Later came precursors of modern classical music Érik Satie was key member of early-20th-century Parisian avant-garde best known his Gymnopédies Francis Poulenc's best known works his piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919) ballet Les biches (1923) Concert champêtre (1928) harpsichord orchestra opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957) Gloria (1959) soprano choir orchestra Maurice Ravel Claude Debussy most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music Debussy was among most influential composers of late 19th early 20th centuries his use of non-traditional scales chromaticism influenced many composers who followed Debussy's music noted its sensory content frequent usage of atonality two composers invented new musical forms new sounds Ravel's piano compositions such Jeux d'eau Miroirs Le tombeau de Couperin Gaspard de la nuit demand considerable virtuosity His mastery of orchestration evident Rapsodie espagnole Daphnis et Chloé his arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures Exhibition his orchestral work Boléro (1928) More recently middle of 20th century Maurice Ohana Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Boulez contributed evolutions of contemporary classical musichead shot of Serge Gainsbourg! The basic principles that French Republic must respect found 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of CitizenFrench law divided into two principal areas private law public law Private law includes particular civil law criminal law Public law includes particular administrative law constitutional law However practical terms French law comprises three principal areas of law civil law criminal law administrative law Criminal laws can only address future not past (criminal ex post facto laws prohibited) While administrative law often subcategory of civil law many countries completely separated France each body of law headed specific supreme court ordinary courts (which handle criminal civil litigation) headed Court of Cassation administrative courts headed Council of StateTo be applicable every law must be officially published Journal officiel de la République françaiseFrance does not recognise religious law motivation enactment of prohibitions France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished 1791) However offences against public decency (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or disturbing public order (trouble à l'ordre public) have been used repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution Since 1999 civil unions homosexual couples permitted since May 2013 same-sex marriage LGBT adoption legal France Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech press old 1881 Some consider however that hate speech laws France too broad or severe damage freedom of speech France has laws against racism antisemitism Since 1990 Gayssot Act prohibits Holocaust denialFreedom of religion constitutionally guaranteed 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen 1905 French law Separation of Churches State basis laïcité (state secularism) state does not formally recognize any religion except Alsace-Moselle Nonetheless does recognize religious associations Parliament has listed many religious movements dangerous cults since 1995 has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols schools since 2004 2010 banned wearing of face-covering Islamic veils public human rights groups such Amnesty International Human Rights Watch described law discriminatory towards Muslims However supported most of populationForeign relations, Place Bellecour one of largest town squares Europe, Ring roads of Paris Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks gardens covering more than 3,000 hectares containing more than 250,000 trees.[verification needed] Two of Paris's oldest most famous gardens Tuileries Garden created 1564 Tuileries Palace redone André Le Nôtre between 1664 1672, Luxembourg Garden Luxembourg Palace built Marie de' Medici 1612 which today houses French SenateJardin des Plantes was first botanical garden Paris created 1626 Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse cultivation of medicinal plantsBetween 1853 1870 Emperor Napoleon III city's first director of parks gardens Jean-Charles Alphand created Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Parc Montsouris Parc des Buttes-Chaumont located four points of compass around city well many smaller parks squares gardens Paris's quarters Since 1977 city has created 166 new parks most notably Parc de la Villette (1987) Parc André Citroën (1992) Parc de Bercy (1997) One of newest parks Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013) built former highway Left Bank of Seine between Pont de l'Alma Musée d'Orsay has floating gardens gives view of city's landmarksCemeteries. French literary figures Clockwise from top left Molière most played author Comédie-Française Victor Hugo one of most important French novelists poets 19th-century poet writer translator Charles Baudelaire 20th-century philosopher novelist Jean-Paul SartreJean Racine whose incredible mastery of alexandrine of French language has been praised centuries created plays such Phèdre or Britannicus He is along with Pierre Corneille (Le Cid) Molière considered one of three great dramatists of France's golden age Molière who deemed be one of greatest masters of comedy of Western literature, wrote dozens of plays including Le Misanthrope L'Avare Le Malade imaginaire Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme His plays have been so popular around world that French language sometimes dubbed the language of Molière (la langue de Molière), just like English considered the language of ShakespeareFrench literature poetry flourished even more 18th 19th centuries Denis Diderot's best-known works Jacques Fatalist Rameau's Nephew He however best known being main redactor of Encyclopédie whose aim was sum up all knowledge of his century (in fields such arts sciences languages philosophy) present them people order fight ignorance obscurantism During that same century Charles Perrault was prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss Boots Cinderella Sleeping Beauty Bluebeard start of 19th century symbolist poetry was important movement French literature with poets such Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine Stéphane MallarméThe 19th century saw writings of many renowned French authors Victor Hugo sometimes seen the greatest French writer of all times excelling all literary genres preface of his play Cromwell considered be manifesto of Romantic movement Les Contemplations La Légende des siècles considered poetic masterpieces, Hugo's verse having been compared that of Shakespeare Dante Homer His novel Les Misérables widely seen one of greatest novel ever written Hunchback of Notre Dame has remained immensely popularOther major authors of that century include Alexandre Dumas (The Three Musketeers Count of Monte-Cristo) Jules Verne (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under Sea) Émile Zola (Les Rougon-Macquart) Honoré de Balzac (La Comédie humaine) Guy de Maupassant Théophile Gautier Stendhal (The Red Black Charterhouse of Parma) whose works among most well known France world Prix Goncourt French literary prize first awarded 1903 Important writers of 20th century include Marcel Proust Louis-Ferdinand Céline Albert Camus Jean-Paul Sartre Antoine de Saint Exupéry wrote Little Prince which has remained popular decades with children adults around worldof 2014 French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nationfirst Nobel Prize Literature was French author while France's latest Nobel prize literature Patrick Modiano who was awarded prize 2014 Jean-Paul Sartre was also first nominee committee's history refuse prize 1964Philosophy! See also Paris Belle Époque Paris during First World War Paris between Wars (1919–1939) Paris World War II History of Paris (1946–2000), The Rhône Saône converge south of historic city centre forming peninsula – Presqu'île – bounded two large hills west north large plain eastward Place Bellecour located Presqu'île between two rivers third-largest public square France broad pedestrian-only Rue de la République leads north from Place BellecourThe northern hill La Croix-Rousse known the hill that works because traditionally home many small silk workshops industry which city has long been renownedThe western hill Fourvière known the hill that prays because location basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière several convents residence of Archbishop district Vieux Lyon also hosts Tour métallique (a highly visible TV tower replicating last stage of Eiffel Tower) one of city's funicular railways Fourvière along with portions of Presqu'île much of La Croix-Rousse designated UNESCO World Heritage siteEast of Rhône from Presqu'île large flat area upon which sits much of modern Lyon contains most of city's population Situated this area urban centre of La Part-Dieu which clusters landmark structures Tour Part-Dieu Tour Oxygène Tour Swiss Life well city's primary railway station Gare de Lyon-Part-DieuNorth of this district sixth arrondissement which home one of Europe's largest urban parks Parc de la Tête d'or well Lycée du Parc Interpol's world headquartersPanorama of city of Lyon.
Since late 18th century Paris has been famous its restaurants haute cuisine food meticulously prepared artfully presented luxury restaurant La Taverne Anglaise opened 1786 arcades of Palais-Royal Antoine Beauvilliers featured elegant dining room extensive menu linen tablecloths large wine list well-trained waiters became model future Paris restaurants restaurant Le Grand Véfour Palais-Royal dates from same periodfamous Paris restaurants of 19th century including Café de Paris Rocher de Cancale Café Anglais Maison Dorée Café Riche were mostly located near theatres Boulevard des Italiens they were immortalised novels of Balzac Émile Zola Several of best-known restaurants Paris today appeared during Belle Epoque including Maxim's Rue Royale Ledoyen gardens of Champs-Élysées Tour d'Argent Quai de la TournelleToday due Paris's cosmopolitan population every French regional cuisine almost every national cuisine world can be found there city has more than 9,000 restaurantsMichelin Guide has been standard guide French restaurants since 1900 awarding its highest award three stars best restaurants France 2018 of 27 Michelin three-star restaurants France ten located Paris These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine such L'Ambroisie Place des Vosges those which serve non-traditional menus such L'Astrance which combines French Asian cuisines Several of France's most famous chefs including Pierre Gagnaire Alain Ducasse Yannick Alléno Alain Passard have three-star restaurants ParisLes Deux Magots café Boulevard Saint-Germain. Chanel's headquarters storefront window Place Vendôme Paris with awning. With 6 millions tourists year castles of Loire Valley (French châteaux) Loire Valley itself third leading tourist destination France this World Heritage Site noteworthy its architectural heritage its historic towns but particular its castles such Châteaux d'Amboise de Chambord d'Ussé de Villandry Chenonceau Montsoreau Château de Chantilly Versailles Vaux-le-Vicomte all three located near Paris also visitor attractionsUNESCO World Heritage Sites protected areas. Solo Parigi è degna di Roma solo Roma è degna di Parigi (in Italian), The city of Marseille divided into 16 municipal arrondissements which themselves informally divided into 111 neighbourhoods (French quartiers) arrondissements regrouped pairs into 8 sectors each with mayor council (like arrondissements Paris Lyon) Municipal elections held every six years carried out sector There 303 councilmembers total two-thirds sitting sector councils one third city councilThe 9th arrondissement of Marseille largest terms of area because comprises parts of Calanques National Park With population of 89,316 (2007) 13th arrondissement of Marseille most populous oneFrom 1950 mid-1990s Marseille was Socialist (PS) Communist (PCF) stronghold Gaston Defferre (PS) was consecutively reelected six times Mayor of Marseille from 1953 until his death 1986 He was succeeded Robert Vigouroux of European Democratic Social Rally (RDSE) Jean-Claude Gaudin of right-wing UMP was elected Mayor of Marseille 1995 Gaudin was reelected 2001 2008 2014In recent years Communist Party has lost most of its strength northern boroughs of city whereas National Front has received significant support last municipal election 2014 Marseille was divided between northern arrondissements dominated left (PS) far-right (FN) southern part of town dominated right-wing (UMP) Marseille also divided twelve cantons each of them sending two members Departmental Council of Bouches-du-Rhône departmentList of Mayors of Marseille since beginning of 20th century. Palais du Pharo Bal-musette style of French music dance that first became popular Paris 1870s 1880s 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls working-class neighbourhoods of city Patrons danced bourrée accompaniment of cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called musette) often vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) cafés bars of city Parisian Italian musicians who played accordion adopted style established themselves Auvergnat bars especially 19th arrondissement, romantic sounds of accordion has since become one of musical icons of city Paris became major centre jazz still attracts jazz musicians from all around world its clubs cafésParis spiritual home of gypsy jazz particular many of Parisian jazzmen who developed first half of 20th century began playing Bal-musette city Django Reinhardt rose fame Paris having moved 18th arrondissement caravan young boy performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli their Quintette du Hot Club de France 1930s 1940sImmediately after War Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home many small jazz clubs mostly found cellars because of lack of space these included Caveau des Lorientais Club Saint-Germain Rose Rouge Vieux-Colombier most famous Le Tabou They introduced Parisians music of Claude Luter Boris Vian Sydney Bechet Mezz Mezzrow Henri Salvador Most of clubs closed early 1960s musical tastes shifted toward rock rollSome of finest manouche musicians world found here playing cafés of city night Some of more notable jazz venues include New Morning Le Sunset La Chope des Puces Bouquet du Nord Several yearly festivals take place Paris including Paris Jazz Festival(fr) rock festival Rock en SeineOrchestre de Paris was established 1967On 19 December 2015 Paris other worldwide fans commemorated 100th anniversary of birth of Edith Piaf—a French cabaret singer songwriter actress who became widely regarded France's national chanteuse well being one of France's greatest international stars Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier Charles Aznavour Yves Montand Charles TrenetParis has big hip hop scene This music became popular during 1980spresence of large African Caribbean community helped its development gave voice political social status many minoritiesCinema, FranceNormandy History Basilica of St-Martin-d'Ainay one of rare surviving Romanesque basilica-style churches Lyon, Main articles History of Paris Timeline of Paris.