A number of faculties of three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University located Marseille, In addition Marseille has three grandes écoles, In addition two Centre de la Vieille Charité described above main museums are! École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France one of biggest contributors European Space Agency which conceived Ariane rocket family launched from French GuianaSince Middle Ages France has been major contributor scientific technological achievement Around beginning of 11th century Pope Sylvester II born Gerbert d'Aurillac reintroduced abacus armillary sphere introduced Arabic numerals clocks Northern Western EuropeUniversity of Paris founded mid-12th century still one of most important universities Western world 17th century mathematician René Descartes defined method acquisition of scientific knowledge while Blaise Pascal became famous his work probability fluid mechanics They were both key figures of Scientific revolution which blossomed Europe during this period Academy of Sciences was founded Louis XIV encourage protect spirit of French scientific research was forefront of scientific developments Europe 17th 18th centuries one of earliest academies of sciencesThe Age of Enlightenment was marked work of biologist Buffon chemist Lavoisier who discovered role of oxygen combustion while Diderot D'Alembert published Encyclopédie which aimed give access useful knowledge people knowledge that they can apply their everyday life With Industrial Revolution 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments France with scientists such Augustin Fresnel founder of modern optics Sadi Carnot who laid foundations of thermodynamics Louis Pasteur pioneer of microbiology Other eminent French scientists of 19th century have their names inscribed Eiffel TowerFamous French scientists of 20th century include mathematician physicist Henri Poincaré physicists Henri Becquerel Pierre Marie Curie remained famous their work radioactivity physicist Paul Langevin virologist Luc Montagnier co-discoverer of HIV AIDS Hand transplantation was developed 23 September 1998 Lyon team assembled from different countries around world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who shortly thereafter performed first successful double hand transplant Telesurgery was developed Jacques Marescaux his team 7 September 2001 across Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg Lindbergh Operation)face transplant was first done 27 November 2005 Dr Bernard DevauchelleTop view of ring of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Main article Administrative divisions of France. See also List of twin towns sister cities of Paris, Medieval philosophy was dominated Scholasticism until emergence of Humanism Renaissance Modern philosophy began France 17th century with philosophy of René Descartes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Descartes revitalised Western philosophy which had been declined after Greek Roman eras His Meditations First Philosophy changed primary object of philosophical thought raised some of most fundamental problems foreigners such Spinoza Leibniz Hume Berkeley KantFrans Hals painting of René Descartes facing right black coat white collar. Economic conditions political unrest Europe rest of world brought several other waves of immigrants during 20th century Greeks Italians started arriving end of 19th century first half of 20th century up 40% of city's population was of Italian origin Russians 1917 Armenians 1915 1923 Vietnamese 1920s 1954 after 1975 Corsicans during 1920s 1930s Spanish after 1936 North Africans (both Arab Berber) inter-war period Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945 pieds-noirs from former French Algeria 1962 then from Comoros 2006 was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered be of Maghrebi origin mostly from Algeria second largest group Marseille terms of single nationalities were from Comoros amounting some 45,000 peopleCurrently over one third of population of Marseille can trace their roots back Italy Marseille also has second-largest Corsican Armenian populations of France Other significant communities include Maghrebis Turks Comorians Chinese VietnameseIn 1999 several arrondissements about 40% of young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent)Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel work city of Marseille attracted better job opportunities good climate of this Mediterranean city main nationalities Romanians PolesReligion. With Clovis's conversion Catholicism 498 Frankish monarchy elective secular until then became hereditary of divine rightThe Franks embraced Christian Gallo-Roman culture ancient Gaul was eventually renamed Francia (Land of Franks) Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages except northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense where Germanic languages emerged Clovis made Paris his capital established Merovingian dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death Franks treated land purely private possession divided among their heirs so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's Paris Orléans Soissons Rheims last Merovingian kings lost power their mayors of palace (head of household) One mayor of palace Charles Martel defeated Islamic invasion of Gaul Battle of Tours (732) earned respect power within Frankish kingdoms His son Pepin Short seized crown of Francia from weakened Merovingians founded Carolingian dynasty Pepin's son Charlemagne reunited Frankish kingdoms built vast empire across Western Central EuropeProclaimed Holy Roman Emperor Pope Leo III thus establishing earnest French Government's longtime historical association with Catholic Church, Charlemagne tried revive Western Roman Empire its cultural grandeur Charlemagne's son Louis I (Emperor 814–840) kept empire united however this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death 843 under Treaty of Verdun empire was divided between Louis' three sons with East Francia going Louis German Middle Francia Lothair I West Francia Charles Bald West Francia approximated area occupied by was precursor modern FranceDuring 9th 10th centuries continually threatened Viking invasions France became very decentralised state nobility's titles lands became hereditary authority of king became more religious than secular thus was less effective constantly challenged powerful noblemen Thus was established feudalism France Over time some of king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed threat king example after Battle of Hastings 1066 William Conqueror added King of England his titles becoming both vassal (as Duke of Normandy) equal of (as king of England) king of France creating recurring tensionsLate Middle Ages (10th century–15th century), Autochrome of 114 Infantery regiment París 14 July 1917 with French flag unfurled laying stacked arms. Climate data Marignane (Aéroport Marseille Provence) 43°26'18.4N 5°12'51.9E (1981–2010 averages record highs lows 1921–present), Bal-musette style of French music dance that first became popular Paris 1870s 1880s 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls working-class neighbourhoods of city Patrons danced bourrée accompaniment of cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called musette) often vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) cafés bars of city Parisian Italian musicians who played accordion adopted style established themselves Auvergnat bars especially 19th arrondissement, romantic sounds of accordion has since become one of musical icons of city Paris became major centre jazz still attracts jazz musicians from all around world its clubs cafésParis spiritual home of gypsy jazz particular many of Parisian jazzmen who developed first half of 20th century began playing Bal-musette city Django Reinhardt rose fame Paris having moved 18th arrondissement caravan young boy performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli their Quintette du Hot Club de France 1930s 1940sImmediately after War Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home many small jazz clubs mostly found cellars because of lack of space these included Caveau des Lorientais Club Saint-Germain Rose Rouge Vieux-Colombier most famous Le Tabou They introduced Parisians music of Claude Luter Boris Vian Sydney Bechet Mezz Mezzrow Henri Salvador Most of clubs closed early 1960s musical tastes shifted toward rock rollSome of finest manouche musicians world found here playing cafés of city night Some of more notable jazz venues include New Morning Le Sunset La Chope des Puces Bouquet du Nord Several yearly festivals take place Paris including Paris Jazz Festival(fr) rock festival Rock en SeineOrchestre de Paris was established 1967On 19 December 2015 Paris other worldwide fans commemorated 100th anniversary of birth of Edith Piaf—a French cabaret singer songwriter actress who became widely regarded France's national chanteuse well being one of France's greatest international stars Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier Charles Aznavour Yves Montand Charles TrenetParis has big hip hop scene This music became popular during 1980spresence of large African Caribbean community helped its development gave voice political social status many minoritiesCinema, The port also important arrival base millions of people each year with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships With its beaches history architecture culture (24 museums 42 theatres) Marseille one of most visited cities France with 4.1 million visitors 2012 Marseille ranked 86th world business tourism events advancing from 150th spot one year before. number of congress days hosted its territory increased from 109,000 1996 almost 300,000 2011.! French territorial evolution from 985 1947The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987 when Hugh Capet Duke of France Count of Paris was crowned King of Franks His descendants—the Capetians House of Valois House of Bourbon—progressively unified country through wars dynastic inheritance into Kingdom of France which was fully declared 1190 Philip II Augustus French nobility played prominent role most Crusades order restore Christian access Holy Land French knights made up bulk of steady flow of reinforcements throughout two-hundred-year span of Crusades such fashion that Arabs uniformly referred crusaders Franj caring little whether they really came from FranceFrench Crusaders also imported French language into Levant making French base of lingua franca (litt Frankish language) of Crusader states French knights also made up majority both Hospital Temple orders latter particular held numerous properties throughout France 13th century were principal bankers French crown until Philip IV annihilated order 1307 Albigensian Crusade was launched 1209 eliminate heretical Cathars southwestern area of modern-day France end Cathars were exterminated autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into crown lands of France Later kings expanded their domain cover over half of modern continental France including most of north centre west of France Meanwhile royal authority became more more assertive centred hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility clergy commonersCharles IV Fair died without heir 1328 Under rules of Salic law crown of France could not pass woman nor could line of kingship pass through female line Accordingly crown passed Philip of Valois cousin of Charles rather than through female line Charles' nephew Edward who would soon become Edward III of England During reign of Philip of Valois French monarchy reached height of its medieval power Philip's seat throne was contested Edward III of England 1337 eve of first wave of Black Death, England France went war what would become known Hundred Years' Warexact boundaries changed greatly with time but French landholdings of English Kings remained extensive decades With charismatic leaders such Joan of Arc La Hire strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories Like rest of Europe France was struck Black Death half of 17 million population of France diedEarly modern period (15th century–1789).
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