See also France 19th century France 20th century French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation According 2011 survey IFOP French public opinion research organisation 61 percent of residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves Roman Catholic though just 15 percent said they were practising Catholics while 46 percent were non-practicing same survey 7 percent of residents identified themselves Muslims 4 percent Protestants 2 percent Jewish 25 percent without religionAccording INSEE French government statistical office between 4 5 million French residents were born or had least one parent born predominantly Muslim country particularly Algeria Morocco Tunisia IFOP survey 2008 reported that of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries 25 percent went mosque regularly 41 percent practised religion 34 percent were believers but did not practice religion2012 2013 was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims City of Paris 1.5 million Muslims Île-de-France region 4 5 million Muslims FranceThe Jewish population of Paris Region was estimated 2014 be 282,000 largest concentration of Jews world outside of Israel United StatesEconomy. This section needs expansion You can help adding it (June 2017), Prehistory (before 6th century BC) Bastille Day celebration of storming of Bastille 1789 biggest festival city military parade taking place every year 14 July Champs-Élysées from Arc de Triomphe Place de la Concorde includes flypast over Champs Élysées Patrouille de France parade of military units equipment display of fireworks evening most spectacular being one Eiffel TowerSome other yearly festivals Paris-Plages festive event that lasts from mid-July mid-August when Right Bank of Seine converted into temporary beach with sand deck chairs palm trees Journées du Patrimoine Fête de la Musique Techno Parade Nuit Blanche Cinéma au clair de lune Printemps des rues Festival d'automne Fête des jardins Carnaval de Paris one of oldest festivals Paris dates back Middle AgesEducation. The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced first permanent photograph polished pewter plate Paris 1825 1839 after death of Niépce Louis Daguerre patented Daguerrotype which became most common form of photography until 1860s work of Étienne-Jules Marey 1880s contributed considerably development of modern photography Photography came occupy central role Parisian Surrealist activity works of Man Ray Maurice Tabard Numerous photographers achieved renown their photography of Paris including Eugène Atget noted his depictions of street scenes Robert Doisneau noted his playful pictures of people market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of romantic vision of Paris) Marcel Bovis noted his night scenes others such Jacques-Henri Lartigue Cartier-Bresson Poster art also became important art form Paris late nineteenth century through work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Jules Chéret Eugène Grasset Adolphe Willette Pierre Bonnard Georges de Feure Henri-Gabriel Ibels Gavarni Alphonse MuchaMuseums, By 1901 population of Paris had grown 2,715,000 beginning of century artists from around world including Pablo Picasso Modigliani Henri Matisse made Paris their home was birthplace of Fauvism Cubism abstract art, authors such Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches literatureDuring First World War Paris sometimes found itself front line 600 1,000 Paris taxis played small but highly important symbolic role transporting 6,000 soldiers front line First Battle of Marne city was also bombed Zeppelins shelled German long-range guns years after war known Les Années Folles Paris continued be mecca writers musicians artists from around world including Ernest Hemingway Igor Stravinsky James Joyce Josephine Baker Sidney Bechet surrealist Salvador DalíIn years after peace conference city was also home growing numbers of students activists from French colonies other Asian African countries who later became leaders of their countries such Ho Chi Minh Zhou Enlai Léopold Sédar SenghorGeneral Charles de Gaulle Champs-Élysées celebrating liberation of Paris (26 August 1944), Île-de- Includes Section Japonaises (リヨン・ジェルラン補習授業校 Riyon Jeruran Hoshū Jugyō Kō Lyon Gerland Japanese Supplementary School) which Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT) counts part-time Japanese supplementary school. There some international private schools Lyon area including, Main article Law of France Further information Charlie Hebdo shooting November 2015 Paris attacks Louvre machete attack March 2017 Île-de-France attacks April 2017 Champs-Élysées attack; Pays de, The National University Library campus of University of StrasbourgIn 1802 Napoleon created lycée Nevertheless Jules Ferry who considered be father of French modern school which free secular compulsory until age of 13 since 1882 (school attendance France now compulsory until age of 16)Nowadays schooling system France centralised composed of three stages primary education secondary education higher education Programme International Student Assessment coordinated OECD ranked France's education about OECD average 2015 Primary secondary education predominantly public run Ministry of National Education France education compulsory from six sixteen years old public school secular free While training remuneration of teachers curriculum responsibility of state centrally management of primary secondary schools overseen local authorities Primary education comprises two phases nursery school (école maternelle) elementary school (école élémentaire) Nursery school aims stimulate minds of very young children promote their socialisation development of basic grasp of language number Around age of six children transfer elementary school whose primary objectives learning about writing arithmetic citizenship Secondary education also consists of two phases first delivered through colleges (collège) leads national certificate (Diplôme national du brevet) second offered high schools (lycée) finishes national exams leading baccalaureate (baccalauréat available professional technical or general flavours) or certificate of professional competence (certificat d'aptitude professionelle)Higher education divided between public universities prestigious selective Grandes écoles such Sciences Po Paris Political studies HEC Paris Economics Polytechnique École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris that produce high-profile engineers or École nationale d'administration careers Grands Corps of state Grandes écoles have been criticised alleged elitism they have produced many if not most of France's high-ranking civil servants CEOs politiciansSince higher education funded state fees very low tuition fees vary from €150 €700 depending university different levels of education (licence master doctorate) One can therefore get master's degree (in 5 years) about €750–3,500 tuition fees public engineering schools comparable universities albeit little higher (around €700) However they can reach €7000 year private engineering schools while business schools which all private or partially private charge up €15000 year Health insurance students free until age of 20Culture, Police (Gendarmerie) motorcyclists Paris One of Lascaux paintings horse – approximately 18,000 BC. Main article Name of France, Roman Catholic (400,000) Motorways around Marseille, Most French rulers since Middle Ages made point of leaving their mark city that contrary many other of world's capitals has never been destroyed catastrophe or war modernising its infrastructure through centuries Paris has preserved even its earliest history its street mapits origin before Middle Ages city was composed around several islands sandbanks bend of Seine of those two remain today île Saint-Louis île de la Cité third one 1827 artificially created île aux CygnesModern Paris owes much of its downtown plan architectural harmony Napoleon III his Prefect of Seine Baron Haussmann Between 1853 1870 they rebuilt city centre created wide downtown boulevards squares where boulevards intersected imposed standard facades along boulevards required that facades be built of distinctive cream-grey Paris stone They also built major parks around city centrehigh residential population of its city centre also makes much different from most other western major citiesParis's urbanism laws have been under strict control since early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment building height building distribution concerned recent developments 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised 50 m (160 ft) central areas 180 metres (590 ft) some of Paris's peripheral quarters yet some of city's more central quarters even older building-height laws still remain effect210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held La Défense quarter Tour First tower Courbevoie since its 2011 constructionParisian examples of European architecture date back more than millennium including Romanesque church of Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163) early Gothic Architecture of Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144) Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345) Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248) Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) Les Invalides (1670–1708) 19th century produced neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842) Palais Garnier Opera House (1875) neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919) exuberant Belle Époque modernism of Eiffel Tower (1889) Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include Centre Georges Pompidou Richard Rogers Renzo Piano (1977) Louvre Pyramid I M Pei (1989) Contemporary architecture includes Musée du quad Branly Jean Nouvel (2006) contemporary art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation Frank Gehry (2014)., new Tribunal de Justice Renzo Piano (2018)Housing! Historically economy of Marseille was dominated its role port of French Empire linking North African colonies of Algeria Morocco Tunisia with Metropolitan France Old Port was replaced main port trade Port de la Joliette during Second Empire now contains restaurants offices bars hotels functions mostly private marina majority of port docks which experienced decline 1970s after oil crisis have been recently redeveloped with funds from European Union Fishing remains important Marseille food economy of Marseille fed local catch daily fish market still held Quai des Belges of Old PortThe economy of Marseille its region still linked its commercial port first French port fifth European port cargo tonnage which lies north of Old Port eastern Fos-sur-Mer Some 45,000 jobs linked port activities represents 4 billion euros added value regional economy 100 million tons of freight pass annually through port 60% of which petroleum making number one France Mediterranean number three Europe However early 2000s growth container traffic was being stifled constant strikes social upheavalport among 20th firsts Europe container traffic with 1,062,408 TEU new infrastructures have already raised capacity 2M TEU Petroleum refining shipbuilding principal industries but chemicals soap glass sugar building materials plastics textiles olive oil processed foods also important products. Marseille connected with Rhône via canal thus has access extensive waterway network of France Petroleum shipped northward Paris basin pipeline city also serves France's leading centre of oil refiningCompanies services high technologies, Paris has typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) which affected North Atlantic Current overall climate throughout year mild moderately wet Summer days usually warm pleasant with average temperatures between 15 25 °C (59 77 °F) fair amount of sunshine Each year however there few days when temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F) Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur such heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) weeks reached 40 °C (104 °F) some days seldom cooled down night Spring autumn have average mild days fresh nights but changing unstable Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently both seasonswinter sunshine scarce days cool nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F) Light night frosts however quite common but temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) only few days year Snow falls every year but rarely stays ground city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulationParis has average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in) experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout year However city known intermittent abrupt heavy showers highest recorded temperature 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) 28 July 1947 lowest −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) 10 December 1879Climate data Paris (Parc Montsouris) 1981–2010 averages extremes 1872–present. Main article Administrative divisions of France Amphitheatre of Three Gauls Roman ruins of amphitheatreMiddle Ages Renaissance.
Main article Education Paris ISARA (Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture Rhône Alpes), Place Bellecour one of largest town squares Europe Main article French fashion. France's highest courts located Paris Court of Cassation highest court judicial order which reviews criminal civil cases located Palais de Justice Île de la Cité, while Conseil d'État which provides legal advice executive acts highest court administrative order judging litigation against public bodies located Palais-Royal 1st arrondissementConstitutional Council advisory body with ultimate authority constitutionality of laws government decrees also meets Montpensier wing of Palais RoyalParis its region host headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO Organisation Economic Co-operation Development International Chamber of Commerce Paris Club European Space Agency International Energy Agency Organisation internationale de la Francophonie European Union Institute Security Studies International Bureau of Weights Measures International Exhibition Bureau International Federation Human RightsFollowing motto Only Paris worthy of Rome only Rome worthy of Paris only sister city of Paris Rome although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around worldPolice force, Grand EstBourgogne-Franche-Comté Main article Sport Paris, Auvergne- Notre-Dame de Reims Roman Catholic cathedral where kings of France were crowned until 1825.[XV]. Église Saint-Just (16th 18th century) Classical church Auvergne-. Main article Lyonnaise cuisine Tour Eiffel sunrise from trocadero. Saint-Exupéry International Airport (formerly Satolas Airport) designed Guillaume Gilbert, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital Paris stone building with slate dome, Main article Music of France See also List of twin towns sister cities of Paris. Political majority each sector since 2014 Like Paris Marseille city of Lyon divided into number of municipal arrondissements each of which identified number has its own council town hall Five arrondissements were originally created 1852 when three neighbouring communes (La Croix-Rousse La Guillotière Vaise) were annexed Lyon Between 1867 1959 third arrondissement (which originally covered whole of Left Bank of Rhône) was split three times creating new arrondissement each case Then 1963 commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe was annexed Lyon's fifth arrondissement year later 1964 fifth was split create Lyon's 9th – and date final – arrondissement Within each arrondissement recognisable quartiers or neighbourhoods are.