A map of Francophone world Main article Telecommunications France FranceGrand Est Pointe Rouge Beach. 6th arrondissement Brotteaux Bellecombe Parc de la Tête d'or Cité Internationale Marseille city that has its own unique culture proud of its differences from rest of France Today regional centre culture entertainment with important opera house historical maritime museums five art galleries numerous cinemas clubs bars restaurantsMarseille has large number of theatres including La Criée Le Gymnase Théâtre Toursky There also extensive arts centre La Friche former match factory behind Sainst-Charles station Alcazar until 1960s well known music hall variety theatre has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade now houses central municipal library Other music venues Marseille include Le Silo (also theatre) GRIMMarseille has also been important arts has been birthplace home of many French writers poets including Victor Gélu (fr) Valère Bernard (fr) Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand André Roussin small port of l'Estaque far end of Bay of Marseille became favourite haunt artists including Auguste Renoir Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home Aix) Georges Braque Raoul DufyEuropean Capital of Culture. World map of French speaking countries The Roman ruins hillside near Fourvière Basilica with Ancient Theatre of Fourvière Odeon of Lyon accompanying Gallo-Roman Museum. Place des Vosges, Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon contemporary art museum, École des Beaux-Arts Metro tramway network. Théâtre des Célestins (1877) designed Gaspard André 5th arrondissement Vieux Lyon (Saint-Paul Saint-Jean Saint-Georges) Saint-Just Saint-Irénée, Fourvière Point du Jour Ménival Battières Champvert (south). The west of France has strictly oceanic climate (Cfb) – extends from Flanders Basque Country coastal strip several tens of kilometres wide narrower north south but wider Brittany which almost entirely this climate zoneThe climate of Southwest also oceanic but warmerThe climate of Northwest oceanic but cooler windierAway from coast climate oceanic throughout but its characteristics change somewhat Paris sedimentary basin and more so basins protected mountain chains show stronger seasonal temperature variability less rainfall during autumn winter Therefore most of territory has semi-oceanic climate forms transition zone between strictly oceanic climate near coasts other climate zonesThe semi-continental climate (Dfa) of north centre-east (Alsace plains of Saône middle part of Rhône Dauphiné Auvergne Savoy)The Mediterranean lower Rhône valley experience Mediterranean climate (Csa Csb) due effect of mountain chains isolating them from rest of country resulting Mistral Tramontane windsThe mountain (or alpine) climates (Dfc ET) confined Alps Pyrenees summits of Massif Central Jura VosgesIn overseas regions there three broad types of climate, Saint Louis' Sainte Chapelle represents French impact religious architectureDuring Middle Ages many fortified castles were built feudal nobles mark their powers Some French castles that survived Chinon Château d'Angers massive Château de Vincennes so-called Cathar castles During this era France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe Some of greatest examples of Romanesque churches France Saint Sernin Basilica Toulouse largest romanesque church Europe, remains of Cluniac AbbeyThe Gothic architecture originally named Opus Francigenum meaning French work, was born Île-de-France was first French style of architecture be copied all Europe Northern France home of some of most important Gothic cathedrals basilicas first of these being Saint Denis Basilica (used royal necropolis) other important French Gothic cathedrals Notre-Dame de Chartres Notre-Dame d'Amiens kings were crowned another important Gothic church Notre-Dame de Reims Aside from churches Gothic Architecture had been used many religious palaces most important one being Palais des Papes AvignonThe final victory Hundred Years' War marked important stage evolution of French architecture was time of French Renaissance several artists from Italy were invited French court many residential palaces were built Loire Valley from 1450 with first reference Château de Montsoreau Such residential castles were Château de Chambord Château de Chenonceau or Château d'AmboisePlace de la Bourse Bordeaux example of French baroque architectureFollowing renaissance end of Middle Ages Baroque architecture replaced traditional Gothic style However France baroque architecture found greater success secular domain than religious one secular domain Palace of Versailles has many baroque features Jules Hardouin Mansart who designed extensions Versailles was one of most influential French architect of baroque era he famous his dome Les Invalides Some of most impressive provincial baroque architecture found places that were not yet French such Place Stanislas Nancy military architectural side Vauban designed some of most efficient fortresses Europe became influential military architect result imitations of his works can be found all over Europe Americas Russia TurkeyOpéra Garnier interior showing chandeliers gilded decoration, Paris hosts one of largest science museums Europe Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie La Villette attracted 2.4 million visitors 2017National Museum of Natural History Left Bank attracted 1.76 million visitors 2016 famous its dinosaur artefacts mineral collections its Gallery of Evolution military history of France from Middle Ages World War II vividly presented displays Musée de l'Armée Les Invalides near tomb of Napoleon addition national museums run French Ministry of Culture City of Paris operates 14 museums including Carnavalet Museum history of Paris Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Palais de Tokyo House of Victor Hugo House of Balzac Catacombs of Paris There also notable private museums Contemporary Art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation designed architect Frank Gehry opened October 2014 Bois de Boulogne received 1.4 million visitors 2017Theatre; Main article Geography of Paris Main article Lutetia Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (located Villeurbanne).
Main article Climate of Paris Prime Minister European Synchrotron Radiation Facility GrenobleFrance was fourth country achieve nuclear capability has third largest nuclear weapons arsenal world also leader civilian nuclear technology France was third nation after former USSR United States launch its own space satellite remains biggest contributor European Space Agency (ESA)European Airbus formed from French group Aérospatiale along with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) designs develops civil military aircraft well communications systems missiles space rockets helicopters satellites related systems France also hosts major international research instruments such European Synchrotron Radiation Facility or Institut Laue–Langevin remains major member of CERN also owns Minatec Europe's leading nanotechnology research centerSNCF French national railroad company has developed TGV high speed train which holds series of world speed records TGV has been fastest wheeled train commercial use since reaching speed of 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) 3 April 2007 Western Europe now serviced network of TGV linesAs of 2018 69 French people have been awarded Nobel Prize 12 have received Fields MedalDemographics. Main articles Music Paris History of music Paris, The Stade de France was built 1998 FIFA World Cup listed UEFA category four stadiumThe French Open also called Roland-Garros major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May early June Stade Roland-Garros Paris premier clay court tennis championship event world second of four annual Grand Slam tournamentsRugby union popular particularly Paris southwest of Francenational rugby union team has competed every Rugby World Cup takes part annual Six Nations Championship Stemming from strong domestic league French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships including 8 grand slams has reached semi-final of Rugby World Cup 6 times going final 3 timesRugby league France mostly played followed South of France cities such Perpignan Toulouse Catalans Dragons Toulouse Olympique most notable clubs currently playing Super League RFL Championship top-tier rugby league competitions Europe Elite One Championship professional competition rugby league clubs FranceIn recent decades France has produced world-elite basketball players most notably Tony Parker French National Basketball Team won gold FIBA EuroBasket 2013 national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals 2000 1948Paris (French pronunciation [paʁi] (About this sound listen)) capital most populous city of France with area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) population of 2,206,488 With 200,000 inhabitants 1328 Paris then already capital of France was most populous city of Europe comparison London 1300 had 80,000 inhabitants Since 17th century Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance commerce fashion science music painting Paris Region had GDP of €681 billion (US$850 billion) 2016 accounting 31 per cent of GDP of France2013–2014 Paris Region had third-highest GDP world largest regional GDP EU According Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey 2018 Paris was second-most expensive city world behind Singapore ahead of Zurich Hong Kong Oslo GenevaThe City of Paris's administrative limits form East-West oval centred island its historical heart Île de la Cité this island near top of arc of river Seine that divides city into southern Rive Gauche (Left Bank) northern Rive Droite regions Paris core of built-up area that extends well beyond its limits commonly referred agglomération Parisienne statistically unité urbaine (a measure of urban area) Paris agglomeration's 2013 population of 10,601,122 made largest urban area European Union.[not citation given] City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this statistical aire urbaine de Paris (a measure of metropolitan area) that had 2013 population of 12,405,426, number one-fifth population of France, largest metropolitan area EurozoneThe city major rail highway air-transport hub served two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle (the second busiest airport Europe after London Heathrow Airport with 69.5 million passengers 2017) Paris-Orly Opened 1900 city's subway system Paris Métro serves 5.23 million passengers daily, second busiest metro system Europe after Moscow Metro Paris's Gare du Nord one of ten busiest railway stations world with 262 million passengers 2015Paris especially known its museums architectural landmarks Louvre was most visited art museum world 2017 with 8.1 million visitorsMusée d'Orsay Musée de l'Orangerie noted their collections of French Impressionist art Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has largest collection of modern contemporary art Europe historical district along Seine city centre classified UNESCO Heritage Site Popular landmarks centre of city include Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle both Île de la Cité Eiffel Tower constructed Paris Universal Exposition of 1889 Grand Palais Petit Palais built Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 Arc de Triomphe Champs-Élysées Basilica of Sacré-Coeur hill of Montmartre Paris received 23 million visitors 2017 measured hotel stays with largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from United States UK Germany Chinawas ranked third most visited travel destination world 2017 after Bangkok LondonThe football club Paris Saint-Germain rugby union club Stade Français based Paris 80,000-seat Stade de France built 1998 FIFA World Cup located just north of Paris neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis Paris hosts annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament red clay of Roland Garros Paris hosted Olympic Games 1900 1924 will host 2024 Summer Olympics 1938 1998 FIFA World Cups 2007 Rugby World Cup 1960 1984 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held city and every July Tour de France bicycle race finishes thereEtymology, Hindu (4,000) Immigration Major religious communities Marseille include. Includes Section Japonaises (リヨン・ジェルラン補習授業校 Riyon Jeruran Hoshū Jugyō Kō Lyon Gerland Japanese Supplementary School) which Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT) counts part-time Japanese supplementary school; Language Hauts-de-France, Lyon has long chronicled culinary arts tradition noted food critic Curnonsky referred city the gastronomic capital of world, claim repeated later writers such Bill Buford Renowned 3-star Michelin chefs such Marie Bourgeois Eugénie Brazier developed Lyonnaise cuisine into national phenomenon favoured French elite tradition which Paul Bocuse later turned into worldwide successThe bouchon traditional Lyonnais restaurant that serves local fare such sausages duck pâté or roast pork along with local wines Two of France's best known wine-growing regions located near city Beaujolais region north Côtes du Rhône region south Another Lyon tradition type of brunch food called mâchons made of local charcuterie usually accompanied Beaujolais red wine Mâchons were customary meal of canuts city's silk workers who ate late-morning meal after they finished their shifts factoriesOther traditional local dishes include coq au vin quenelle gras double salade lyonnaise (lettuce with bacon croûtons poached egg) sausage-based rosette lyonnaise andouillette Popular local confections include marron glacé coussin de Lyon Cervelle de canut (literally silk worker's brains) cheese spread/dip made of base of fromage blanc seasoned with chopped herbs shallots salt pepper olive oil vinegarSport, Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port. Climate data Marignane (Aéroport Marseille Provence) 43°26'18.4N 5°12'51.9E (1981–2010 averages record highs lows 1921–present), France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power highest percentage world Photo of Cattenom Nuclear Power PlantÉlectricité de France (EDF) main electricity generation distribution company France also one of world's largest producers of electricity 2003 produced 22% of European Union's electricity, primarily from nuclear power France smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among G8 due its heavy investment nuclear powerof 2016 72% of electricity produced France generated 58 nuclear power plantsthis context renewable energies having difficulty taking off France also uses hydroelectric dams produce electricity such Eguzon dam Étang de Soulcem Lac de VouglansTransport, Judaism (0.8%) The Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises (ADLCJ リヨン補習授業校 Riyon Hoshū Jugyō Kō) held Maison Berty Albrecht Villeurbanne near Lyonwas formed 1987serves Japanese expatriate children who wish continue their Japanese education whilst abroadTransport. 9th arrondissement Vaise Duchère Rochecardon St-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe Gorge de Loup Observance Champvert (north), Since Middle Ages residents of region have spoken several dialects of Franco-Provençal Lyonnais dialect was replaced French language importance of city grew However some frenchified Franco-Provençal words can also be heard French of Lyonnais who call their little boys girls gones fenottes exampleThe Lumière brothers pioneered cinema town 1895 Institut Lumière built Auguste Lumiere's house fascinating piece of architecture its own right holds many of their first inventions other early cinematic photographic artefacts8 December each year marked Festival of Lights (la Fête des lumières) celebration of thanks Virgin Mary who purportedly saved city from deadly plague Middle Ages During event local population places candles (lumignons) their windows city of Lyon organises impressive large-scale light shows onto sides of important Lyonnais monuments such mediaeval Cathédrale St-JeanThe church of Saint Francis of Sales famous its large unaltered Cavaillé-Coll pipe organ attracting audiences from around worldThe Opéra Nouvel (New Opera House) home of Opéra National de Lyon original opera house was re-designed distinguished French architect Jean Nouvel between 1985 1993 named after himLyon also French capital of trompe l'œil walls very ancient tradition Many be seen around city This old tradition now finding contemporary expression example art of Guillaume BottazziThe Brothers of Sacred Heart Roman Catholic congregation that operates schools Europe North America was founded Lyon 1821The African Museum of Lyon one of oldest museums situated LyonThe Museum of Resistance Deportation looks various individuals prominent Resistance movement World War II building strongly linked Klaus Barbie Lyon sees itself centre of French resistance many members were shot Place Bellecour town centre exhibition largely series of mini-biographies of those involvedThe unusual project Lyon Dubai City reproduction of some districts of Lyon Dubai major point tourism LyonLyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programmeUNESCO World Heritage Site. Metro tramway network From left right La Joliette neighbourhood (old docks) ferry ship docks new port Euroméditerranée business district (CMA CGM Tower) surrounding areas. Administration As far French intelligence units concerned Directorate-General External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure) considered be component of Armed Forces under authority of Ministry of Defence other Central Directorate Interior Intelligence (Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur) division of National Police Force (Direction générale de la Police Nationale) therefore reports directly Ministry of Interior There has been no national conscription since 1997France has special military corps French Foreign Legion founded 1830 which consists of foreign nationals from over 140 countries who willing serve French Armed Forces become French citizens after end of their service period only other countries having similar units Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion called Tercio was founded 1920) Luxembourg (foreigners can serve National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish)France permanent member of Security Council of UN recognised nuclear state since 1960 France has signed ratified Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) acceded Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty France's annual military expenditure 2011 was US$62.5 billion or 2.3% of its GDP making fifth biggest military spender world after United States China Russia United KingdomFrench nuclear deterrence (formerly known Force de Frappe) relies complete independence current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles addition submarine fleet estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads, of which around 50 deployed Air Force using Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft while around 10 deployed French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft which operate from nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle new Rafale F3 aircraft will gradually replace all Mirage 2000N SEM nuclear strike role with improved ASMP-A missile with nuclear warheadFrance has major military industries with one of largest aerospace industries world Its industries have produced such equipment Rafale fighter Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier Exocet missile Leclerc tank among others Despite withdrawing from Eurofighter project France actively investing European joint projects such Eurocopter Tiger multipurpose frigates UCAV demonstrator nEUROn Airbus A400M France major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available export market with notable exception of nuclear-powered devicesThe Bastille Day military parade held Paris each 14 July France's national day called Bastille Day English-speaking countries (referred France Fête nationale) oldest largest regular military parade Europe Other smaller parades organised across countryGovernment finance.