École des Beaux-Arts Chanel's headquarters Place Vendôme ParisFashion has been important industry cultural export of France since 17th century modern haute couture originated Paris 1860s Today Paris along with London Milan New York City considered one of world's fashion capitals city home or headquarters many of premier fashion houses expression Haute couture is France legally protected name guaranteeing certain quality standardsThe association of France with fashion style (French la mode) dates largely reign of Louis XIV when luxury goods industries France came increasingly under royal control French royal court became arguably arbiter of taste style Europe But France renewed its dominance of high fashion (French couture or haute couture) industry years 1860–1960 through establishing of great couturier houses such Chanel Dior Givenchy French perfume industry world leader its sector centered town of GrasseIn 1960s elitist Haute couture came under criticism from France's youth culture 1966 designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms launching prêt-à-porter (ready wear) line expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing With greater focus marketing manufacturing new trends were established Sonia Rykiel Thierry Mugler Claude Montana Jean-Paul Gaultier Christian Lacroix 1970s 1980s 1990s saw conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants multinationals such LVMHMedia. The former main building of University of Paris now used classes from Paris-Sorbonne University other autonomous campusesParis département with highest proportion of highly educated people 2009 around 40 percent of Parisians held licence-level diploma or higher highest proportion France, while 13 percent have no diploma third-lowest percentage France Education Paris Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people 170,000 of whom teachers professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children students around 9,000 primary secondary higher education schools institutionsThe University of Paris founded 12th century often called Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities 1970 following student demonstrations 1968 Most of campuses today Latin Quarter where old university was located while others scattered around city suburbs.[citation not found].
The French Republic unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditionsConstitution of Fifth Republic was approved referendum 28 September 1958greatly strengthened authority of executive relation parliament executive branch itself has two leaders President of Republic currently Emmanuel Macron who head of state elected directly universal adult suffrage 5-year term (formerly 7 years), Government led president-appointed Prime MinisterThe National Assembly lower house of French ParliamentThe French Parliament bicameral legislature comprising National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) SenateNational Assembly deputies represent local constituencies directly elected 5-year termsAssembly has power dismiss government thus majority Assembly determines choice of government Senators chosen electoral college 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms) one half of seats submitted election every 3 years starting September 2008The Senate's legislative powers limited event of disagreement between two chambers National Assembly has final sayGovernment has strong influence shaping agenda of ParliamentUntil World War II Radicals were strong political force France embodied Republican Radical Radical-Socialist Party which was most important party of Third Republic Since World War II they were marginalized while French politics became characterised two politically opposed groupings one left-wing centred French Section of Workers' International its successor Socialist Party (since 1969) other right-wing centred Gaullist Party whose name changed over time Rally of French People (1947) Union of Democrats Republic (1958) Rally Republic (1976) Union Popular Movement (2007) Republicans (since 2015) 2017 presidential legislative elections radical centrist party En Marche! became dominant force overtaking both Socialists RepublicansLaw, Examples of France's military Clockwise from top left nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft French Chasseurs Alpins patrolling valleys of Kapisa province Afghanistan Leclerc tankThe French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) military paramilitary forces of France under President of Republic supreme commander They consist of French Army (Armée de Terre) French Navy (Marine Nationale formerly called Armée de Mer) French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) French Strategic Nuclear Force (Force Nucléaire Stratégique nicknamed Force de Frappe or Strike Force) Military Police called National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) which also fulfils civil police duties rural areas of France Together they among largest armed forces world largest EUWhile Gendarmerie integral part of French armed forces (gendarmes career soldiers) therefore under purview of Ministry of Armed Forces operationally attached Ministry of Interior far its civil police duties concernedWhen acting general purpose police force Gendarmerie encompasses counter terrorist units of Parachute Intervention Squadron of National Gendarmerie (Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) National Gendarmerie Intervention Group (Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) Search Sections of National Gendarmerie (Sections de Recherche de la Gendarmerie Nationale) responsible criminal enquiries Mobile Brigades of National Gendarmerie (Brigades mobiles de la Gendarmerie Nationale or short Gendarmerie mobile) which have task maintain public orderThe following special units also part of Gendarmerie Republican Guard (Garde républicaine) which protects public buildings hosting major French institutions Maritime Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie maritime) serving Coast Guard Provost Service (Prévôté) acting Military Police branch of GendarmerieBastille Day Paris, Main article Libraries Paris Tour métallique de Fourvière (1894); Université Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille III, Lumière University [email protected] Centre d'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation. Pays de, Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks gardens covering more than 3,000 hectares containing more than 250,000 trees.[verification needed] Two of Paris's oldest most famous gardens Tuileries Garden created 1564 Tuileries Palace redone André Le Nôtre between 1664 1672, Luxembourg Garden Luxembourg Palace built Marie de' Medici 1612 which today houses French SenateJardin des Plantes was first botanical garden Paris created 1626 Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse cultivation of medicinal plantsBetween 1853 1870 Emperor Napoleon III city's first director of parks gardens Jean-Charles Alphand created Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Parc Montsouris Parc des Buttes-Chaumont located four points of compass around city well many smaller parks squares gardens Paris's quarters Since 1977 city has created 166 new parks most notably Parc de la Villette (1987) Parc André Citroën (1992) Parc de Bercy (1997) One of newest parks Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013) built former highway Left Bank of Seine between Pont de l'Alma Musée d'Orsay has floating gardens gives view of city's landmarksCemeteries, Main article Religion Marseille The Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises (ADLCJ リヨン補習授業校 Riyon Hoshū Jugyō Kō) held Maison Berty Albrecht Villeurbanne near Lyonwas formed 1987serves Japanese expatriate children who wish continue their Japanese education whilst abroadTransport. Prehistory (before 6th century BC), Theatre traditionally has occupied large place Parisian culture many of its most popular actors today also stars of French television oldest most famous Paris theatre Comédie-Française founded 1680 Run French government performs mostly French classics Salle Richelieu Palais-Royal 2 rue de Richelieu next Louvre of Other famous theatres include Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe next Luxembourg Gardens also state institution theatrical landmark Théâtre Mogador Théâtre de la Gaîté-MontparnasseThe music hall cabaret famous Paris institutions Moulin Rouge was opened 1889 was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill its roof became birthplace of dance known French Cancan helped make famous singers Mistinguett Édith Piaf painter Toulouse-Lautrec who made posters venue 1911 dance hall Olympia Paris invented grand staircase settling its shows competing with its great rival Folies Bergère Its stars 1920s included American singer dancer Josephine Baker Later Olympia Paris presented Dalida Edith Piaf Marlene Dietrich Miles Davis Judy Garland Grateful Dead Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers including Mistinguett Maurice Chevalier Tino Rossi Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido Champs-Élysées opened 1946 Crazy Horse Saloon featuring strip-tease dance magic opened 1951 half dozen music halls exist today Paris attended mostly visitors cityLiterature, Île-de- Other religion (2.5%)! Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs decorative arts textile museum holds one of world's largest textile collections with 2,500,000 works. Claude Monet founded Impressionist movement (Femme avec un parasol 1886 Musée d'Orsay)The 17th century was period when French painting became prominent individualised itself through classicism Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded 1648 Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture protect these artists 1666 he created still-active French Academy Rome have direct relations with Italian artistsFrench artists developed rococo style 18th century more intimate imitation of old baroque style works of court-endorsed artists Antoine Watteau François Boucher Jean-Honoré Fragonard being most representative country French Revolution brought great changes Napoleon favoured artists of neoclassic style such Jacques-Louis David highly influential Académie des Beaux-Arts defined style known Academism this time France had become centre of artistic creation first half of 19th century being dominated two successive movements first Romanticism with Théodore Géricault Eugène Delacroix Realism with Camille Corot Gustave Courbet Jean-François Millet style that eventually evolved into NaturalismThe Thinker bronze statue from 1902 from Musée Rodin Paris. Marseille also well known France its hip hop music Bands like IAM originated from Marseille initiated rap phenomenon France Other known groups include Fonky Family Psy 4 de la Rime (including rappers Soprano Alonzo) Keny Arkana slightly different way ragga music represented Massilia Sound SystemFood. Main article Transport Paris, The 19th-century Basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde enormous Romano-Byzantine basilica built architect Espérandieu hills south of Old Port terrace offers spectacular panoramic views of Marseille its surroundingsThe Stade Vélodrome home stadium of city's main football team Olympique de MarseilleThe Unité d'Habitation influential iconic modernist building designed Swiss architect Le Corbusier 1952 third floor gastronomic restaurant Le Ventre de l'Architecte roof contemporary gallery MaMo opened 2013The Docks de Marseille 19th-century warehouse transformed into officesThe Pharo Gardens park with views of Mediterranean Old PortThe Corniche picturesque waterfront road between Old Port Bay of MarseilleThe beaches Prado Pointe Rouge Les Goudes Callelongue Le ProphèteThe Calanques wild mountainous coastal area of outstanding natural beauty accessible from Callelongue Sormiou Morgiou Luminy Cassis Calanques National Park became France's tenth national park 2012The islands of Frioul archipelago Bay of Marseille accessible ferry from Old Port prison of Château d'If was one of settings Count of Monte Cristo novel Alexandre Dumasneighbouring islands of Ratonneau Pomègues joined man-made breakwater site of former garrison quarantine hospital these islands also of interest their marine wildlifeEducation research, BiscayLigurian The main attractions outside city centre include.