Main articles History of Paris Timeline of Paris, According 2012 INSEE figures 68 percent of employees City of Paris work commerce transportation services 24.4 percent public administration health social services 4.4 percent industry 0.1 percent agricultureThe majority of Paris's salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs concentrated north-western 8th 16th 17th arrondissements Paris's financial service companies concentrated central-western 8th 9th arrondissement banking insurance district Paris's department store district 1st 6th 8th 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris workers with 100,000 of these registered retail trade Fourteen percent of Parisians work hotels restaurants other services individuals Nineteen percent of Paris employees work State either administration or education majority of Paris's healthcare social workers work hospitals social housing concentrated peripheral 13th 14th 18th 19th 20th arrondissements Outside Paris western Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense district specialising finance insurance scientific research district employs 144,600, north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms 10 major film studiosParis's manufacturing mostly focused its suburbs city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers most of which textile clothing leather goods shoe trades Paris region manufacturing specialises transportation mainly automobiles aircraft trains but this sharp decline Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped 64 percent between 1990 2010 Paris region lost 48 percent during same period Most of this due companies relocating outside Paris region Paris region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000 Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers many of these centred Yvelines department around Renault PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000), but industry whole suffered major loss with 2014 closing of major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plantThe southern Essonne department specialises science technology, south-eastern Val-de-Marne with its wholesale Rungis food market specialises food processing beveragesParis region's manufacturing decline quickly being replaced eco-industries these employ about 100,000 workers2011 while only 56,927 construction workers worked Paris itself, its metropolitan area employed 246,639, activity centred largely around Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378) Hauts-de-Seine (37,303) departments new business-park centres appearing thereUnemployment, Main articles History of France § Napoleonic France (1799–1815) History of France § Long 19th century 1815–1914 First French Empire Second French Empire French colonial empire; Bellecour Ecoles D'ArtsPrimary secondary schools France especially Paris has some of world's largest renowned museums including Louvre which most visited art museum world (5.7 million) Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million) mostly devoted Impressionism Centre Georges Pompidou (1.2 million) dedicated contemporary art Disneyland Paris Europe's most popular theme park with 15 million combined visitors resort's Disneyland Park Walt Disney Studios Park 2009French Riviera. Napoleon Emperor of French his Grande Armée built vast Empire across Europe His conquests spread French revolutionary ideals across much of Europe such popular sovereignty legal equality republicanism administrative reorganization while his legal reforms had major impact worldwide Nationalism especially Germany emerged reaction against himNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of Republic 1799 becoming First Consul later Emperor of French Empire (1804–1814 1815) continuation of wars sparked European monarchies against French Republic changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars Napoleon's Empire His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz Members of Bonaparte family were appointed monarchs some of newly established kingdoms These victories led worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals reforms such Metric system Napoleonic Code Declaration of Rights of Man After catastrophic Russian campaign ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule Napoleon was defeated Bourbon monarchy restored About million Frenchmen died during Napoleonic Wars After his brief return from exile Napoleon was finally defeated 1815 Battle of Waterloo monarchy was re-established (1815–1830) with new constitutional limitationsThe discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown July Revolution of 1830 which established constitutional July Monarchy that year French troops conquered Algeria establishing first colonial presence Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt 1798 According historian Ben Kiernan French conquest pacification of Algeria from 1830 until early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people French losses from 1831–51 were 92,329 dead hospital only 3,336 killed actionIn 1848 general unrest led February Revolution end of July Monarchy abolition of slavery male universal suffrage both briefly enacted during French Revolution were re-enacted 1848 1852 president of French Republic Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon I's nephew was proclaimed emperor of second Empire Napoleon III He multiplied French interventions abroad especially Crimea Mexico Italy which resulted annexation of duchy of Savoy county of Nice then part of Kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III was unseated following defeat Franco-Prussian War of 1870 his regime was replaced Third Republicanimated gif of French colonial territory world map, Montessori School of LyonSupplementary education After Revolution Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced France prior revolution with such building Parisian Pantheon or Capitole de Toulouse Built during first French Empire Arc de Triomphe Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent best example of Empire style architectureUnder Napoleon III new wave of urbanism architecture was given birth extravagant buildings such neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built urban planning of time was very organised rigorous example Haussmann's renovation of Paris architecture associated this era named Second Empire English term being taken from Second French Empire this time there was strong Gothic resurgence across Europe France associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc late 19th century Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges such Garabit viaduct remains one of most influential bridge designers of his time although he best remembered iconic Eiffel TowerIn 20th century French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings France More recently French architects have combined both modern old architectural styles Louvre Pyramid example of modern architecture added older building most difficult buildings integrate within French cities skyscrapers they visible from afar instance Paris since 1977 new buildings had be under 37 meters (121 feet) France's largest financial district La Defense where significant number of skyscrapers located Other massive buildings that challenge integrate into their environment large bridges example of way this has been done Millau Viaduct Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel Dominique Perrault Christian de Portzamparc or Paul AndreuLiterature. French cuisine renowned being one of finest world According regions traditional recipes different North of country prefers use butter preferred fat cooking whereas olive oil more commonly used South Moreover each region of France has iconic traditional specialities Cassoulet Southwest Choucroute Alsace Quiche Lorraine region Beef bourguignon Bourgogne provençal Tapenade etc France's most renowned products wines, including Champagne Bordeaux Bourgogne Beaujolais well large variety of different cheeses such Camembert Roquefort Brie There more than 400 different varietiesA meal often consists of three courses hors d'œuvre or entrée (introductory course sometimes soup) plat principal (main course) fromage (cheese course) and/or dessert sometimes with salad offered before cheese or dessert Hors d'œuvres include terrine de saumon au basilic lobster bisque foie gras French onion soup or croque monsieur plat principal could include pot au feu or steak frites dessert could be mille-feuille pastry macaron éclair crème brûlée mousse au chocolat crêpes or Café liégeoisSome French cheeses with fruits, Main article Climate of Paris The population of city of Lyon proper was 491,268 January 2011 census, 14% of whom were born outside Metropolitan FranceMain sights. Main article Music of France Jewish (52,000) See also Urban area (France) Urban unit Catholic University of Lyon; The origins of French art were very much influenced Flemish art Italian art time of Renaissance Jean Fouquet most famous medieval French painter said have been first travel Italy experience Early Renaissance first hand Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired Italian painters such Primaticcio Rosso Fiorentino who both worked France Two of most famous French artists of time of Baroque era Nicolas Poussin Claude Lorrain lived Italypainting Claude Monet of woman with parasol facing left field from Musée d'Orsay.
Charles de Gaulle took active part many major events of 20th century hero of World War I leader of Free French during World War II he then became President where he facilitated decolonisation maintained France major power overcame revolt of May 1968French-marked USAF C-119 flown CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu 1954, Amphitheatre of Three Gauls Roman ruins of amphitheatreMiddle Ages Renaissance, Since late 18th century Paris has been famous its restaurants haute cuisine food meticulously prepared artfully presented luxury restaurant La Taverne Anglaise opened 1786 arcades of Palais-Royal Antoine Beauvilliers featured elegant dining room extensive menu linen tablecloths large wine list well-trained waiters became model future Paris restaurants restaurant Le Grand Véfour Palais-Royal dates from same periodfamous Paris restaurants of 19th century including Café de Paris Rocher de Cancale Café Anglais Maison Dorée Café Riche were mostly located near theatres Boulevard des Italiens they were immortalised novels of Balzac Émile Zola Several of best-known restaurants Paris today appeared during Belle Epoque including Maxim's Rue Royale Ledoyen gardens of Champs-Élysées Tour d'Argent Quai de la TournelleToday due Paris's cosmopolitan population every French regional cuisine almost every national cuisine world can be found there city has more than 9,000 restaurantsMichelin Guide has been standard guide French restaurants since 1900 awarding its highest award three stars best restaurants France 2018 of 27 Michelin three-star restaurants France ten located Paris These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine such L'Ambroisie Place des Vosges those which serve non-traditional menus such L'Astrance which combines French Asian cuisines Several of France's most famous chefs including Pierre Gagnaire Alain Ducasse Yannick Alléno Alain Passard have three-star restaurants ParisLes Deux Magots café Boulevard Saint-Germain. KEDGE Business School Main articles Gaul Celts Roman Gaul. The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries Paris among them François Mitterrand Library Richelieu Library Louvois Opéra Library Arsenal Library There three public libraries 4th arrondissement Forney Library Marais district dedicated decorative arts Arsenal Library occupies former military building has large collection French literature Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris also Le Marais contains Paris historical research service Sainte-Geneviève Library 5th arrondissement designed Henri Labrouste built mid-1800s contains rare book manuscript division Bibliothèque Mazarine 6th arrondissement oldest public library France Médiathèque Musicale Mahler 8th arrondissement opened 1986 contains collections related music François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) 13th arrondissement was completed 1994 design of Dominique Perrault contains four glass towersThere several academic libraries archives Paris Sorbonne Library 5th arrondissement largest university library Paris addition Sorbonne location there branches Malesherbes Clignancourt-Championnet Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie Serpente-Maison de la Recherche Institut des Etudes Ibériques Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library Leonardo da Vinci University Library Paris School of Mines Library René Descartes University LibrarySports, Marseille second-largest city of France main city of historical province of Provence today capital of department of Bouches-du-Rhône region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur located France's south coast covering area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi) had population of 852,516 2012 Its metropolitan area which covers 3,173 km2 (1,225 sq mi) third-largest France after Paris Lyon with population of 1,831,500 of 2010Known ancient Greeks Romans Massalia (Greek Μασσαλία Massalía), Marseille was important European trading centre remains main commercial port of French Republic Marseille now France's largest city Mediterranean coast largest port commerce freight cruise ships city was European Capital of Culture 2013 European Capital of Sport 2017 hosted matches 1998 World Cup Euro 2016 home Aix-Marseille UniversityGeography. The Gare du Nord railway station busiest EuropeParis major rail highway air transport hub Île-de-France Mobilités formerly Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France (STIF) before that theSyndicat des transports parisiens (STP) oversees transit network regionsyndicate coordinates public transport contracts out RATP (operating 347 bus lines Métro eight tramway lines sections of RER) SNCF (operating suburban rails one tramway line other sections of RER) Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,176 bus linesRailways, secondary or non-official language, After Revolution Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced France prior revolution with such building Parisian Pantheon or Capitole de Toulouse Built during first French Empire Arc de Triomphe Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent best example of Empire style architectureUnder Napoleon III new wave of urbanism architecture was given birth extravagant buildings such neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built urban planning of time was very organised rigorous example Haussmann's renovation of Paris architecture associated this era named Second Empire English term being taken from Second French Empire this time there was strong Gothic resurgence across Europe France associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc late 19th century Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges such Garabit viaduct remains one of most influential bridge designers of his time although he best remembered iconic Eiffel TowerIn 20th century French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings France More recently French architects have combined both modern old architectural styles Louvre Pyramid example of modern architecture added older building most difficult buildings integrate within French cities skyscrapers they visible from afar instance Paris since 1977 new buildings had be under 37 meters (121 feet) France's largest financial district La Defense where significant number of skyscrapers located Other massive buildings that challenge integrate into their environment large bridges example of way this has been done Millau Viaduct Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel Dominique Perrault Christian de Portzamparc or Paul AndreuLiterature. The city of Marseille divided into 16 municipal arrondissements which themselves informally divided into 111 neighbourhoods (French quartiers) arrondissements regrouped pairs into 8 sectors each with mayor council (like arrondissements Paris Lyon) Municipal elections held every six years carried out sector There 303 councilmembers total two-thirds sitting sector councils one third city councilThe 9th arrondissement of Marseille largest terms of area because comprises parts of Calanques National Park With population of 89,316 (2007) 13th arrondissement of Marseille most populous oneFrom 1950 mid-1990s Marseille was Socialist (PS) Communist (PCF) stronghold Gaston Defferre (PS) was consecutively reelected six times Mayor of Marseille from 1953 until his death 1986 He was succeeded Robert Vigouroux of European Democratic Social Rally (RDSE) Jean-Claude Gaudin of right-wing UMP was elected Mayor of Marseille 1995 Gaudin was reelected 2001 2008 2014In recent years Communist Party has lost most of its strength northern boroughs of city whereas National Front has received significant support last municipal election 2014 Marseille was divided between northern arrondissements dominated left (PS) far-right (FN) southern part of town dominated right-wing (UMP) Marseille also divided twelve cantons each of them sending two members Departmental Council of Bouches-du-Rhône departmentList of Mayors of Marseille since beginning of 20th century, world map of French speaking countries, Main article Music of France Opéra Nouvel (1831) renovated 1993 Jean Nouvel. Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port. Judaism (0.8%) Chapelle de la Trinité (1622) first Baroque chapel built Lyon part of former École de la Trinité now Collège-lycée Ampère. On 14 June 1940 German army marched into Paris which had been declared open city16–17 July 1942 following German orders French police gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews including 4,115 children confined them during five days Vel d'Hiv (Vélodrome d'Hiver) from which they were transported train extermination camp Auschwitz None of children came back25 August 1944 city was liberated French 2nd Armoured Division 4th Infantry Division of United States Army General Charles de Gaulle led huge emotional crowd down Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris made rousing speech from Hôtel de VilleIn 1950s 1960s Paris became one front of Algerian War independence August 1961 pro-independence FLN targeted killed 11 Paris policemen leading imposition of curfew Muslims of Algeria (who that time were French citizens) 17 October 1961 unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against curfew led violent confrontations between police demonstrators which least 40 people were killed including some thrown into Seine anti-independence Organisation armée secrète (OAS) their part carried out series of bombings Paris throughout 1961 1962In May 1968 protesting students occupied Sorbonne put up barricades Latin Quarter Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined students movement grew into two-week general strike Supporters of government won June elections large majority May 1968 events France resulted break-up of University of Paris into 13 independent campuses1975 National Assembly changed status of Paris that of other French cities and 25 March 1977 Jacques Chirac became first elected mayor of Paris since 1793Tour Maine-Montparnasse tallest building city 57 storeys 210 metres (689 feet) high was built between 1969 1973 was highly controversial remains only building centre of city over 32 storeys highpopulation of Paris dropped from 2,850,000 1954 2,152,000 1990 middle-class families moved suburbssuburban railway network RER (Réseau Express Régional) was built complement Métro Périphérique expressway encircling city was completed 1973Most of postwar's Presidents of Fifth Republic wanted leave their own monuments Paris President Georges Pompidou started Centre Georges Pompidou (1977) Valéry Giscard d'Estaing began Musée d'Orsay (1986) President François Mitterrand power 14 years built Opéra Bastille (1985–1989) new site of Bibliothèque nationale de France (1996) Arche de la Défense (1985–1989) Louvre Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989) Jacques Chirac (2006) Musée du quai BranlyIn early 21st century population of Paris began increase slowly again more young people moved into city reached 2.25 million 2011 March 2001 Bertrand Delanoë became first Socialist Mayor of Paris 2007 effort reduce car traffic city he introduced Vélib' system which rents bicycles use of local residents visitors Bertrand Delanoë also transformed section of highway along Left Bank of Seine into urban promenade park Promenade des Berges de la Seine which he inaugurated June 2013In 2007 President Nicolas Sarkozy launched Grand Paris project integrate Paris more closely with towns region around it After many modifications new area named Metropolis of Grand Paris with population of 6.7 million was created 1 January 20162011 City of Paris national government approved plans Grand Paris Express totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines connect Paris innermost three departments around Paris airports high-speed rail (TGV) stations estimated cost of €35 billionsystem scheduled be completed 2030On 5 April 2014 Anne Hidalgo Socialist was elected first female Mayor of ParisTerrorist attacks, The European Parliament Strasbourg near border with Germany France founding member of all EU institutionsFrance member of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) but under President de Gaulle excluded itself from joint military command protest special relationship between United States Britain preserve independence of French foreign security policies However result of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American politics (much criticised France leftists part of right) France rejoined NATO joint military command 4 April 2009In early 1990s country drew considerable criticism from other nations its underground nuclear tests French Polynesia France vigorously opposed 2003 invasion of Iraq, straining bilateral relations with United States United KingdomFrance retains strong political economic influence its former African colonies (Françafrique) has supplied economic aid troops peace-keeping missions Ivory Coast Chad Recently after unilateral declaration of independence of northern Mali Tuareg MNLA subsequent regional Northern Mali conflict with several Islamist groups including Ansar Dine MOJWA France other African states intervened help Malian Army retake controlIn 2013 France was fourth-largest (in absolute terms) donor of development aid world behind United States United Kingdom Germany This represents 0.36% of its GDP this regard rating France twelfth largest donor listorganisation managing French help French Development Agency which finances primarily humanitarian projects sub-Saharan Africamain goals of this support developing infrastructure access health care education implementation of appropriate economic policies consolidation of rule of law democracyMilitary.