Tour Eiffel sunrise from trocadero Église Saint-Bonaventure 14th- 15th-century Gothic church Paris its suburbs seen from Spot Satellite The Élysée Palace residence of French President. Frankish expansion from 481 843/870At end of Antiquity period ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms remaining Gallo-Roman territory known Kingdom of Syagrius Simultaneously Celtic Britons fleeing Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain settled western part of Armorica result Armorican peninsula was renamed Brittany Celtic culture was revived independent petty kingdoms arose this regionThe pagan Franks from whom ancient name of Francie was derived originally settled north part of Gaul but under Clovis I conquered most of other kingdoms northern central Gaul 498 Clovis I was first Germanic conqueror after fall of Roman Empire convert Catholic Christianity rather than Arianism thus France was given title Eldest daughter of Church (French La fille aînée de l'Église) papacy, French kings would be called the Most Christian Kings of France (Rex Christianissimus)painting of Clovis I conversion Catholicism 498 king being baptized tub cathedral surrounded bishop monks, Paris's most popular sport clubs association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C rugby union clubs Stade Français Racing 92 last of which based just outside city proper 80,000-seat Stade de France built 1998 FIFA World Cup located just north of Paris commune of Saint-Denis used football rugby union track field athletics hosts French national football team friendlies major tournaments qualifiers annually hosts French national rugby team's home matches of Six Nations Championship hosts several important matches of Stade Français rugby teamaddition Paris Saint-Germain FC city has number of other professional amateur football clubs Paris FC Red Star RCF Paris Stade Français Paris2010 Tour de France Champs Élysées. Column dedicated Paris near Baths of Diocletian Rome Main article Education Paris The Region of Île de France including Paris its surrounding communities governed Regional Council which has its headquarters 7th arrondissement of Paris composed of 209 members representing different communes within region 15 December 2015 list of candidates of Union of Right coalition of centrist right-wing parties led Valérie Pécresse narrowly won regional election defeating coalition of Socialists ecologists Socialists had governed region seventeen years regional council has 121 members from Union of Right 66 from Union of Left 22 from extreme right National FrontNational government! For almost all of its long history except few brief periods Paris was governed directly representatives of king emperor or president of France city was not granted municipal autonomy National Assembly until 1974first modern elected mayor of Paris was Jacques Chirac elected 20 March 1977 becoming city's first mayor since 1793 current mayor Anne Hidalgo socialist elected 5 April 2014The mayor of Paris elected indirectly Paris voters voters of each arrondissement elect Conseil de Paris (Council of Paris) composed of 163 members Each arrondissement has number of members depending upon its population from 10 members each of least-populated arrondissements (1st through 9th) 36 members most populated (the 15th) elected council members select mayor Sometimes candidate who receives most votes citywide not selected if other candidate has won support of majority of council members Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (2001–2014) was elected only minority of city voters but majority of council membersThe Hôtel de Ville or city hall has been same site since 1357Once elected council plays largely passive role city government primarily because meets only once month current council divided between coalition of left of 91 members including socialists communists greens extreme left 71 members centre right plus few members from smaller partiesEach of Paris' 20 arrondissements has its own town hall directly elected council (conseil d'arrondissement) which turn elects arrondissement mayorcouncil of each arrondissement composed of members of Conseil de Paris also members who serve only council of arrondissement number of deputy mayors each arrondissement varies depending upon its population There total of 20 arrondissement mayors 120 deputy mayorsThe budget of city 2018 9.5 billion Euros with expected deficit of 5.5 billion Euros 7.9 billion Euros designated city administration 1.7 billion Euros investment number of city employees increased from 40,000 2001 55,000 2018 largest part of investment budget earmarked public housing (262 million Euros) real estate (142 million Euros)Métropole du Grand Paris.
8th arrondissement Monplaisir (south) Bachut États-Unis Grand Trou/Moulin à Vent Grange Blanche (south) Laënnec Mermoz Monplaisir-la-Plaine, By end of 12th century Paris had become political economic religious cultural capital of FrancePalais de la Cité royal residence was located western end of Île de la Cité 1163 during reign of Louis VII Maurice de Sully bishop of Paris undertook construction of Notre Dame Cathedral its eastern extremityAfter marshland between river Seine its slower 'dead arm' its north was filled around 10th century, Paris's cultural centre began move Right Bank 1137 new city marketplace (today's Les Halles) replaced two smaller ones Île de la Cité Place de la Grève (Hotel de Ville)latter location housed headquarters of Paris's river trade corporation organisation that later became unofficially (although formally later years) Paris's first municipal governmentIn late 12th century Philip Augustus extended Louvre fortress defend city against river invasions from west gave city its first walls between 1190 1215 rebuilt its bridges either side of its central island paved its main thoroughfares1190 he transformed Paris's former cathedral school into student-teacher corporation that would become University of Paris would draw students from all of EuropeThe Palais de la Cité Sainte-Chapelle viewed from Left Bank from Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (month of June) (1410). Main article Libraries Paris There 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths routes Paris These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic physical barriers such kerb) bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted painted path road) Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes free be used cyclists with protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles Cyclists have also been given right ride both directions certain one-way streets Paris offers bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented short medium distances including one way tripsElectricity. [icon] Lyon has humid subtropical climate (Cfa) albeit having some characteristics of oceanic climate (Cfb) mean temperature Lyon coldest month 3.2 °C (37.8 °F) January warmest month July 22 °C (71.6 °F) hence maintaining its subtropical classification Precipitation adequate year-round average of 830 mm (32.7 in) but winter months driest highest recorded temperature 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) 13 August 2003 while lowest recorded temperature −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) 22 December 1938Administration. Lyon third-largest city second-largest urban area of France located country's east-central part confluence of rivers Rhône Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne Inhabitants of city called LyonnaisLyon had population of 513,275 2015capital of Metropolis of Lyon region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Lyon metropolitan area had population of 2,265,375 2014 second-largest urban area Francecity known its cuisine gastronomy historical architectural landmarks part of registered UNESCO World Heritage site Lyon was historically important area production weaving of silk Lyon played significant role history of cinema where Auguste Louis Lumière invented cinematograph also known its light festival Fête des Lumières which begins every 8 December lasts four days earning Lyon title of Capital of LightsEconomically Lyon major centre banking well chemical pharmaceutical biotech industries city contains significant software industry with particular focus video games recent years has fostered growing local start-up sector Lyon hosts international headquarters of Interpol International Agency Research Cancer Euronews was ranked 19th globally second France innovation 2014ranked second France 39th globally Mercer's 2015 liveability rankingsHistory, Outside central Marseille Pointe Rouge Beach CPE Lyon Provence- Tour métallique de Fourvière (1894). The first book printed France Epistolae (Letters) Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza) was published Paris 1470 press established Johann Heynlin Since then Paris has been centre of French publishing industry home of some of world's best-known writers poets setting many classic works of French literature Almost all books published Paris Middle Ages were Latin rather than French Paris did not become acknowledged capital of French literature until 17th century with authors such Boileau Corneille La Fontaine Molière Racine several coming from provinces foundation of Académie française 18th century literary life of Paris revolved around cafés salons was dominated Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau Pierre de Marivaux BeaumarchaisDuring 19th century Paris was home subject some of France's greatest writers including Charles Baudelaire Stéphane Mallarmé Mérimée Alfred de Musset Marcel Proust Émile Zola Alexandre Dumas Gustave Flaubert Guy de Maupassant Honoré de Balzac Victor Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired renovation of its setting Notre-Dame de Paris Another of Victor Hugo's works Les Misérables written while he was exile outside France during Second Empire described social change political turmoil Paris early 1830s One of most popular of all French writers Jules Verne worked Theatre Lyrique Paris stock exchange while he did research his stories National Library.[citation not found]! To west of Saône fifth arrondissement covers old city (Vieux Lyon) Fourvière hill plateau beyond 9th immediately north stretches from Gorge de Loup through Vaise neighbouring suburbs of Écully Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or Collonges-au-Mont-d'OrBetween two rivers Presqu'île second first fourth arrondissements second includes most of city centre including Bellecour Perrache railway station reaches far confluence of two rivers first directly north of second covers part of city centre (including Hôtel de Ville) slopes of La Croix-Rousse north of Boulevard fourth arrondissement which covers Plateau of La Croix-Rousse up its boundary with commune of Caluire-et-CuireTo east of Rhône third sixth seventh eighth arrondissementsMayors, ENTPE (École Nationale des Travaux Publiques de l'État), animated gif showing expansion of Franks across Europe. Marseille tarot card Bal-musette style of French music dance that first became popular Paris 1870s 1880s 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls working-class neighbourhoods of city Patrons danced bourrée accompaniment of cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called musette) often vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) cafés bars of city Parisian Italian musicians who played accordion adopted style established themselves Auvergnat bars especially 19th arrondissement, romantic sounds of accordion has since become one of musical icons of city Paris became major centre jazz still attracts jazz musicians from all around world its clubs cafésParis spiritual home of gypsy jazz particular many of Parisian jazzmen who developed first half of 20th century began playing Bal-musette city Django Reinhardt rose fame Paris having moved 18th arrondissement caravan young boy performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli their Quintette du Hot Club de France 1930s 1940sImmediately after War Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home many small jazz clubs mostly found cellars because of lack of space these included Caveau des Lorientais Club Saint-Germain Rose Rouge Vieux-Colombier most famous Le Tabou They introduced Parisians music of Claude Luter Boris Vian Sydney Bechet Mezz Mezzrow Henri Salvador Most of clubs closed early 1960s musical tastes shifted toward rock rollSome of finest manouche musicians world found here playing cafés of city night Some of more notable jazz venues include New Morning Le Sunset La Chope des Puces Bouquet du Nord Several yearly festivals take place Paris including Paris Jazz Festival(fr) rock festival Rock en SeineOrchestre de Paris was established 1967On 19 December 2015 Paris other worldwide fans commemorated 100th anniversary of birth of Edith Piaf—a French cabaret singer songwriter actress who became widely regarded France's national chanteuse well being one of France's greatest international stars Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier Charles Aznavour Yves Montand Charles TrenetParis has big hip hop scene This music became popular during 1980spresence of large African Caribbean community helped its development gave voice political social status many minoritiesCinema. Main articles Gaul Celts Roman Gaul, Agence France-Presse Headquarters Paris Paris has typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) which affected North Atlantic Current overall climate throughout year mild moderately wet Summer days usually warm pleasant with average temperatures between 15 25 °C (59 77 °F) fair amount of sunshine Each year however there few days when temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F) Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur such heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) weeks reached 40 °C (104 °F) some days seldom cooled down night Spring autumn have average mild days fresh nights but changing unstable Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently both seasonswinter sunshine scarce days cool nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F) Light night frosts however quite common but temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) only few days year Snow falls every year but rarely stays ground city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulationParis has average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in) experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout year However city known intermittent abrupt heavy showers highest recorded temperature 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) 28 July 1947 lowest −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) 10 December 1879Climate data Paris (Parc Montsouris) 1981–2010 averages extremes 1872–present.