 830 mm (32.7 in) but winter months driest highest recorded temperature 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) 13 August 2003 while lowest recorded temperature −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) 22 December 1938Administration. Medieval philosophy was dominated Scholasticism until emergence of Humanism Renaissance Modern philosophy began France 17th century with philosophy of René Descartes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Descartes revitalised Western philosophy which had been declined after Greek Roman eras His Meditations First Philosophy changed primary object of philosophical thought raised some of most fundamental problems foreigners such Spinoza Leibniz Hume Berkeley KantFrans Hals painting of René Descartes facing right black coat white collar. France secular country freedom of religion constitutional right French religious policy based concept of laïcité strict separation of church state under which public life kept completely secularAccording survey held 2016 Institut Montaigne Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP) 51.1% of total population of France was Christian of that year same time 39.6% of population had no religion (atheism or agnosticism) 5.6% were Muslims 2.5% were followers of other faiths remaining 0.4% were undecided about their faith Estimates of number of Muslims France vary widely 2003 French Ministry of Interior estimated total number of people of Muslim background be between 5 6 million (8–10%)current Jewish community France (as of 2016 about 0.8% of population religious Jews) largest Europe third-largest world after those Israel United StatesNotre-Dame de Reims façade gothic stone cathedral against blue sky, The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism, The GDP of Lyon was 74 billion euro 2012, it's second richest city France after Paris Lyon its region Rhône-Alpes represent one of most important economies Europe and according Loughborough University can be compared Philadelphia Mumbai or Athens with regard its international position city of Lyon working partnership more easily enable establishment of new headquarters territory (ADERLY Chambre du commerce et d'industrie Grand Lyon...) High-tech industries such biotechnology software development video game (Arkane Studios Ivory Tower Eden Games EA France Bandai Namco Entertainment Europe) internet services also growing Other important sectors include medical research technology non-profit institutions universities Lyon home P4-Inserm–ean Merieux Laboratory which conducts top-level vaccine researchThe city home headquarters of many large companies such Groupe SEB Sanofi Pasteur Renault Trucks Norbert Dentressangle LCL S.ADescours & Cabaud Merial Point S BioMérieux Iveco Bus Compagnie Nationale du Rhône GL Events April Group Boiron Feu Vert Panzani Babolat Euronews Lyon Airports LVL Medical inter-governmental agencies IARC Interpol specialisation of some sectors of activities has led creation of many main business centres La Part-Dieu located 3rd arrondissement second biggest business quarter after La Défense Paris with over 1,600,000 m2 (17,222,256.67 sq ft) of office space services more than 55,000 jobs Cité Internationale created architect Renzo Piano located border of Parc de la Tête d'Or 6th arrondissement worldwide headquarters of Interpol located there district of Confluence south of historic centre new pole of economical cultural developmentTourism important part of Lyon economy with one billion euros 2007 3.5 million hotel-nights 2006 provided non-residents Approximately 60% of tourists visit business with rest leisure January 2009 Lyon ranked first France hostels business festivals most important attracting tourists Fête des lumières Nuits de Fourvière every summer Biennale d'art contemporain Nuits SonoresDemographics. The Paris region most active water transport area France with most of cargo handled Ports of Paris facilities located around Paris rivers Loire Rhine Rhone Meuse Scheldt can be reached canals connecting with Seine which include Canal Saint-Martin Canal Saint-Denis Canal de l'OurcqCycling, Pointe Rouge Beach Église Notre Dame Saint-Vincent (18th century) Neo-classical church19th century modern city; Other Japanese supplementary schools Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port, Tour Eiffel sunrise from trocadero see description See also List of railway stations Paris. Since Middle Ages residents of region have spoken several dialects of Franco-Provençal Lyonnais dialect was replaced French language importance of city grew However some frenchified Franco-Provençal words can also be heard French of Lyonnais who call their little boys girls gones fenottes exampleThe Lumière brothers pioneered cinema town 1895 Institut Lumière built Auguste Lumiere's house fascinating piece of architecture its own right holds many of their first inventions other early cinematic photographic artefacts8 December each year marked Festival of Lights (la Fête des lumières) celebration of thanks Virgin Mary who purportedly saved city from deadly plague Middle Ages During event local population places candles (lumignons) their windows city of Lyon organises impressive large-scale light shows onto sides of important Lyonnais monuments such mediaeval Cathédrale St-JeanThe church of Saint Francis of Sales famous its large unaltered Cavaillé-Coll pipe organ attracting audiences from around worldThe Opéra Nouvel (New Opera House) home of Opéra National de Lyon original opera house was re-designed distinguished French architect Jean Nouvel between 1985 1993 named after himLyon also French capital of trompe l'œil walls very ancient tradition Many be seen around city This old tradition now finding contemporary expression example art of Guillaume BottazziThe Brothers of Sacred Heart Roman Catholic congregation that operates schools Europe North America was founded Lyon 1821The African Museum of Lyon one of oldest museums situated LyonThe Museum of Resistance Deportation looks various individuals prominent Resistance movement World War II building strongly linked Klaus Barbie Lyon sees itself centre of French resistance many members were shot Place Bellecour town centre exhibition largely series of mini-biographies of those involvedThe unusual project Lyon Dubai City reproduction of some districts of Lyon Dubai major point tourism LyonLyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programmeUNESCO World Heritage Site, According 2012 French census 586,163 residents of City of Paris or 26.2 percent 2,782,834 residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) or 23.4 percent were born outside of Metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% 2007 census)26,700 of these City of Paris 210,159 Paris Region were people born Overseas France (more than two-thirds of whom French West Indies) therefore not counted immigrants since they were legally French citizens birthA further 103,648 City of Paris 412,114 Paris Region were born foreign countries with French citizenship birth This concerns particular many Christians Jews from North Africa who moved France Paris after times of independence not counted immigrants due their being born French citizensThe remaining group people born foreign countries with no French citizenship birth those defined immigrants under French law According 2012 census 135,853 residents of city of Paris were immigrants from Europe 112,369 were immigrants from Maghreb 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 5,059 from Turkey 91,297 from Asia (outside Turkey) 38,858 from Americas 1,365 from South Pacific Note that immigrants from Americas South Pacific Paris vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located these regions of worldIn Paris Region 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe 627,078 were immigrants from Maghreb 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 69,338 from Turkey 322,330 from Asia (outside Turkey) 113,363 from Americas 2,261 from South Pacific These last two groups of immigrants again vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located Americas South PacificIn 2012 there were 8,810 British citizens 10,019 US citizens living City of Paris (Ville de Paris) 20,466 British citizens 16,408 US citizens living entire Paris Region (Île-de-France)Religion. EPITA Hôtel national des Invalides Main article Law of France CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie).