Location borders Italy Rome Italy 1956, ComtéCentre-Val de Loire National Gendarmerie, The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced first permanent photograph polished pewter plate Paris 1825 1839 after death of Niépce Louis Daguerre patented Daguerrotype which became most common form of photography until 1860s work of Étienne-Jules Marey 1880s contributed considerably development of modern photography Photography came occupy central role Parisian Surrealist activity works of Man Ray Maurice Tabard Numerous photographers achieved renown their photography of Paris including Eugène Atget noted his depictions of street scenes Robert Doisneau noted his playful pictures of people market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of romantic vision of Paris) Marcel Bovis noted his night scenes others such Jacques-Henri Lartigue Cartier-Bresson Poster art also became important art form Paris late nineteenth century through work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Jules Chéret Eugène Grasset Adolphe Willette Pierre Bonnard Georges de Feure Henri-Gabriel Ibels Gavarni Alphonse MuchaMuseums. Main article Politics of France Sainte-Geneviève Library CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie) Buddhist (3,000)Culture. Magdalena Frackowiak Paris Fashion Week (Fall 2011), Tour de France pelleton 9 July 2005 begin of ascend Cote de Bad Herrenalb. Muslim (200,000) The Paris Métro busiest subway network European UnionSince inauguration of its first line 1900 Paris's Métro (subway) network has grown become city's most widely used local transport system today carries about 5.23 million passengers daily through 16 lines 303 stations (385 stops) 220 km (136.7 mi) of rails Superimposed this 'regional express network' RER whose five lines (A B C D E) 257 stops 587 km (365 mi) of rails connect Paris more distant parts of urban areaOver €26.5 billion will be invested over next 15 years extend Métro network into suburbs, with notably Grand Paris Express projectIn addition Paris region served light rail network of nine lines tramway Line T1 runs from Asnières-Gennevilliers Noisy-le-Sec Line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons Porte de Versailles Line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano Porte de Vincennes Line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes Porte de la Chapelle Line T5 runs from Saint-Denis Garges-Sarcelles Line T6 runs from Châtillon Viroflay Line T7 runs from Villejuif Athis-Mons Line T8 runs from Saint-Denis Épinay-sur-Seine Villetaneuse all of which operated RATP Group, line T4 runs from Bondy RER Aulnay-sous-Bois which operated state rail carrier SNCF Five new light rail lines currently various stages of developmentAir, 2nd arrondissement Cordeliers Bellecour Ainay Perrache Confluence Sainte-Blandine Traditional Marseille bouillabaisse Marseille's main cultural attraction was since its creation end of 18th century until late 1970s Opéra Located near Old Port Canebière very heart of city its architectural style was comparable classical trend found other opera houses built same time Lyon Bordeaux 1919 fire almost completely destroyed house leaving only stone colonnade peristyle from original façadeclassical façade was restored opera house reconstructed predominantly Art Deco style result of major competition Currently Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each yearSince 1972 Ballet national de Marseille has performed opera house its director from its foundation 1998 was Roland PetitPopular events festivals.
France has long varied musical history experienced golden age 17th century thanks Louis XIV who employed number of talented musicians composers royal court most renowned composers of this period include Marc-Antoine Charpentier François Couperin Michel-Richard Delalande Jean-Baptiste Lully Marin Marais all of them composers court After death of Roi Soleil French musical creation lost dynamism but next century music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige today he still one of most renowned French composers Rameau became dominant composer of French opera leading French composer harpsichord.[full citation needed]. By end of 12th century Paris had become political economic religious cultural capital of FrancePalais de la Cité royal residence was located western end of Île de la Cité 1163 during reign of Louis VII Maurice de Sully bishop of Paris undertook construction of Notre Dame Cathedral its eastern extremityAfter marshland between river Seine its slower 'dead arm' its north was filled around 10th century, Paris's cultural centre began move Right Bank 1137 new city marketplace (today's Les Halles) replaced two smaller ones Île de la Cité Place de la Grève (Hotel de Ville)latter location housed headquarters of Paris's river trade corporation organisation that later became unofficially (although formally later years) Paris's first municipal governmentIn late 12th century Philip Augustus extended Louvre fortress defend city against river invasions from west gave city its first walls between 1190 1215 rebuilt its bridges either side of its central island paved its main thoroughfares1190 he transformed Paris's former cathedral school into student-teacher corporation that would become University of Paris would draw students from all of EuropeThe Palais de la Cité Sainte-Chapelle viewed from Left Bank from Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (month of June) (1410), Main article French architecture, Claude Monet founded Impressionist movement (Femme avec un parasol 1886 Musée d'Orsay)The 17th century was period when French painting became prominent individualised itself through classicism Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded 1648 Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture protect these artists 1666 he created still-active French Academy Rome have direct relations with Italian artistsFrench artists developed rococo style 18th century more intimate imitation of old baroque style works of court-endorsed artists Antoine Watteau François Boucher Jean-Honoré Fragonard being most representative country French Revolution brought great changes Napoleon favoured artists of neoclassic style such Jacques-Louis David highly influential Académie des Beaux-Arts defined style known Academism this time France had become centre of artistic creation first half of 19th century being dominated two successive movements first Romanticism with Théodore Géricault Eugène Delacroix Realism with Camille Corot Gustave Courbet Jean-François Millet style that eventually evolved into NaturalismThe Thinker bronze statue from 1902 from Musée Rodin Paris. Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs decorative arts textile museum holds one of world's largest textile collections with 2,500,000 works.