Île-de- Catholic University of Lyon Hauts-de-France Immigration As far French intelligence units concerned Directorate-General External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure) considered be component of Armed Forces under authority of Ministry of Defence other Central Directorate Interior Intelligence (Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur) division of National Police Force (Direction générale de la Police Nationale) therefore reports directly Ministry of Interior There has been no national conscription since 1997France has special military corps French Foreign Legion founded 1830 which consists of foreign nationals from over 140 countries who willing serve French Armed Forces become French citizens after end of their service period only other countries having similar units Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion called Tercio was founded 1920) Luxembourg (foreigners can serve National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish)France permanent member of Security Council of UN recognised nuclear state since 1960 France has signed ratified Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) acceded Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty France's annual military expenditure 2011 was US$62.5 billion or 2.3% of its GDP making fifth biggest military spender world after United States China Russia United KingdomFrench nuclear deterrence (formerly known Force de Frappe) relies complete independence current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles addition submarine fleet estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads, of which around 50 deployed Air Force using Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft while around 10 deployed French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft which operate from nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle new Rafale F3 aircraft will gradually replace all Mirage 2000N SEM nuclear strike role with improved ASMP-A missile with nuclear warheadFrance has major military industries with one of largest aerospace industries world Its industries have produced such equipment Rafale fighter Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier Exocet missile Leclerc tank among others Despite withdrawing from Eurofighter project France actively investing European joint projects such Eurocopter Tiger multipurpose frigates UCAV demonstrator nEUROn Airbus A400M France major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available export market with notable exception of nuclear-powered devicesThe Bastille Day military parade held Paris each 14 July France's national day called Bastille Day English-speaking countries (referred France Fête nationale) oldest largest regular military parade Europe Other smaller parades organised across countryGovernment finance. Nuclear power plant Cattenom France four large cooling towers expelling white water vapor against blue sky, Painting sculpture Main article List of films set Marseille. Armenian Apostolic (80,000) Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire Strasbourg stone building with portico park Map of City of Lyon divided into 9 arrondissements.
In addition Marseille has three grandes écoles, On 8 May 1945 while Liberation was celebrated France peaceful demonstrations Sétif eastern Algeria were violently repressed More than 40,000 Algerian fell victim shooting strafing from planes armed cars end of same month French bombarded Damascus killing hundredsbombardment of Haiphong 23 November 1946 killed about 6,000 Between March 1947 September 1948 electoral victory of proponents of independence Madagascar was followed savage repression French army (18,000 mostly Senegalese troops) resulting some 90,000 deaths Some 200 peaceful civilians demonstrating independence were killed (mostly Senegalese) French troops Casablanca Morocco April 7–8 1947Cameroon radical nationalist movement independence Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) was forced underground engaged guerrilla warfare against French administration ensuing repression of French army paramilitary forces (gendarmerie) took form during 1958–1960 of scorched-earth policy whereby entire villages of south-central western Cameroon Bassa Bamiléké areas were burned ground resulting between 60,000 100,000 deaths France attempted regain control of French Indochina but was defeated Viet Minh 1954 climactic Battle of Dien Bien Phu Estimates of number of Vietnamese military civilian casualties during war of independence from France range from 300,000 dead 300,000 wounded half million dead 1 million woundedOnly months later France faced another anti-colonialist conflict Algeria Torture illegal executions were perpetrated both sides debate over whether or not keep control of Algeria then home over one million European settlers, wracked country nearly led coup civil war1958 weak unstable Fourth Republic gave way Fifth Republic which included strengthened Presidency latter role Charles de Gaulle managed keep country together while taking steps end Algerian war Despite its military victory France granted independence Algerians war exacted heavy human toll among Algerian population resulted some 500,000 deaths 2,137,000 internally displaced Algeriansvestige of colonial empire French overseas departments territoriesIn context of Cold War de Gaulle pursued policy of national independence towards Western Eastern blocs this end he withdrew from NATO's military integrated command he launched nuclear development programme made France fourth nuclear power He restored cordial Franco-German relations order create European counterweight between American Soviet spheres of influence However he opposed any development of supranational Europe favouring Europe of sovereign nations wake of series of worldwide protests of 1968 revolt of May 1968 had enormous social impact France considered be watershed moment when conservative moral ideal (religion patriotism respect authority) shifted towards more liberal moral ideal (secularism individualism sexual revolution) Although revolt was political failure (as Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before) announced split between French people de Gaulle who resigned shortly afterIn post-Gaullist era France remained one of most developed economies world but faced several economic crises that resulted high unemployment rates increasing public debt late 20th early 21st centuries France has been forefront of development of supranational European Union notably signing Maastricht Treaty (which created European Union) 1992 establishing Eurozone 1999 signing Lisbon Treaty 2007 France has also gradually but fully reintegrated into NATO has since participated most NATO sponsored warsPlace de la République statue column with large French flag; Origins Minaret of Grand Mosque of Paris, Medieval philosophy was dominated Scholasticism until emergence of Humanism Renaissance Modern philosophy began France 17th century with philosophy of René Descartes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Descartes revitalised Western philosophy which had been declined after Greek Roman eras His Meditations First Philosophy changed primary object of philosophical thought raised some of most fundamental problems foreigners such Spinoza Leibniz Hume Berkeley KantFrans Hals painting of René Descartes facing right black coat white collar, Sainte-Geneviève Library Republican Guards parading Bastille Day. Institution des Chartreux Église Saint-Polycarpe (1665–1670) Classical church, Main article Music of France. Victor Hugo Main article Geography of Paris, IFAG (Business Management School), Le Grand Rex tower Lyon third-largest city second-largest urban area of France located country's east-central part confluence of rivers Rhône Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne Inhabitants of city called LyonnaisLyon had population of 513,275 2015capital of Metropolis of Lyon region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Lyon metropolitan area had population of 2,265,375 2014 second-largest urban area Francecity known its cuisine gastronomy historical architectural landmarks part of registered UNESCO World Heritage site Lyon was historically important area production weaving of silk Lyon played significant role history of cinema where Auguste Louis Lumière invented cinematograph also known its light festival Fête des Lumières which begins every 8 December lasts four days earning Lyon title of Capital of LightsEconomically Lyon major centre banking well chemical pharmaceutical biotech industries city contains significant software industry with particular focus video games recent years has fostered growing local start-up sector Lyon hosts international headquarters of Interpol International Agency Research Cancer Euronews was ranked 19th globally second France innovation 2014ranked second France 39th globally Mercer's 2015 liveability rankingsHistory. , Notre-Dame de Reims Roman Catholic cathedral where kings of France were crowned until 1825.[XV], Ambox current red.svg Sainte Marie de La Tourette monastery (1960) designed Le Corbusier. Marine (blue) regional (green) national (red) parks France Marseille television French literary figures Clockwise from top left Molière most played author Comédie-Française Victor Hugo one of most important French novelists poets 19th-century poet writer translator Charles Baudelaire 20th-century philosopher novelist Jean-Paul SartreJean Racine whose incredible mastery of alexandrine of French language has been praised centuries created plays such Phèdre or Britannicus He is along with Pierre Corneille (Le Cid) Molière considered one of three great dramatists of France's golden age Molière who deemed be one of greatest masters of comedy of Western literature, wrote dozens of plays including Le Misanthrope L'Avare Le Malade imaginaire Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme His plays have been so popular around world that French language sometimes dubbed the language of Molière (la langue de Molière), just like English considered the language of ShakespeareFrench literature poetry flourished even more 18th 19th centuries Denis Diderot's best-known works Jacques Fatalist Rameau's Nephew He however best known being main redactor of Encyclopédie whose aim was sum up all knowledge of his century (in fields such arts sciences languages philosophy) present them people order fight ignorance obscurantism During that same century Charles Perrault was prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss Boots Cinderella Sleeping Beauty Bluebeard start of 19th century symbolist poetry was important movement French literature with poets such Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine Stéphane MallarméThe 19th century saw writings of many renowned French authors Victor Hugo sometimes seen the greatest French writer of all times excelling all literary genres preface of his play Cromwell considered be manifesto of Romantic movement Les Contemplations La Légende des siècles considered poetic masterpieces, Hugo's verse having been compared that of Shakespeare Dante Homer His novel Les Misérables widely seen one of greatest novel ever written Hunchback of Notre Dame has remained immensely popularOther major authors of that century include Alexandre Dumas (The Three Musketeers Count of Monte-Cristo) Jules Verne (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under Sea) Émile Zola (Les Rougon-Macquart) Honoré de Balzac (La Comédie humaine) Guy de Maupassant Théophile Gautier Stendhal (The Red Black Charterhouse of Parma) whose works among most well known France world Prix Goncourt French literary prize first awarded 1903 Important writers of 20th century include Marcel Proust Louis-Ferdinand Céline Albert Camus Jean-Paul Sartre Antoine de Saint Exupéry wrote Little Prince which has remained popular decades with children adults around worldof 2014 French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nationfirst Nobel Prize Literature was French author while France's latest Nobel prize literature Patrick Modiano who was awarded prize 2014 Jean-Paul Sartre was also first nominee committee's history refuse prize 1964Philosophy. Ambox rewrite.svg The 19th-century Basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde enormous Romano-Byzantine basilica built architect Espérandieu hills south of Old Port terrace offers spectacular panoramic views of Marseille its surroundingsThe Stade Vélodrome home stadium of city's main football team Olympique de MarseilleThe Unité d'Habitation influential iconic modernist building designed Swiss architect Le Corbusier 1952 third floor gastronomic restaurant Le Ventre de l'Architecte roof contemporary gallery MaMo opened 2013The Docks de Marseille 19th-century warehouse transformed into officesThe Pharo Gardens park with views of Mediterranean Old PortThe Corniche picturesque waterfront road between Old Port Bay of MarseilleThe beaches Prado Pointe Rouge Les Goudes Callelongue Le ProphèteThe Calanques wild mountainous coastal area of outstanding natural beauty accessible from Callelongue Sormiou Morgiou Luminy Cassis Calanques National Park became France's tenth national park 2012The islands of Frioul archipelago Bay of Marseille accessible ferry from Old Port prison of Château d'If was one of settings Count of Monte Cristo novel Alexandre Dumasneighbouring islands of Ratonneau Pomègues joined man-made breakwater site of former garrison quarantine hospital these islands also of interest their marine wildlifeEducation research, Marseille city that has its own unique culture proud of its differences from rest of France Today regional centre culture entertainment with important opera house historical maritime museums five art galleries numerous cinemas clubs bars restaurantsMarseille has large number of theatres including La Criée Le Gymnase Théâtre Toursky There also extensive arts centre La Friche former match factory behind Sainst-Charles station Alcazar until 1960s well known music hall variety theatre has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade now houses central municipal library Other music venues Marseille include Le Silo (also theatre) GRIMMarseille has also been important arts has been birthplace home of many French writers poets including Victor Gélu (fr) Valère Bernard (fr) Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand André Roussin small port of l'Estaque far end of Bay of Marseille became favourite haunt artists including Auguste Renoir Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home Aix) Georges Braque Raoul DufyEuropean Capital of Culture, EPITA Republican Guards parading Bastille Day Main article List of French inventions discoveries. Main articles Francia Merovingian dynasty Carolingian dynasty Main article Education France Navette de Marseille (fr) are words of food writer M F K Fisher little boat-shaped cookies tough dough tasting vaguely of orange peel smelling better than they areFarinata#French variations chickpea flour boiled into thick mush allowed firm up then cut into blocks friedPastis alcoholic beverage made with aniseed spice extremely popular regionPieds paquets dish prepared from sheep's feet offalPistou combination of crushed fresh basil garlic with olive oil similar Italian pesto Soup au pistou combines pistou broth with pasta vegetablesTapenade paste made from chopped olives capers olive oil (sometimes anchovies may be added)Films set Marseille.