Judaism (0.8%), IFAG (Business Management School) Église Saint-Polycarpe (1665–1670) Classical church Undecided (0.4%). As capital of France Paris seat of France's national government executive two chief officers each have their own official residences which also serve their offices President of French Republic resides Élysée Palace 8th arrondissement, while Prime Minister's seat Hôtel Matignon 7th arrondissement Government ministries located various parts of city many located 7th arrondissement near MatignonThe two houses of French Parliament located Left Bank upper house Senate meets Palais du Luxembourg 6th arrondissement while more important lower house Assemblée Nationale meets Palais Bourbon 7th arrondissement President of Senate second-highest public official France (the President of Republic being sole superior) resides Petit Luxembourg smaller palace annexe Palais du LuxembourgThe Palais-Royal residence of Conseil d'État, See also Transportation Marseille, Jean-Paul Sartre Main article Law of France. Employment economic sector Paris area (petite couronne) with population unemployment figures (2012), Main article Tourism France Calanques National Park Bouches-du-Rhône one of best known protected areas of FranceFrance was one of first countries create environment ministry 1971 Although one of most industrialised countries world France ranked only 17th carbon dioxide emissions behind less populous nations such Canada or Australia This because France decided invest nuclear power following 1973 oil crisis, which now accounts 75% of its electricity production results less pollutionThe forest of Rambouillet Yvelines illustrates France's flora diversityLike all European Union state members France agreed cut carbon emissions least 20% of 1990 levels year 2020, compared United States plan reduce emissions 4% of 1990 levelsof 2009 French carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of China'scountry was set impose carbon tax 2009 17 euros per tonne of carbon emitted, which would have raised 4 billion euros of revenue annually However plan was abandoned due fears of burdening French businessesForests account 28% of France's land area, some of most diverse Europe comprising more than 140 species of trees There nine national parks 46 natural parks France, with government planning convert 20% of its Exclusive Economic Zone into Marine Protected Area 2020regional nature park (French parc naturel régional or PNR) public establishment France between local authorities French national government covering inhabited rural area of outstanding beauty order protect scenery heritage well setting up sustainable economic development areaPNR sets goals guidelines managed human habitation sustainable economic development protection of natural environment based each park's unique landscape heritage parks foster ecological research programmes public education natural sciencesof 2014 there 49 PNRs FranceAccording 2016 Environmental Performance Index conducted Yale Columbia France was tenth-most environmentally-conscious country worldAdministrative divisions, The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism. Cathedral of St John Université Claude Bernard (Lyon 1) Napoleon Emperor of French his Grande Armée built vast Empire across Europe His conquests spread French revolutionary ideals across much of Europe such popular sovereignty legal equality republicanism administrative reorganization while his legal reforms had major impact worldwide Nationalism especially Germany emerged reaction against himNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of Republic 1799 becoming First Consul later Emperor of French Empire (1804–1814 1815) continuation of wars sparked European monarchies against French Republic changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars Napoleon's Empire His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz Members of Bonaparte family were appointed monarchs some of newly established kingdoms These victories led worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals reforms such Metric system Napoleonic Code Declaration of Rights of Man After catastrophic Russian campaign ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule Napoleon was defeated Bourbon monarchy restored About million Frenchmen died during Napoleonic Wars After his brief return from exile Napoleon was finally defeated 1815 Battle of Waterloo monarchy was re-established (1815–1830) with new constitutional limitationsThe discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown July Revolution of 1830 which established constitutional July Monarchy that year French troops conquered Algeria establishing first colonial presence Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt 1798 According historian Ben Kiernan French conquest pacification of Algeria from 1830 until early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people French losses from 1831–51 were 92,329 dead hospital only 3,336 killed actionIn 1848 general unrest led February Revolution end of July Monarchy abolition of slavery male universal suffrage both briefly enacted during French Revolution were re-enacted 1848 1852 president of French Republic Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon I's nephew was proclaimed emperor of second Empire Napoleon III He multiplied French interventions abroad especially Crimea Mexico Italy which resulted annexation of duchy of Savoy county of Nice then part of Kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III was unseated following defeat Franco-Prussian War of 1870 his regime was replaced Third Republicanimated gif of French colonial territory world map. French territorial evolution from 985 1947The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987 when Hugh Capet Duke of France Count of Paris was crowned King of Franks His descendants—the Capetians House of Valois House of Bourbon—progressively unified country through wars dynastic inheritance into Kingdom of France which was fully declared 1190 Philip II Augustus French nobility played prominent role most Crusades order restore Christian access Holy Land French knights made up bulk of steady flow of reinforcements throughout two-hundred-year span of Crusades such fashion that Arabs uniformly referred crusaders Franj caring little whether they really came from FranceFrench Crusaders also imported French language into Levant making French base of lingua franca (litt Frankish language) of Crusader states French knights also made up majority both Hospital Temple orders latter particular held numerous properties throughout France 13th century were principal bankers French crown until Philip IV annihilated order 1307 Albigensian Crusade was launched 1209 eliminate heretical Cathars southwestern area of modern-day France end Cathars were exterminated autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into crown lands of France Later kings expanded their domain cover over half of modern continental France including most of north centre west of France Meanwhile royal authority became more more assertive centred hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility clergy commonersCharles IV Fair died without heir 1328 Under rules of Salic law crown of France could not pass woman nor could line of kingship pass through female line Accordingly crown passed Philip of Valois cousin of Charles rather than through female line Charles' nephew Edward who would soon become Edward III of England During reign of Philip of Valois French monarchy reached height of its medieval power Philip's seat throne was contested Edward III of England 1337 eve of first wave of Black Death, England France went war what would become known Hundred Years' Warexact boundaries changed greatly with time but French landholdings of English Kings remained extensive decades With charismatic leaders such Joan of Arc La Hire strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories Like rest of Europe France was struck Black Death half of 17 million population of France diedEarly modern period (15th century–1789), Medieval philosophy was dominated Scholasticism until emergence of Humanism Renaissance Modern philosophy began France 17th century with philosophy of René Descartes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Descartes revitalised Western philosophy which had been declined after Greek Roman eras His Meditations First Philosophy changed primary object of philosophical thought raised some of most fundamental problems foreigners such Spinoza Leibniz Hume Berkeley KantFrans Hals painting of René Descartes facing right black coat white collar, Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon houses Musée des Hospices Civils permanent exhibit tracing history practice of medicine from Middle Ages modern times. Tour de France pelleton 9 July 2005 begin of ascend Cote de Bad Herrenalb, René Descartes founder of modern philosophyFrench philosophers produced some of most important political works of Age of Enlightenment Spirit of Laws Baron de Montesquieu theorised principle of separation of powers which has been implemented all liberal democracies since was first applied United States Voltaire came embody Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties such right free trial freedom of religion19th-century French thought was targeted responding social malaise following French Revolution Rationalist philosophers such Victor Cousin Auguste Comte who called new social doctrine were opposed reactionary thinkers such Joseph de Maistre Louis de Bonald Félicité Robert de Lamennais who blamed rationalist rejection of traditional order De Maistre considered together with Englishman Edmund Burke one of founders of European conservatism while Comte regarded founder of positivism which Émile Durkheim reformulated basis social researchIn 20th century partly reaction perceived excesses of positivism French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such Henri Bergson influenced American pragmatism Whitehead's version of process philosophy Meanwhile French epistemology became prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré Gaston Bachelard Jean Cavaillès Jules Vuillemin Influenced German phenomenology existentialism philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre gained strong influence after World War II late-20th-century-France became craddle of postmodern philosophy with Jean-François Lyotard Jean Baudrillard Jacques Derrida Michel FoucaultMusic.
Transport The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital teaching hospital Paris one of Europe's largest hospitalsThe French health care system one of universal health care largely financed government national health insurance its 2000 assessment of world health care systems World Health Organization found that France provided close best overall health care worldFrench healthcare system was ranked first worldwide World Health Organization 19972011 France spent 11.6% of GDP health care or US$4,086 per capita, figure much higher than average spent countries Europe but less than United States Approximately 77% of health expenditures covered government funded agenciesCare generally free people affected chronic diseases (affections de longues durées) such cancer AIDS or cystic fibrosis Average life expectancy birth 78 years men 85 years women one of highest of European Union World There 3.22 physicians every 1000 inhabitants France, average health care spending per capita was US$4,719 2008of 2007 approximately 140,000 inhabitants (0.4%) of France living with HIV/AIDSEven if French have reputation of being one of thinnest people developed countries, France—like other rich countries—faces increasing recent epidemic of obesity due mostly replacement French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine junk foodFrench obesity rate still far below that of United States (the obesity rate France same United States had 1970s), still lowest of Europe Authorities now regard obesity one of main public health issues fight fiercely Rates of childhood obesity slowing France while continuing grow other countriesEducation, Châteaux francophone minorities, Cathedral of St John medieval church with architectural elements of 13th 14th 15th centuries also principal religious structure city seat of Archbishop of Lyon. Emmanuel Macron Main article Lutetia, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital Paris stone building with slate dome, Other Japanese supplementary schools The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital teaching hospital Paris one of Europe's largest hospitalsThe French health care system one of universal health care largely financed government national health insurance its 2000 assessment of world health care systems World Health Organization found that France provided close best overall health care worldFrench healthcare system was ranked first worldwide World Health Organization 19972011 France spent 11.6% of GDP health care or US$4,086 per capita, figure much higher than average spent countries Europe but less than United States Approximately 77% of health expenditures covered government funded agenciesCare generally free people affected chronic diseases (affections de longues durées) such cancer AIDS or cystic fibrosis Average life expectancy birth 78 years men 85 years women one of highest of European Union World There 3.22 physicians every 1000 inhabitants France, average health care spending per capita was US$4,719 2008of 2007 approximately 140,000 inhabitants (0.4%) of France living with HIV/AIDSEven if French have reputation of being one of thinnest people developed countries, France—like other rich countries—faces increasing recent epidemic of obesity due mostly replacement French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine junk foodFrench obesity rate still far below that of United States (the obesity rate France same United States had 1970s), still lowest of Europe Authorities now regard obesity one of main public health issues fight fiercely Rates of childhood obesity slowing France while continuing grow other countriesEducation; Main article List of French inventions discoveries A TGV Duplex crossing Cize–Bolozon viaduct train can reach maximum speed of 360 kilometres per hour (220 mph)The railway network of France which of 2008 stretches 29,473 kilometres (18,314 mi) second most extensive Western Europe after that of Germany operated SNCF high-speed trains include Thalys Eurostar TGV which travels 320 km/h (199 mph) commercial useEurostar along with Eurotunnel Shuttle connects with United Kingdom through Channel Tunnel Rail connections exist all other neighbouring countries Europe except Andorra Intra-urban connections also well developed with both underground services (Paris Lyon Lille Marseille Toulouse Rennes) tramway services (Nantes Strasbourg Bordeaux Grenoble Montpellier...) complementing bus servicesThere approximately 1,027,183 kilometres (638,262 mi) of serviceable roadway France ranking most extensive network of European continentParis region enveloped with most dense network of roads highways that connect with virtually all parts of country French roads also handle substantial international traffic connecting with cities neighbouring Belgium Luxembourg Germany Switzerland Italy Spain Andorra Monaco There no annual registration fee or road tax however usage of mostly privately owned motorways through tolls except vicinity of large communes new car market dominated domestic brands such Renault (27% of cars sold France 2003) Peugeot (20.1%) Citroën (13.5%) Over 70% of new cars sold 2004 had diesel engines far more than contained petrol or LPG engines France possesses Millau Viaduct world's tallest bridge, has built many important bridges such Pont de NormandieAir France one of biggest airlines worldThere 464 airports France Charles de Gaulle Airport located vicinity of Paris largest busiest airport country handling vast majority of popular commercial traffic connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across world Air France national carrier airline although numerous private airline companies provide domestic international travel services There ten major ports France largest of which Marseille, which also largest bordering Mediterranean Sea 12,261 kilometres (7,619 mi) of waterways traverse France including Canal du Midi which connects Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean through Garonne riverScience technology; IAE (Institut d'Administration des Entreprises de Lyon), See also Taxation France Main article Arrondissements of Lyon, Paris its early history had only rivers Seine Bièvre water From 1809 Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers north-east of capital From 1857 civil engineer Eugène Belgrand under Napoleon III oversaw construction of series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around city several reservoirs built atop Capital's highest points of elevation From then on new reservoir system became Paris's principal source of drinking water remains of old system pumped into lower levels of same reservoirs were from then used cleaning of Paris's streets This system still major part of Paris's modern water-supply network Today Paris has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways dedicated evacuation of Paris's liquid wastesIn 1982 Mayor Chirac introduced motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte remove dog faeces from Paris streetsproject was abandoned 2002 new better enforced local law under terms of which dog owners can be fined up €500 not removing their dog faecesair pollution Paris from point of view of particulate matter (PM10) highest France with 38 µg/m³Parks gardens. SeaMediterranean See also Urban area (France) Urban unit, Map of 25 largest urban units population. Main articles Gaul Celts Roman Gaul, The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries Paris among them François Mitterrand Library Richelieu Library Louvois Opéra Library Arsenal Library There three public libraries 4th arrondissement Forney Library Marais district dedicated decorative arts Arsenal Library occupies former military building has large collection French literature Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris also Le Marais contains Paris historical research service Sainte-Geneviève Library 5th arrondissement designed Henri Labrouste built mid-1800s contains rare book manuscript division Bibliothèque Mazarine 6th arrondissement oldest public library France Médiathèque Musicale Mahler 8th arrondissement opened 1986 contains collections related music François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) 13th arrondissement was completed 1994 design of Dominique Perrault contains four glass towersThere several academic libraries archives Paris Sorbonne Library 5th arrondissement largest university library Paris addition Sorbonne location there branches Malesherbes Clignancourt-Championnet Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie Serpente-Maison de la Recherche Institut des Etudes Ibériques Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library Leonardo da Vinci University Library Paris School of Mines Library René Descartes University LibrarySports.