Metro tramway network François Mitterrand Chancellor Helmut Kohl 24 September 1987 press conference with microphones Olympia famous music hall CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie). There 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths routes Paris These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic physical barriers such kerb) bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted painted path road) Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes free be used cyclists with protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles Cyclists have also been given right ride both directions certain one-way streets Paris offers bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented short medium distances including one way tripsElectricity. Agence France-Presse Headquarters Paris, Main articles Francia Merovingian dynasty Carolingian dynasty, color map showing Regional natural parks of France. Musée des Automates museum of automated puppets Vieux Lyon open since 1991Parks gardens, See also Ministry of Ecology Sustainable Development Energy National parks of France Regional natural parks of France. Temple du Change (17th 18th century) former stock exchange of Lyon Protestant temple since 18th century, French territorial evolution from 985 1947The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987 when Hugh Capet Duke of France Count of Paris was crowned King of Franks His descendants—the Capetians House of Valois House of Bourbon—progressively unified country through wars dynastic inheritance into Kingdom of France which was fully declared 1190 Philip II Augustus French nobility played prominent role most Crusades order restore Christian access Holy Land French knights made up bulk of steady flow of reinforcements throughout two-hundred-year span of Crusades such fashion that Arabs uniformly referred crusaders Franj caring little whether they really came from FranceFrench Crusaders also imported French language into Levant making French base of lingua franca (litt Frankish language) of Crusader states French knights also made up majority both Hospital Temple orders latter particular held numerous properties throughout France 13th century were principal bankers French crown until Philip IV annihilated order 1307 Albigensian Crusade was launched 1209 eliminate heretical Cathars southwestern area of modern-day France end Cathars were exterminated autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into crown lands of France Later kings expanded their domain cover over half of modern continental France including most of north centre west of France Meanwhile royal authority became more more assertive centred hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility clergy commonersCharles IV Fair died without heir 1328 Under rules of Salic law crown of France could not pass woman nor could line of kingship pass through female line Accordingly crown passed Philip of Valois cousin of Charles rather than through female line Charles' nephew Edward who would soon become Edward III of England During reign of Philip of Valois French monarchy reached height of its medieval power Philip's seat throne was contested Edward III of England 1337 eve of first wave of Black Death, England France went war what would become known Hundred Years' Warexact boundaries changed greatly with time but French landholdings of English Kings remained extensive decades With charismatic leaders such Joan of Arc La Hire strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories Like rest of Europe France was struck Black Death half of 17 million population of France diedEarly modern period (15th century–1789), Medieval philosophy was dominated Scholasticism until emergence of Humanism Renaissance Modern philosophy began France 17th century with philosophy of René Descartes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Descartes revitalised Western philosophy which had been declined after Greek Roman eras His Meditations First Philosophy changed primary object of philosophical thought raised some of most fundamental problems foreigners such Spinoza Leibniz Hume Berkeley KantFrans Hals painting of René Descartes facing right black coat white collar. On 10 August 1792 angry crowd threatened palace of King Louis XVI who took refuge Legislative AssemblyPrussian army invaded France later August 1792 early September Parisians infuriated Prussian army capturing Verdun counter-revolutionary uprisings west of France murdered between 1,000 1,500 prisoners raiding Parisian prisons Assembly Paris city council seemed unable stop that bloodshedNational Convention chosen first elections under male universal suffrage, 20 September 1792 succeeded Legislative Assembly 21 September abolished monarchy proclaiming French First Republic Ex-King Louis XVI was convicted of treason guillotined January 1793 France had declared war England Dutch Republic November 1792 did same Spain March 1793 spring of 1793 Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic invaded France March France created sister republic Republic of MainzAlso March 1793 civil war of Vendée against Paris started evoked both Civil Constitution of Clergy of 1790 nationwide army conscription early 1793 elsewhere France rebellion was brewing too factionalist feud National Convention smoldering ever since October 1791 came climax with group of 'Girondins' 2 June 1793 being forced resign leave Convention counter-revolution begun March 1793 Vendée July had spread Brittany Normandy Bordeaux Marseilles Toulon Lyon Paris' Convention government between October December 1793 with brutal measures managed subdue most internal uprisings cost of tens of thousands of lives Some historians consider civil war have lasted until 1796 with toll of possibly 450,000 lives France February 1794 abolished slavery its American colonies but would reintroduce laterPolitical disagreements enmity National Convention between October 1793 July 1794 reached unprecedented levels leading dozens of Convention members being sentenced death guillotined Meanwhile France's external wars 1794 were going prosperous example Belgium 1795 government seemed return indifference towards desires needs of lower classes concerning freedom of (Catholic) religion fair distribution of food Until 1799 politicians apart from inventing new parliamentary system (the 'Directory') busied themselves with dissuading people from Catholicism from royalismNapoleon 19th century (1799–1914), Traditional Marseille bouillabaisse Most of attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) located 1st 2nd 6th 7th arrondissements These include, Painting sculpture Pointe Rouge Beach 7th arrondissement Guillotière (south) Jean Macé Gerland. See Wiktionary name of Paris various languages other than English FrenchThe name Paris derived from its early inhabitants Celtic Parisii tribecity's name not related Paris of Greek mythologyParis often referred City of Light (La Ville Lumière), both because of its leading role during Age of Enlightenment more literally because Paris was one of first European cities adopt gas street lighting. 1860s boulevards streets of Paris were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps Since late 19th century Paris has also been known Panam(e) (pronounced [panam]) French slangInhabitants known English Parisians French Parisiens ([paʁizjɛ̃] (About this sound listen)) They also pejoratively called Parigots ([paʁiɡo] (About this sound listen)).[note 1].
No religion (39.6%) In addition two Centre de la Vieille Charité described above main museums are. Paris has been international capital of high fashion since 19th century particularly domain of haute couture clothing hand-made order private clients home of some of largest fashion houses world including Dior Chanel of many well-known fashion designers including Karl Lagerfeld Jean-Paul Gaultier Christophe Josse Christian Lacroix Paris Fashion Week held January July Carrousel du Louvre other city locations among top four events of international fashion calendar along with fashion weeks Milan London New York Paris also home of world's largest cosmetics company L'Oréal three of five top global makers of luxury fashion accessories Louis Vuitton Hermés Cartier Most of major fashion designers have their showrooms along Avenue Montaigne between Champs-Élysées SeineHolidays festivals. Pointe Rouge Beach See also France 19th century France 20th century, A relief map of Metropolitan France showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitantsPanorama of Mont Blanc mountain range above gray clouds under blue sky. Main article Lyonnaise cuisine As capital of France Paris seat of France's national government executive two chief officers each have their own official residences which also serve their offices President of French Republic resides Élysée Palace 8th arrondissement, while Prime Minister's seat Hôtel Matignon 7th arrondissement Government ministries located various parts of city many located 7th arrondissement near MatignonThe two houses of French Parliament located Left Bank upper house Senate meets Palais du Luxembourg 6th arrondissement while more important lower house Assemblée Nationale meets Palais Bourbon 7th arrondissement President of Senate second-highest public official France (the President of Republic being sole superior) resides Petit Luxembourg smaller palace annexe Palais du LuxembourgThe Palais-Royal residence of Conseil d'État. Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action, A tropical climate (Am) most overseas regions including eastern French Guiana high constant temperature throughout year with dry wet seasonAn equatorial climate (Af) western French Guiana high constant temperature with even precipitation throughout yearA subpolar climate (Et) Saint Pierre Miquelon most of French Southern Antarctic Lands short mild summers long very cold wintersEnvironment. A central hub of national rail network Paris's six major railway stations (Gare du Nord Gare de l'Est Gare de Lyon Gare d'Austerlitz Gare Montparnasse Gare Saint-Lazare) minor one (Gare de Bercy) connected three networks TGV serving four high-speed rail lines normal speed Corail trains suburban rails (Transilien)Métro RER tramway, Musée Gadagne museum of history of Lyon housed historic building Vieux Lyon Also includes large collection of marionnettes.