EPITA For centuries Paris has attracted artists from around world who arrive city educate themselves seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources galleries result Paris has acquired reputation City of Art Italian artists were profound influence development of art Paris 16th 17th centuries particularly sculpture reliefs Painting sculpture became pride of French monarchy French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists adorn their palaces during French Baroque Classicism era Sculptors such Girardon Coysevox Coustou acquired reputations finest artists royal court 17th-century France Pierre Mignard became first painter King Louis XIV during this period 1648 Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture) was established accommodate dramatic interest art capital This served France's top art school until 1793Auguste Renoir Bal du moulin de la Galette 1876 oil canvas 131 cm × 175 cm (52 × 69 in) Musée d'Orsay, Pointe Rouge Beach, Jean-Paul Sartre The security of Paris mainly responsibility of Prefecture of Police of Paris subdivision of Ministry of Interior of France supervises units of National Police who patrol city three neighbouring departments also responsible providing emergency services including Paris Fire Brigade Its headquarters Place Louis Lépine Île de la CitéThere 30,200 officers under prefecture fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles including police cars motorcycles fire trucks boats helicopters addition traditional police duties local police monitors number of discount sales held large stores (no more than two year allowed) verify that during summer holidays least one bakery open every neighbourhoodnational police has its own special unit riot control crowd control security of public buildings called Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS) unit formed 1944 right after liberation of France Vans of CRS agents frequently seen centre of city when there demonstrations public eventsThe police supported National Gendarmerie branch of French Armed Forces though their police operations now supervised Ministry of Interior traditional kepis of gendarmes were replaced 2002 with caps force modernised though they still wear kepis ceremonial occasionsCrime Paris similar that most large cities Violent crime relatively rare city centre Political violence uncommon though very large demonstrations may occur Paris other French cities simultaneously These demonstrations usually managed strong police presence can turn confrontational escalate into violenceCityscape. The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called Canebière) stretches eastward from Old Port Réformés quarter Two large forts flank entrance Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas south side Fort Saint-Jean north Farther out Bay of Marseille Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands one of which If location of Château d'If made famous Dumas novel Count of Monte Cristo main commercial centre of city intersects with Canebière Rue St Ferréol Centre Bourse (one of city's main shopping malls) centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones most notably Rue St Ferréol Cours Julien near Music Conservatory Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off Old Port area around Hôtel de Ville south east of central Marseille 6th arrondissement Prefecture monumental fountain of Place Castellane important bus metro interchange south west hills of 7th 8th arrondissements dominated basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of Centre Bourse 1st arrondissement linked Boulevard d'Athènes CanebièreClimate. BrittanyNouvelle-Aquitaine Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics, Ombrosa Jean Moulin University, View of Petit Nice Marseille's corniche (7th arrondissement) with Frioul archipelago Château d'If background. The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism, The Transports en commun lyonnais (TCL) Lyon's public transit system consisting of metro tramways buses serves 62 communes of Lyon metropolis network has four lines ( B C D ) 42 stations runs with frequency of up train every 2 minutes There five Lyon tram lines ( T1 T2 T3 T4 T5) since April 2009 T1 from Debourg south IUT-Feyssine north Tram T2 from Perrache railway station south-west Saint-Priest south-east Tram T3 from Part-Dieu Meyzieu Tram T4 from 'Hôptial Feyzin Venissieux' Gaston Berger Tram T5 from Grange Blanche south-east Eurexpo south-wast Lyon bus network consists of Lyon trolleybus system motorbuses coaches areas outside centre There also two funicular lines from Vieux Lyon Saint-Just Fourvière ticketing system relatively simple city has only one public transport operator SYTRALThe public transit system has been complemented since 2005 Vélo'v bicycle network providing low-cost service where bicycles can be hired returned any of 340 stations throughout city Borrowing bicycle less than 30 minutes free Free rental time can be extended another 30 minutes any station Lyon was first city France introduce this bicycle renting system 2011 Auto'lib car rental service was introduced works much same way Velo'v but carsThe average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit Lyon weekday 45 minutes average amount of time people wait stop or station public transit 11 min while 17% of riders wait over 20 minutes average every day average distance people usually ride single trip with public transit 4.7 km while 4% travel over 12 km single directionInternational relations, International regional transport Main article French cuisine.
E-Artsup On 7 January 2015 two French Muslim extremists attacked Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo killed thirteen people attack claimed Al-Qaeda Arabian Peninsula, 9 January third terrorist who claimed he was part of ISIL killed four hostages during attack Jewish grocery store Porte de Vincennes11 January estimated 1.5 million people marched Paris show of solidarity against terrorism support of freedom of speech13 November of same year series of coordinated bomb gunfire terrorist attacks Paris Saint-Denis claimed ISIL, killed 130 people injured more than 350On 3 February 2017 two-backpack-carrying machete-wielding attacker shouting Allahu Akbar attacked soldiers guarding Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags assailant was shot no explosives were found18 March of same year Vitry-sur-Seine bar man held patrons hostage then fled later hold gun head of Orly Airport French soldier shouting I am here die name of Allah was shot dead soldier's comrades20 April man shot dead French police officer Champs-Élysées was later shot dead himself19 June man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into police van Champs-Élysées but car only burst into flamesGeography, The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside public university structure prestigious public universities usually considered grands établissements Most of grandes écoles were relocated suburbs of Paris 1960s 1970s new campuses much larger than old campuses within crowded city of Paris though École Normale Supérieure has remained rue d'Ulm 5th arrondissement There high number of engineering schools led Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such École Polytechnique École des Mines AgroParisTech Télécom Paris Arts et Métiers École des Ponts et Chaussées There also many business schools including HEC INSEAD ESSEC ESCP Europe administrative school such ENA has been relocated Strasbourg political science school Sciences-Po still located Paris's 7th arrondissement most prestigious university of economics finance Paris-Dauphine located Paris's 16th Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of Paris-Sorbonne University located Neuilly-sur-Seine Paris also home several of France's most famous high-schools such Lycée Louis-le-Grand Lycée Henri-IV Lycée Janson de Sailly Lycée Condorcet National Institute of Sport Physical Education located 12th arrondissement both physical education institute high-level training centre elite athletesLibraries, world map of French speaking countries Because of its pre-eminence Mediterranean port Marseille has always been one of main gateways into France This has attracted many immigrants made Marseille cosmopolitan melting pot end of 18th century about half population originated from elsewhere Provence mostly also from southern France.[page needed]; Prehistory (before 6th century BC) The Calanque of Sugiton 9th arrondissement of Marseille, Main articles History of France § Napoleonic France (1799–1815) History of France § Long 19th century 1815–1914 First French Empire Second French Empire French colonial empire. Main article Education France Ecole Centrale de Marseille part of Centrale Graduate School.