Paris its early history had only rivers Seine Bièvre water From 1809 Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers north-east of capital From 1857 civil engineer Eugène Belgrand under Napoleon III oversaw construction of series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around city several reservoirs built atop Capital's highest points of elevation From then on new reservoir system became Paris's principal source of drinking water remains of old system pumped into lower levels of same reservoirs were from then used cleaning of Paris's streets This system still major part of Paris's modern water-supply network Today Paris has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways dedicated evacuation of Paris's liquid wastesIn 1982 Mayor Chirac introduced motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte remove dog faeces from Paris streetsproject was abandoned 2002 new better enforced local law under terms of which dog owners can be fined up €500 not removing their dog faecesair pollution Paris from point of view of particulate matter (PM10) highest France with 38 µg/m³Parks gardens! Charles de Gaulle took active part many major events of 20th century hero of World War I leader of Free French during World War II he then became President where he facilitated decolonisation maintained France major power overcame revolt of May 1968French-marked USAF C-119 flown CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu 1954, Animated map of growth decline of French colonial empireFrance had colonial possessions various forms since beginning of 17th century but 19th 20th centuries its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly became second largest world behind British Empire Including metropolitan France total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres 1920s 1930s 8.6% of world's land Known Belle Époque turn of century was period characterised optimism regional peace economic prosperity technological scientific cultural innovations 1905 state secularism was officially establishedThe French conquest of Morocco was one of longest toughest annals of European colonialism French historian Daniel Rivet puts casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted French occupation 100,000Contemporary period (1914–present). Tour du Crédit Lyonnais City Hall Place des Terreaux built architects Jules Hardouin-Mansart Robert de Cotte. Main article French cuisine Notre-Dame de Reims Roman Catholic cathedral where kings of France were crowned until 1825.[XV]. A silver drachma inscribed with MASSA[LIA] (ΜΑΣΣΑ[ΛΙΑ]) dated 375–200 BC during Hellenistic period of Marseille bearing head of Greek goddess Artemis obverse lion reverse. Navette de Marseille (fr) are words of food writer M F K Fisher little boat-shaped cookies tough dough tasting vaguely of orange peel smelling better than they areFarinata#French variations chickpea flour boiled into thick mush allowed firm up then cut into blocks friedPastis alcoholic beverage made with aniseed spice extremely popular regionPieds paquets dish prepared from sheep's feet offalPistou combination of crushed fresh basil garlic with olive oil similar Italian pesto Soup au pistou combines pistou broth with pasta vegetablesTapenade paste made from chopped olives capers olive oil (sometimes anchovies may be added)Films set Marseille, National Active Non-Commissioned Officers School Economic conditions political unrest Europe rest of world brought several other waves of immigrants during 20th century Greeks Italians started arriving end of 19th century first half of 20th century up 40% of city's population was of Italian origin Russians 1917 Armenians 1915 1923 Vietnamese 1920s 1954 after 1975 Corsicans during 1920s 1930s Spanish after 1936 North Africans (both Arab Berber) inter-war period Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945 pieds-noirs from former French Algeria 1962 then from Comoros 2006 was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered be of Maghrebi origin mostly from Algeria second largest group Marseille terms of single nationalities were from Comoros amounting some 45,000 peopleCurrently over one third of population of Marseille can trace their roots back Italy Marseille also has second-largest Corsican Armenian populations of France Other significant communities include Maghrebis Turks Comorians Chinese VietnameseIn 1999 several arrondissements about 40% of young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent)Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel work city of Marseille attracted better job opportunities good climate of this Mediterranean city main nationalities Romanians PolesReligion. Gaston Defferre served Mayor of Marseille from 1953 1986Jean-Claude Gaudin has been Mayor of Marseille since 1995Population. Main article French Armed Forces According Article 2 of Constitution official language of France French, Romance language derived from Latin Since 1635 Académie française has been France's official authority French language although its recommendations carry no legal weight There also regional languages spoken France such Occitan Breton Catalan Flemish (Dutch dialect) Alsatian (German dialect) Basque others (see Languages of France) Italian was official language of Corsica until May 9 1859The French government does not regulate choice of language publications individuals but use of French required law commercial workplace communications addition mandating use of French territory of Republic French government tries promote French European Union globally through institutions such La Francophonie perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts safeguard position of French language France Besides French there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France eight spoken French metropolitan territory 69 French overseas territoriesFrom 17th mid-20th century French served pre-eminent international language of diplomacy international affairs well lingua franca among educated classes of Europedominant position of French language international affairs was overtaken English since emergence of US major powerFor most of time which French served international lingua franca was not native language of most Frenchmen report 1794 conducted Henri Grégoire found that of country's 25 million people only three million spoke French natively rest spoke one of country's many regional languages such Alsatian Breton or Occitan Through expansion of public education which French was sole language of instruction well other factors such increased urbanisation rise of mass communication French gradually came be adopted virtually entire population process not completed until 20th centuryAs result of France's extensive colonial ambitions between 17th 20th centuries French was introduced Americas Africa Polynesia South-East Asia Caribbean French second most studied foreign language world after English, lingua franca some regions notably Africa legacy of French living language outside Europe mixed nearly extinct some former French colonies (The Levant South Southeast Asia) while creoles pidgins based French have emerged French departments West Indies South Pacific (French Polynesia) other hand many former French colonies have adopted French official language total number of French speakers increasing especially AfricaIt estimated that between 300 million 500 million people worldwide can speak French either mother tongue or second languageAccording 2007 Adult Education survey part of project European Union carried France Insee based sample of 15,350 persons French was first mother tongue of 87.2% of total population or roughly 55.81 million people followed Arabic (3.6% 2.30 million) Portuguese (1.5% 0.96 million) Spanish (1.2% 0.77 million) Italian (1.0% 0.64 million) People who had other languages their mother tongue made up 5.2% of populationReligion.
Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon (17th 18th century) historical hospital with baroque chapel, Theatre traditionally has occupied large place Parisian culture many of its most popular actors today also stars of French television oldest most famous Paris theatre Comédie-Française founded 1680 Run French government performs mostly French classics Salle Richelieu Palais-Royal 2 rue de Richelieu next Louvre of Other famous theatres include Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe next Luxembourg Gardens also state institution theatrical landmark Théâtre Mogador Théâtre de la Gaîté-MontparnasseThe music hall cabaret famous Paris institutions Moulin Rouge was opened 1889 was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill its roof became birthplace of dance known French Cancan helped make famous singers Mistinguett Édith Piaf painter Toulouse-Lautrec who made posters venue 1911 dance hall Olympia Paris invented grand staircase settling its shows competing with its great rival Folies Bergère Its stars 1920s included American singer dancer Josephine Baker Later Olympia Paris presented Dalida Edith Piaf Marlene Dietrich Miles Davis Judy Garland Grateful Dead Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers including Mistinguett Maurice Chevalier Tino Rossi Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido Champs-Élysées opened 1946 Crazy Horse Saloon featuring strip-tease dance magic opened 1951 half dozen music halls exist today Paris attended mostly visitors cityLiterature! The music room Grobet-Labadié museum Main article Administration of Paris, France has close association with Modern Olympic Games was French aristocrat Baron Pierre de Coubertin who suggested Games' revival end of 19th century After Athens was awarded first Games reference Olympics' Greek origins Paris hosted second Games 1900 Paris was first home of International Olympic Committee before moved Lausanne Since 1900 France has hosted Olympics 4 further occasions 1924 Summer Olympics again Paris three Winter Games (1924 Chamonix 1968 Grenoble 1992 Albertville)Similar Olympics France introduced Olympics deaf people (Deaflympics) 1924 with idea of French deaf car mechanic Eugène Rubens-Alcais who paved way organise inaugural edition of Summer Deaflympics ParisZinedine Zidane was named best European footballer of past 50 years 2004 UEFA pollBoth national football team national rugby union team nicknamed Les Bleus reference team's shirt colour well national French tricolour flag Football most popular sport France with over 1,800,000 registered players over 18,000 registered clubsfootball team among most successful world with two FIFA World Cup victories 1998 2018, one FIFA World Cup second place 2006, two UEFA European Championships 1984 2000The top national football club competition Ligue 1 France has produced some of greatest players world including three time FIFA World Player of Year Zinedine Zidane three time Ballon d'Or recipient Michel Platini record holder most goals scored World Cup Just Fontaine first football player receive Légion d'honneur Raymond Kopa record goalscorer French national team Thierry Henrysoccer match Stade de France 1998 FIFA World Cup. The Château de Chenonceau nowadays part of UNESCO World Heritage Site was built early 16th centuryThe French Renaissance saw spectacular cultural development first standardisation of French language which would become official language of France language of Europe's aristocracy also saw long set of wars known Italian Wars between France Spain Holy Roman Empire Refusing accept Spanish-Portuguese claims of supremacy New World King Francis I ordered his privateers sail against his Spanish rival King Charles V who ruled Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 until 1556 Emperor's realm extended from Spain parts of what now Italy Austria Germany Belgium Netherlands French explorers such Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain claimed lands Americas France paving way expansion of First French colonial empire rise of Protestantism Europe led France civil war known French Wars of Religion where most notorious incident thousands of Huguenots were murdered St Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572Wars of Religion were ended Henry IV's Edict of Nantes which granted some freedom of religion HuguenotsUnder Louis XIII energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted centralisation of state reinforced royal power disarming domestic power holders 1620s He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords denounced use of private violence (dueling carrying weapons maintaining private army) end of 1620s Richelieu established the royal monopoly of force doctrine France Spain fought 24-year war (the Franco-Spanish War) until signing of Treaty of Pyrenees 1659 war cost France 300,000 casualties During Louis XIV's minority regency of Queen Anne Cardinal Mazarin period of trouble known Fronde occurred France This rebellion was driven great feudal lords sovereign courts reaction rise of royal absolute power FranceLouis XIV of France standing plate armor blue sash facing left holding baton, BrittanyNouvelle-Aquitaine Chanel's headquarters Place Vendôme ParisFashion has been important industry cultural export of France since 17th century modern haute couture originated Paris 1860s Today Paris along with London Milan New York City considered one of world's fashion capitals city home or headquarters many of premier fashion houses expression Haute couture is France legally protected name guaranteeing certain quality standardsThe association of France with fashion style (French la mode) dates largely reign of Louis XIV when luxury goods industries France came increasingly under royal control French royal court became arguably arbiter of taste style Europe But France renewed its dominance of high fashion (French couture or haute couture) industry years 1860–1960 through establishing of great couturier houses such Chanel Dior Givenchy French perfume industry world leader its sector centered town of GrasseIn 1960s elitist Haute couture came under criticism from France's youth culture 1966 designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms launching prêt-à-porter (ready wear) line expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing With greater focus marketing manufacturing new trends were established Sonia Rykiel Thierry Mugler Claude Montana Jean-Paul Gaultier Christian Lacroix 1970s 1980s 1990s saw conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants multinationals such LVMHMedia, Main article Education France. Paris's most popular sport clubs association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C rugby union clubs Stade Français Racing 92 last of which based just outside city proper 80,000-seat Stade de France built 1998 FIFA World Cup located just north of Paris commune of Saint-Denis used football rugby union track field athletics hosts French national football team friendlies major tournaments qualifiers annually hosts French national rugby team's home matches of Six Nations Championship hosts several important matches of Stade Français rugby teamaddition Paris Saint-Germain FC city has number of other professional amateur football clubs Paris FC Red Star RCF Paris Stade Français Paris2010 Tour de France Champs Élysées! Paris hosts one of largest science museums Europe Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie La Villette attracted 2.4 million visitors 2017National Museum of Natural History Left Bank attracted 1.76 million visitors 2016 famous its dinosaur artefacts mineral collections its Gallery of Evolution military history of France from Middle Ages World War II vividly presented displays Musée de l'Armée Les Invalides near tomb of Napoleon addition national museums run French Ministry of Culture City of Paris operates 14 museums including Carnavalet Museum history of Paris Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Palais de Tokyo House of Victor Hugo House of Balzac Catacombs of Paris There also notable private museums Contemporary Art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation designed architect Frank Gehry opened October 2014 Bois de Boulogne received 1.4 million visitors 2017Theatre, Opéra Garnier Paris symbol of French Second Empire style. The former main building of University of Paris now used classes from Paris-Sorbonne University other autonomous campusesParis département with highest proportion of highly educated people 2009 around 40 percent of Parisians held licence-level diploma or higher highest proportion France, while 13 percent have no diploma third-lowest percentage France Education Paris Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people 170,000 of whom teachers professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children students around 9,000 primary secondary higher education schools institutionsThe University of Paris founded 12th century often called Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities 1970 following student demonstrations 1968 Most of campuses today Latin Quarter where old university was located while others scattered around city suburbs.[citation not found], Chapelle de la Trinité (1622) first Baroque chapel built Lyon part of former École de la Trinité now Collège-lycée Ampère. Provence- Prime Minister Le Penseur Auguste Rodin (1902) Musée Rodin ParisIn second part of 19th century France's influence over painting became even more important with development of new styles of painting such Impressionism Symbolism most famous impressionist painters of period were Camille Pissarro Édouard Manet Edgar Degas Claude Monet Auguste Renoirsecond generation of impressionist-style painters Paul Cézanne Paul Gauguin Toulouse-Lautrec Georges Seurat were also avant-garde of artistic evolutions, well fauvist artists Henri Matisse André Derain Maurice de VlaminckAt beginning of 20th century Cubism was developed Georges Braque Spanish painter Pablo Picasso living Paris Other foreign artists also settled worked or near Paris such Vincent van Gogh Marc Chagall Amedeo Modigliani Wassily KandinskyMany museums France entirely or partly devoted sculptures painting works huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during 18th century displayed state-owned Musée du Louvre such Mona Lisa also known La Joconde While Louvre Palace has been long time museum Musée d'Orsay was inaugurated 1986 old railway station Gare d'Orsay major reorganisation of national art collections gather French paintings from second part of 19th century (mainly Impressionism Fauvism movements)Modern works presented Musée National d'Art Moderne which moved 1976 Centre Georges Pompidou These three state-owned museums welcome close 17 million people year Other national museums hosting paintings include Grand Palais (1.3 million visitors 2008) but there also many museums owned cities most visited being Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (0.8 million entries 2008) which hosts contemporary works Outside Paris all large cities have Museum of Fine Arts with section dedicated European French painting Some of finest collections Lyon Lille Rouen Dijon Rennes GrenobleArchitecture! Polytech Lyon located Villeurbanne see description The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris oldest hospital city.