On 7 January 2015 two French Muslim extremists attacked Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo killed thirteen people attack claimed Al-Qaeda Arabian Peninsula, 9 January third terrorist who claimed he was part of ISIL killed four hostages during attack Jewish grocery store Porte de Vincennes11 January estimated 1.5 million people marched Paris show of solidarity against terrorism support of freedom of speech13 November of same year series of coordinated bomb gunfire terrorist attacks Paris Saint-Denis claimed ISIL, killed 130 people injured more than 350On 3 February 2017 two-backpack-carrying machete-wielding attacker shouting Allahu Akbar attacked soldiers guarding Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags assailant was shot no explosives were found18 March of same year Vitry-sur-Seine bar man held patrons hostage then fled later hold gun head of Orly Airport French soldier shouting I am here die name of Allah was shot dead soldier's comrades20 April man shot dead French police officer Champs-Élysées was later shot dead himself19 June man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into police van Champs-Élysées but car only burst into flamesGeography, ESDES Business School, Église Saint-Nizier Gothic church from 15th century having doorway carved 16th century Philibert Delorme. The Palais Longchamp with its monumental fountain France highly urbanized country with its largest cities (in terms of metropolitan area population 2013) being Paris (12,405,426 inh.) Lyon (2,237,676) Marseille (1,734,277) Toulouse (1,291,517) Bordeaux (1,178,335) Lille (1,175,828) Nice (1,004,826) Nantes (908,815) Strasbourg (773,447) Rennes (700,675) (Note There significant differences between metropolitan population figures just cited those following table which only include core population) Rural flight was perennial political issue throughout most of 20th centuryFunctional urban areas. The Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises (ADLCJ リヨン補習授業校 Riyon Hoshū Jugyō Kō) held Maison Berty Albrecht Villeurbanne near Lyonwas formed 1987serves Japanese expatriate children who wish continue their Japanese education whilst abroadTransport; Main article Sport Paris City Hall towering over Place des Terreaux, Stade de France Polytech Lyon located Villeurbanne Joan of Arc plate armor holding sword facing left with gilded background.
Le Penseur Auguste Rodin (1902) Musée Rodin ParisIn second part of 19th century France's influence over painting became even more important with development of new styles of painting such Impressionism Symbolism most famous impressionist painters of period were Camille Pissarro Édouard Manet Edgar Degas Claude Monet Auguste Renoirsecond generation of impressionist-style painters Paul Cézanne Paul Gauguin Toulouse-Lautrec Georges Seurat were also avant-garde of artistic evolutions, well fauvist artists Henri Matisse André Derain Maurice de VlaminckAt beginning of 20th century Cubism was developed Georges Braque Spanish painter Pablo Picasso living Paris Other foreign artists also settled worked or near Paris such Vincent van Gogh Marc Chagall Amedeo Modigliani Wassily KandinskyMany museums France entirely or partly devoted sculptures painting works huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during 18th century displayed state-owned Musée du Louvre such Mona Lisa also known La Joconde While Louvre Palace has been long time museum Musée d'Orsay was inaugurated 1986 old railway station Gare d'Orsay major reorganisation of national art collections gather French paintings from second part of 19th century (mainly Impressionism Fauvism movements)Modern works presented Musée National d'Art Moderne which moved 1976 Centre Georges Pompidou These three state-owned museums welcome close 17 million people year Other national museums hosting paintings include Grand Palais (1.3 million visitors 2008) but there also many museums owned cities most visited being Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (0.8 million entries 2008) which hosts contemporary works Outside Paris all large cities have Museum of Fine Arts with section dedicated European French painting Some of finest collections Lyon Lille Rouen Dijon Rennes GrenobleArchitecture, Le Lycée du Parc Université de la Méditerranée Aix-Marseille II. As capital of France Paris seat of France's national government executive two chief officers each have their own official residences which also serve their offices President of French Republic resides Élysée Palace 8th arrondissement, while Prime Minister's seat Hôtel Matignon 7th arrondissement Government ministries located various parts of city many located 7th arrondissement near MatignonThe two houses of French Parliament located Left Bank upper house Senate meets Palais du Luxembourg 6th arrondissement while more important lower house Assemblée Nationale meets Palais Bourbon 7th arrondissement President of Senate second-highest public official France (the President of Republic being sole superior) resides Petit Luxembourg smaller palace annexe Palais du LuxembourgThe Palais-Royal residence of Conseil d'État, French President François Mitterrand West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl 1987France founding member of United Nations serves one of permanent members of UN Security Council with veto rights2015 France was described being the best networked state world because country that is member of more multi-lateral organisations than any other countryFrance member of G8 World Trade Organization (WTO), Secretariat of Pacific Community (SPC) Indian Ocean Commission (COI)associate member of Association of Caribbean States (ACS) leading member of International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of 84 fully or partly French-speaking countriesAs significant hub international relations France hosts second largest assembly of diplomatic missions world headquarters of international organisations including OECD UNESCO Interpol International Bureau of Weights Measures la FrancophoniePostwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped membership of European Union of which was founding member Since 1960s France has developed close ties with reunified Germany become most influential driving force of EU 1960s France sought exclude British from European unification process, seeking build its own standing continental Europe However since 1904 France has maintained Entente cordiale with United Kingdom there has been strengthening of links between countries especially militarilyEuropean Parliament opening Strasbourg with crowd many countries' flags flagpoles. Ombrosa Hollywood-style Marseille sign Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon (17th 18th century) historical hospital with baroque chapel. Institut supérieur européen de gestion group. The Transports en commun lyonnais (TCL) Lyon's public transit system consisting of metro tramways buses serves 62 communes of Lyon metropolis network has four lines ( B C D ) 42 stations runs with frequency of up train every 2 minutes There five Lyon tram lines ( T1 T2 T3 T4 T5) since April 2009 T1 from Debourg south IUT-Feyssine north Tram T2 from Perrache railway station south-west Saint-Priest south-east Tram T3 from Part-Dieu Meyzieu Tram T4 from 'Hôptial Feyzin Venissieux' Gaston Berger Tram T5 from Grange Blanche south-east Eurexpo south-wast Lyon bus network consists of Lyon trolleybus system motorbuses coaches areas outside centre There also two funicular lines from Vieux Lyon Saint-Just Fourvière ticketing system relatively simple city has only one public transport operator SYTRALThe public transit system has been complemented since 2005 Vélo'v bicycle network providing low-cost service where bicycles can be hired returned any of 340 stations throughout city Borrowing bicycle less than 30 minutes free Free rental time can be extended another 30 minutes any station Lyon was first city France introduce this bicycle renting system 2011 Auto'lib car rental service was introduced works much same way Velo'v but carsThe average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit Lyon weekday 45 minutes average amount of time people wait stop or station public transit 11 min while 17% of riders wait over 20 minutes average every day average distance people usually ride single trip with public transit 4.7 km while 4% travel over 12 km single directionInternational relations, See also List of railway stations Paris, France part of monetary union Eurozone (dark blue) of European Single MarketA member of Group of Seven (formerly Group of Eight) leading industrialised countries of 2014 ranked world's ninth largest EU's second largest economy purchasing power parity With 31 of 500 biggest companies world 2015 France ranks fourth Fortune Global 500 ahead of Germany UK France joined 11 other EU members launch euro 1999 with euro coins banknotes completely replacing French franc (₣) 2002France has mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise with substantial state enterprise government intervention government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors with majority ownership of railway electricity aircraft nuclear power telecommunications.[not citation given] has been relaxing its control over these sectors since early 1990s.[not citation given] government slowly corporatising state sector selling off holdings France Télécom Air France well insurance banking defence industries.[not citation given] France has important aerospace industry led European consortium Airbus has its own national spaceport Centre Spatial GuyanaisComposition of French economy (GDP) 2016 expenditure type. Saint-Exupéry International Airport (formerly Satolas Airport) designed Guillaume Gilbert Animated map of growth decline of French colonial empireFrance had colonial possessions various forms since beginning of 17th century but 19th 20th centuries its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly became second largest world behind British Empire Including metropolitan France total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres 1920s 1930s 8.6% of world's land Known Belle Époque turn of century was period characterised optimism regional peace economic prosperity technological scientific cultural innovations 1905 state secularism was officially establishedThe French conquest of Morocco was one of longest toughest annals of European colonialism French historian Daniel Rivet puts casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted French occupation 100,000Contemporary period (1914–present). With more than 10 millions tourists year French Riviera (French Côte d'Azur) Southeast France second leading tourist destination country after Paris regionbenefits from 300 days of sunshine per year 115 kilometres (71 mi) of coastline beaches 18 golf courses 14 ski resorts 3,000 restaurants31 Each year Côte d'Azur hosts 50% of world's superyacht fleet66! Musée d'Orsay Main article France twentieth century, As far French intelligence units concerned Directorate-General External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure) considered be component of Armed Forces under authority of Ministry of Defence other Central Directorate Interior Intelligence (Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur) division of National Police Force (Direction générale de la Police Nationale) therefore reports directly Ministry of Interior There has been no national conscription since 1997France has special military corps French Foreign Legion founded 1830 which consists of foreign nationals from over 140 countries who willing serve French Armed Forces become French citizens after end of their service period only other countries having similar units Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion called Tercio was founded 1920) Luxembourg (foreigners can serve National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish)France permanent member of Security Council of UN recognised nuclear state since 1960 France has signed ratified Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) acceded Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty France's annual military expenditure 2011 was US$62.5 billion or 2.3% of its GDP making fifth biggest military spender world after United States China Russia United KingdomFrench nuclear deterrence (formerly known Force de Frappe) relies complete independence current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles addition submarine fleet estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads, of which around 50 deployed Air Force using Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft while around 10 deployed French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft which operate from nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle new Rafale F3 aircraft will gradually replace all Mirage 2000N SEM nuclear strike role with improved ASMP-A missile with nuclear warheadFrance has major military industries with one of largest aerospace industries world Its industries have produced such equipment Rafale fighter Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier Exocet missile Leclerc tank among others Despite withdrawing from Eurofighter project France actively investing European joint projects such Eurocopter Tiger multipurpose frigates UCAV demonstrator nEUROn Airbus A400M France major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available export market with notable exception of nuclear-powered devicesThe Bastille Day military parade held Paris each 14 July France's national day called Bastille Day English-speaking countries (referred France Fête nationale) oldest largest regular military parade Europe Other smaller parades organised across countryGovernment finance.