Chanel's headquarters Place Vendôme ParisFashion has been important industry cultural export of France since 17th century modern haute couture originated Paris 1860s Today Paris along with London Milan New York City considered one of world's fashion capitals city home or headquarters many of premier fashion houses expression Haute couture is France legally protected name guaranteeing certain quality standardsThe association of France with fashion style (French la mode) dates largely reign of Louis XIV when luxury goods industries France came increasingly under royal control French royal court became arguably arbiter of taste style Europe But France renewed its dominance of high fashion (French couture or haute couture) industry years 1860–1960 through establishing of great couturier houses such Chanel Dior Givenchy French perfume industry world leader its sector centered town of GrasseIn 1960s elitist Haute couture came under criticism from France's youth culture 1966 designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms launching prêt-à-porter (ready wear) line expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing With greater focus marketing manufacturing new trends were established Sonia Rykiel Thierry Mugler Claude Montana Jean-Paul Gaultier Christian Lacroix 1970s 1980s 1990s saw conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants multinationals such LVMHMedia. Main article Education France Main article Paris Métro See also Urban area (France) Urban unit Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon (17th 18th century) historical hospital with baroque chapel! See also Ministry of Ecology Sustainable Development Energy National parks of France Regional natural parks of France. The many Renaissance hôtels particuliers of Old Lyon quarter such Hôtel de Bullioud were also built Philibert Delorme17th 18th centuries, Economic conditions political unrest Europe rest of world brought several other waves of immigrants during 20th century Greeks Italians started arriving end of 19th century first half of 20th century up 40% of city's population was of Italian origin Russians 1917 Armenians 1915 1923 Vietnamese 1920s 1954 after 1975 Corsicans during 1920s 1930s Spanish after 1936 North Africans (both Arab Berber) inter-war period Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945 pieds-noirs from former French Algeria 1962 then from Comoros 2006 was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered be of Maghrebi origin mostly from Algeria second largest group Marseille terms of single nationalities were from Comoros amounting some 45,000 peopleCurrently over one third of population of Marseille can trace their roots back Italy Marseille also has second-largest Corsican Armenian populations of France Other significant communities include Maghrebis Turks Comorians Chinese VietnameseIn 1999 several arrondissements about 40% of young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent)Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel work city of Marseille attracted better job opportunities good climate of this Mediterranean city main nationalities Romanians PolesReligion! The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called Canebière) stretches eastward from Old Port Réformés quarter Two large forts flank entrance Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas south side Fort Saint-Jean north Farther out Bay of Marseille Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands one of which If location of Château d'If made famous Dumas novel Count of Monte Cristo main commercial centre of city intersects with Canebière Rue St Ferréol Centre Bourse (one of city's main shopping malls) centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones most notably Rue St Ferréol Cours Julien near Music Conservatory Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off Old Port area around Hôtel de Ville south east of central Marseille 6th arrondissement Prefecture monumental fountain of Place Castellane important bus metro interchange south west hills of 7th 8th arrondissements dominated basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of Centre Bourse 1st arrondissement linked Boulevard d'Athènes CanebièreClimate. The oldest traces of human life what now France date from approximately 1.8 million years ago Humans were then confronted harsh variable climate marked several glacial erasEarly hominids led nomadic hunter-gatherer life France has large number of decorated caves from upper Palaeolithic era including one of most famous best preserved Lascaux (approximately 18,000 BC)At end of last glacial period (10,000 BC) climate became milder from approximately 7,000 BC this part of Western Europe entered Neolithic era its inhabitants became sedentaryAfter strong demographic agricultural development between 4th 3rd millennia metallurgy appeared end of 3rd millennium initially working gold copper bronze later iron France has numerous megalithic sites from Neolithic period including exceptionally dense Carnac stones site (approximately 3,300 BC)Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD)! The Roman Catholic Basilique du Sacré-Cœur No religion (39.6%). Ariane four rocket taking off past tower, The most expensive residential streets Paris 2018 average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement) 22,372 Euros per square meter Place Dauphine (1st arrondissement) (20,373 Euros) Rue de Furstemberg (6th arrondissement) 18,839 Euros per square meterThe total number of residences city of Paris 2011 was 1,356,074 up from former high of 1,334,815 2006 Among these 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent 2006)Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 before 20 percent were built between 1949 1974 only 18 percent of buildings remaining were built after that dateTwo-thirds of city's 1.3 million residences studio two-room apartments Paris averages 1.9 people per residence number that has remained constant since 1980s but much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent entire Île-de-France) major part of city's population rent-paying oneSocial or public housing represented 19.9 percent of city's total residences 2017 Its distribution varies widely throughout city from 2.6 percent of housing wealthy 7th arrondissement 24 percent 20th arrondissement 26 percent 14th arrondissement 39.9 percent 19th arrondissement poorer southwest northern edges of cityOn night of February 15–16 2018 during spell of cold weather City of Paris conducted citywide count of homeless persons carried out two thousand volunteers They found 2,952 persons sleeping streets another 672 temporary shelters total of 3,600Paris its suburbs, Bellecour Ecoles D'ArtsPrimary secondary schools Roman Catholic (400,000) Centre d'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation.
Sainte-Geneviève Library A central hub of national rail network Paris's six major railway stations (Gare du Nord Gare de l'Est Gare de Lyon Gare d'Austerlitz Gare Montparnasse Gare Saint-Lazare) minor one (Gare de Bercy) connected three networks TGV serving four high-speed rail lines normal speed Corail trains suburban rails (Transilien)Métro RER tramway. Christianity (51.1%) Pieds paquets The port also important arrival base millions of people each year with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships With its beaches history architecture culture (24 museums 42 theatres) Marseille one of most visited cities France with 4.1 million visitors 2012 Marseille ranked 86th world business tourism events advancing from 150th spot one year before. number of congress days hosted its territory increased from 109,000 1996 almost 300,000 2011.. The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris oldest hospital city The Paris Catacombs hold remains of approximately 6 million peopleIn Paris's Roman era its main cemetery was located outskirts of Left Bank settlement but this changed with rise of Catholicism where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds use their parishes With Paris's growth many of these particularly city's largest cemetery les Innocents were filled overflowing creating quite unsanitary conditions capital When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786 contents of all Paris's parish cemeteries were transferred renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside Porte d'Enfer city gate today place Denfert-Rochereau 14th arrondissementprocess of moving bones from Cimetière des Innocents catacombs took place between 1786 1814 part of network of tunnels remains can be visited today official tour of catacombsAfter tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided more definitive solution creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside city limits Open from 1804 these were cemeteries of Père Lachaise Montmartre Montparnasse later Passy these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications 1860 New suburban cemeteries were created early 20th century largest of these Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny) Cimetière parisien d'Ivry Cimetière parisien de Bagneux Some of most famous people world buried Parisian cemeteriesHealthcare. The city's top tourist attraction was Notre Dame Cathedral which welcomed estimated 12,000,000 visitors 2017 Second was Basilique du Sacré-Cœur Montmartre with estimated 11 million visitors This was followed Louvre Museum (8.02 million visitors) Eiffel Tower (6.2 million) Centre Pompidou (3.3 million visitors) Musée d'Orsay (3.2 million) City of Science Industry (2.4 million visitors) Chapel of Our Lady of Miraculous Medal (2 million visitors) Museum of Natural History (1.7 million visitors) Arc de Triomphe (1.3 million visitors)The centre of Paris contains most visited monuments city including Notre Dame Cathedral Louvre well Sainte-Chapelle Les Invalides where tomb of Napoleon located Eiffel Tower located Left Bank south-west of centre Panthéon Catacombs of Paris also located Left Bank of Seine banks of Seine from Pont de Sully Pont d'Iéna have been listed UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991The Axe historique pictured here from Concorde Grande Arche of La Défense, To west of Saône fifth arrondissement covers old city (Vieux Lyon) Fourvière hill plateau beyond 9th immediately north stretches from Gorge de Loup through Vaise neighbouring suburbs of Écully Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or Collonges-au-Mont-d'OrBetween two rivers Presqu'île second first fourth arrondissements second includes most of city centre including Bellecour Perrache railway station reaches far confluence of two rivers first directly north of second covers part of city centre (including Hôtel de Ville) slopes of La Croix-Rousse north of Boulevard fourth arrondissement which covers Plateau of La Croix-Rousse up its boundary with commune of Caluire-et-CuireTo east of Rhône third sixth seventh eighth arrondissementsMayors. Main articles French language Languages of France Organisation internationale de la Francophonie Starting 1903 Tour de France oldest most prestigious of Grands Tours world's most famous cycling racePopular sports played France include football judo tennis, rugby pétanque France has hosted events such 1938 1998 FIFA World Cups, 2007 Rugby World Cup, will host 2023 Rugby World Cup country also hosted 1960 European Nations' Cup UEFA Euro 1984 UEFA Euro 2016 Stade de France Saint-Denis France's largest stadium was venue 1998 FIFA World Cup 2007 Rugby World Cup finals Since 1903 France hosts annual Tour de France most famous road bicycle race world France famous its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race Several major tennis tournaments take place France including Paris Masters French Open one of four Grand Slam tournaments French martial arts include Savate FencingPierre de Coubertin father of modern Olympic Games. Location borders Includes Section Japonaises (リヨン・ジェルラン補習授業校 Riyon Jeruran Hoshū Jugyō Kō Lyon Gerland Japanese Supplementary School) which Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT) counts part-time Japanese supplementary school, The Region of Île de France including Paris its surrounding communities governed Regional Council which has its headquarters 7th arrondissement of Paris composed of 209 members representing different communes within region 15 December 2015 list of candidates of Union of Right coalition of centrist right-wing parties led Valérie Pécresse narrowly won regional election defeating coalition of Socialists ecologists Socialists had governed region seventeen years regional council has 121 members from Union of Right 66 from Union of Left 22 from extreme right National FrontNational government, Panorama of Paris seen from Eiffel Tower full 360-degree view (river flowing from north-east south-west right left).