Main article List of films set Marseille Ecole Centrale de Marseille part of Centrale Graduate School Mont Blanc highest summit Western Europe marks border with ItalyThe vast majority of France's territory population situated Western Europe called Metropolitan France distinguish from country's various overseas polities bordered North Sea north English Channel northwest Atlantic Ocean west Mediterranean sea southeast land borders consist of Belgium Luxembourg northeast Germany Switzerland east Italy Monaco southeast Andorra Spain south southwest With exception of northeast most of France's land borders roughly delineated natural boundaries geographic features south southeast Pyrenees Alps Jura respectively east Rhine river Due its shape France often referred l'Hexagone (The Hexagon) Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands of which largest Corsica Metropolitan France situated mostly between latitudes 41° 51° N longitudes 6° W 10° E western edge of Europe thus lies within northern temperate zone Its continental part covers about 1000 km from north south from east westFrance has several overseas regions across world which organised along different. Network of highways around Lyon Other Japanese supplementary schools Main article Sport France Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics. École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from city has been called Tarot de Marseille since 1930s—a name coined commercial use French cardmaker cartomancer Paul Marteau owner of B–P Grimaud Previously this deck was called Tarot italien (Italian Tarot) even earlier was simply called Tarot Before being de Marseille was used play local variant of tarocchi before became used cartomancy end of 18th century following trend set Antoine Court de Gébelin name Tarot de Marseille (Marteau used name ancien Tarot de Marseille) was used contrast other types of Tarots such Tarot de Besançon those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers 18th century (previously several cities France were involved cardmaking)Another local tradition making of santons small hand-crafted figurines traditional Provençal Christmas creche Since 1803 starting last Sunday of November there has been Santon Fair Marseille currently held Cours d'Estienne d'Orves large square off Vieux-PortOpera, École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies. Map of Metropolis of Lyon (the city of Lyon red), The lands making up French Republic shown same geographic scalePolitics Main article Demographics of Paris. Main articles Landmarks Paris Historical quarters of Paris List of tourist attractions Paris, Hauts-de-France Le Serment du Jeu de paume Jacques-Louis David 1791! Main article Sport France, Location borders Paris's most popular sport clubs association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C rugby union clubs Stade Français Racing 92 last of which based just outside city proper 80,000-seat Stade de France built 1998 FIFA World Cup located just north of Paris commune of Saint-Denis used football rugby union track field athletics hosts French national football team friendlies major tournaments qualifiers annually hosts French national rugby team's home matches of Six Nations Championship hosts several important matches of Stade Français rugby teamaddition Paris Saint-Germain FC city has number of other professional amateur football clubs Paris FC Red Star RCF Paris Stade Français Paris2010 Tour de France Champs Élysées, Main articles Music Paris History of music Paris See also Paris 18th century Paris during Second Empire Haussmann's renovation of Paris.
According 2012 INSEE figures 68 percent of employees City of Paris work commerce transportation services 24.4 percent public administration health social services 4.4 percent industry 0.1 percent agricultureThe majority of Paris's salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs concentrated north-western 8th 16th 17th arrondissements Paris's financial service companies concentrated central-western 8th 9th arrondissement banking insurance district Paris's department store district 1st 6th 8th 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris workers with 100,000 of these registered retail trade Fourteen percent of Parisians work hotels restaurants other services individuals Nineteen percent of Paris employees work State either administration or education majority of Paris's healthcare social workers work hospitals social housing concentrated peripheral 13th 14th 18th 19th 20th arrondissements Outside Paris western Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense district specialising finance insurance scientific research district employs 144,600, north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms 10 major film studiosParis's manufacturing mostly focused its suburbs city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers most of which textile clothing leather goods shoe trades Paris region manufacturing specialises transportation mainly automobiles aircraft trains but this sharp decline Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped 64 percent between 1990 2010 Paris region lost 48 percent during same period Most of this due companies relocating outside Paris region Paris region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000 Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers many of these centred Yvelines department around Renault PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000), but industry whole suffered major loss with 2014 closing of major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plantThe southern Essonne department specialises science technology, south-eastern Val-de-Marne with its wholesale Rungis food market specialises food processing beveragesParis region's manufacturing decline quickly being replaced eco-industries these employ about 100,000 workers2011 while only 56,927 construction workers worked Paris itself, its metropolitan area employed 246,639, activity centred largely around Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378) Hauts-de-Seine (37,303) departments new business-park centres appearing thereUnemployment. Le Lycée du Parc, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility GrenobleFrance was fourth country achieve nuclear capability has third largest nuclear weapons arsenal world also leader civilian nuclear technology France was third nation after former USSR United States launch its own space satellite remains biggest contributor European Space Agency (ESA)European Airbus formed from French group Aérospatiale along with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) designs develops civil military aircraft well communications systems missiles space rockets helicopters satellites related systems France also hosts major international research instruments such European Synchrotron Radiation Facility or Institut Laue–Langevin remains major member of CERN also owns Minatec Europe's leading nanotechnology research centerSNCF French national railroad company has developed TGV high speed train which holds series of world speed records TGV has been fastest wheeled train commercial use since reaching speed of 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) 3 April 2007 Western Europe now serviced network of TGV linesAs of 2018 69 French people have been awarded Nobel Prize 12 have received Fields MedalDemographics, France uses civil legal system that is law arises primarily from written statutes judges not make law but merely interpret (though amount of judicial interpretation certain areas makes equivalent case law) Basic principles of rule of law were laid Napoleonic Code (which was turn largely based royal law codified under Louis XIV) agreement with principles of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental society Guy Canivet first president of Court of Cassation wrote about management of prisons Freedom rule its restriction exception any restriction of Freedom must be provided Law must follow principles of necessity proportionality That is Law should lay out prohibitions only if they needed if inconveniences caused this restriction do not exceed inconveniences that prohibition supposed remedycolor drawing of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen from 1789! Historically economy of Marseille was dominated its role port of French Empire linking North African colonies of Algeria Morocco Tunisia with Metropolitan France Old Port was replaced main port trade Port de la Joliette during Second Empire now contains restaurants offices bars hotels functions mostly private marina majority of port docks which experienced decline 1970s after oil crisis have been recently redeveloped with funds from European Union Fishing remains important Marseille food economy of Marseille fed local catch daily fish market still held Quai des Belges of Old PortThe economy of Marseille its region still linked its commercial port first French port fifth European port cargo tonnage which lies north of Old Port eastern Fos-sur-Mer Some 45,000 jobs linked port activities represents 4 billion euros added value regional economy 100 million tons of freight pass annually through port 60% of which petroleum making number one France Mediterranean number three Europe However early 2000s growth container traffic was being stifled constant strikes social upheavalport among 20th firsts Europe container traffic with 1,062,408 TEU new infrastructures have already raised capacity 2M TEU Petroleum refining shipbuilding principal industries but chemicals soap glass sugar building materials plastics textiles olive oil processed foods also important products. Marseille connected with Rhône via canal thus has access extensive waterway network of France Petroleum shipped northward Paris basin pipeline city also serves France's leading centre of oil refiningCompanies services high technologies, Calanques National Park Bouches-du-Rhône one of best known protected areas of FranceFrance was one of first countries create environment ministry 1971 Although one of most industrialised countries world France ranked only 17th carbon dioxide emissions behind less populous nations such Canada or Australia This because France decided invest nuclear power following 1973 oil crisis, which now accounts 75% of its electricity production results less pollutionThe forest of Rambouillet Yvelines illustrates France's flora diversityLike all European Union state members France agreed cut carbon emissions least 20% of 1990 levels year 2020, compared United States plan reduce emissions 4% of 1990 levelsof 2009 French carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of China'scountry was set impose carbon tax 2009 17 euros per tonne of carbon emitted, which would have raised 4 billion euros of revenue annually However plan was abandoned due fears of burdening French businessesForests account 28% of France's land area, some of most diverse Europe comprising more than 140 species of trees There nine national parks 46 natural parks France, with government planning convert 20% of its Exclusive Economic Zone into Marine Protected Area 2020regional nature park (French parc naturel régional or PNR) public establishment France between local authorities French national government covering inhabited rural area of outstanding beauty order protect scenery heritage well setting up sustainable economic development areaPNR sets goals guidelines managed human habitation sustainable economic development protection of natural environment based each park's unique landscape heritage parks foster ecological research programmes public education natural sciencesof 2014 there 49 PNRs FranceAccording 2016 Environmental Performance Index conducted Yale Columbia France was tenth-most environmentally-conscious country worldAdministrative divisions. 6th arrondissement Brotteaux Bellecombe Parc de la Tête d'or Cité Internationale OccitanieProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon contemporary art museum. France has been centre of Western cultural development centuries Many French artists have been among most renowned of their time France still recognised world its rich cultural traditionThe successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation creation of Ministry of Culture 1959 helped preserve cultural heritage of country make available public Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation granting subsidies artists promoting French culture world supporting festivals cultural events protecting historical monuments French government also succeeded maintaining cultural exception defend audiovisual products made countryFrance receives highest number of tourists per year largely thanks numerous cultural establishments historical buildings implanted all over territory counts 1,200 museums welcoming more than 50 million people annuallymost important cultural sites run government instance through public agency Centre des monuments nationaux which responsible approximately 85 national historical monumentsThe 43,180 buildings protected historical monuments include mainly residences (many castles) religious buildings (cathedrals basilicas churches) but also statutes memorials gardens UNESCO inscribed 41 sites France World Heritage ListArt. Motorways around Marseille Main article Politics of France, Main article Education Paris France especially Paris has some of world's largest renowned museums including Louvre which most visited art museum world (5.7 million) Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million) mostly devoted Impressionism Centre Georges Pompidou (1.2 million) dedicated contemporary art Disneyland Paris Europe's most popular theme park with 15 million combined visitors resort's Disneyland Park Walt Disney Studios Park 2009French Riviera. Bourgogne- On 10 August 1792 angry crowd threatened palace of King Louis XVI who took refuge Legislative AssemblyPrussian army invaded France later August 1792 early September Parisians infuriated Prussian army capturing Verdun counter-revolutionary uprisings west of France murdered between 1,000 1,500 prisoners raiding Parisian prisons Assembly Paris city council seemed unable stop that bloodshedNational Convention chosen first elections under male universal suffrage, 20 September 1792 succeeded Legislative Assembly 21 September abolished monarchy proclaiming French First Republic Ex-King Louis XVI was convicted of treason guillotined January 1793 France had declared war England Dutch Republic November 1792 did same Spain March 1793 spring of 1793 Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic invaded France March France created sister republic Republic of MainzAlso March 1793 civil war of Vendée against Paris started evoked both Civil Constitution of Clergy of 1790 nationwide army conscription early 1793 elsewhere France rebellion was brewing too factionalist feud National Convention smoldering ever since October 1791 came climax with group of 'Girondins' 2 June 1793 being forced resign leave Convention counter-revolution begun March 1793 Vendée July had spread Brittany Normandy Bordeaux Marseilles Toulon Lyon Paris' Convention government between October December 1793 with brutal measures managed subdue most internal uprisings cost of tens of thousands of lives Some historians consider civil war have lasted until 1796 with toll of possibly 450,000 lives France February 1794 abolished slavery its American colonies but would reintroduce laterPolitical disagreements enmity National Convention between October 1793 July 1794 reached unprecedented levels leading dozens of Convention members being sentenced death guillotined Meanwhile France's external wars 1794 were going prosperous example Belgium 1795 government seemed return indifference towards desires needs of lower classes concerning freedom of (Catholic) religion fair distribution of food Until 1799 politicians apart from inventing new parliamentary system (the 'Directory') busied themselves with dissuading people from Catholicism from royalismNapoleon 19th century (1799–1914).