Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3) The first book printed France Epistolae (Letters) Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza) was published Paris 1470 press established Johann Heynlin Since then Paris has been centre of French publishing industry home of some of world's best-known writers poets setting many classic works of French literature Almost all books published Paris Middle Ages were Latin rather than French Paris did not become acknowledged capital of French literature until 17th century with authors such Boileau Corneille La Fontaine Molière Racine several coming from provinces foundation of Académie française 18th century literary life of Paris revolved around cafés salons was dominated Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau Pierre de Marivaux BeaumarchaisDuring 19th century Paris was home subject some of France's greatest writers including Charles Baudelaire Stéphane Mallarmé Mérimée Alfred de Musset Marcel Proust Émile Zola Alexandre Dumas Gustave Flaubert Guy de Maupassant Honoré de Balzac Victor Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired renovation of its setting Notre-Dame de Paris Another of Victor Hugo's works Les Misérables written while he was exile outside France during Second Empire described social change political turmoil Paris early 1830s One of most popular of all French writers Jules Verne worked Theatre Lyrique Paris stock exchange while he did research his stories National Library.[citation not found]. Tour de France pelleton 9 July 2005 begin of ascend Cote de Bad Herrenalb, Ring roads of Paris, Île-de- Calanques National Park Bouches-du-Rhône one of best known protected areas of FranceFrance was one of first countries create environment ministry 1971 Although one of most industrialised countries world France ranked only 17th carbon dioxide emissions behind less populous nations such Canada or Australia This because France decided invest nuclear power following 1973 oil crisis, which now accounts 75% of its electricity production results less pollutionThe forest of Rambouillet Yvelines illustrates France's flora diversityLike all European Union state members France agreed cut carbon emissions least 20% of 1990 levels year 2020, compared United States plan reduce emissions 4% of 1990 levelsof 2009 French carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of China'scountry was set impose carbon tax 2009 17 euros per tonne of carbon emitted, which would have raised 4 billion euros of revenue annually However plan was abandoned due fears of burdening French businessesForests account 28% of France's land area, some of most diverse Europe comprising more than 140 species of trees There nine national parks 46 natural parks France, with government planning convert 20% of its Exclusive Economic Zone into Marine Protected Area 2020regional nature park (French parc naturel régional or PNR) public establishment France between local authorities French national government covering inhabited rural area of outstanding beauty order protect scenery heritage well setting up sustainable economic development areaPNR sets goals guidelines managed human habitation sustainable economic development protection of natural environment based each park's unique landscape heritage parks foster ecological research programmes public education natural sciencesof 2014 there 49 PNRs FranceAccording 2016 Environmental Performance Index conducted Yale Columbia France was tenth-most environmentally-conscious country worldAdministrative divisions. Main article French cuisine Ambox current red.svg Main article Transport Paris France highly urbanized country with its largest cities (in terms of metropolitan area population 2013) being Paris (12,405,426 inh.) Lyon (2,237,676) Marseille (1,734,277) Toulouse (1,291,517) Bordeaux (1,178,335) Lille (1,175,828) Nice (1,004,826) Nantes (908,815) Strasbourg (773,447) Rennes (700,675) (Note There significant differences between metropolitan population figures just cited those following table which only include core population) Rural flight was perennial political issue throughout most of 20th centuryFunctional urban areas. Animated map of growth decline of French colonial empireFrance had colonial possessions various forms since beginning of 17th century but 19th 20th centuries its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly became second largest world behind British Empire Including metropolitan France total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres 1920s 1930s 8.6% of world's land Known Belle Époque turn of century was period characterised optimism regional peace economic prosperity technological scientific cultural innovations 1905 state secularism was officially establishedThe French conquest of Morocco was one of longest toughest annals of European colonialism French historian Daniel Rivet puts casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted French occupation 100,000Contemporary period (1914–present). Fernand Braudel remarked Historians of Lyon not sufficiently aware of bi-polarity between Paris Lyon which constant structure French development...from late Middle Ages Industrial Revolution late 15th century fairs introduced Italian merchants made Lyon economic counting house of France Even Bourse (treasury) built 1749 resembled public bazaar where accounts were settled open air When international banking moved Genoa then Amsterdam Lyon remained banking centre of FranceDuring Renaissance city's development was driven silk trade which strengthened its ties Italy Italian influence Lyon's architecture still visible among historic buildings later 1400s 1500s Lyon was also key centre of literary activity book publishing both of French writers (such Maurice Scève Antoine Heroet Louise Labé) of Italians exile (such Luigi Alamanni Gian Giorgio Trissino)Lyon under siege 1793. Painting of Napoleon 1806 standing with hand vest attended staff Imperial guard regiment, Louis XIV sun king was absolute monarch of France made France leading European powerThe monarchy reached its peak during 17th century reign of Louis XIV turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers Palace of Versailles Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged Remembered his numerous wars he made France leading European power France became most populous country Europe had tremendous influence over European politics economy culture French became most-used language diplomacy science literature international affairs remained so until 20th century France obtained many overseas possessions Americas Africa Asia Louis XIV also revoked Edict of Nantes forcing thousands of Huguenots into exileUnder Louis XV Louis XIV's great-grandson France lost New France most of its Indian possessions after its defeat Seven Years' War which ended 1763 Its European territory kept growing however with notable acquisitions such Lorraine (1766) Corsica (1770) unpopular king Louis XV's weak rule his ill-advised financial political military decisions – well debauchery of his court– discredited monarchy which arguably paved way French Revolution 15 years after his deathLouis XVI Louis XV's grandson actively supported Americans who were seeking their independence from Great Britain (realised Treaty of Paris (1783)) financial crisis that followed France's involvement American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors French Revolution Much of Enlightenment occurred French intellectual circles major scientific breakthroughs inventions such discovery of oxygen (1778) first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783) were achieved French scientists French explorers such Bougainville Lapérouse took part voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around globe Enlightenment philosophy which reason advocated primary source legitimacy authority undermined power of support monarchy helped pave way French RevolutionRevolutionary France (1789–1799), Le Penseur Auguste Rodin (1902) Musée Rodin ParisIn second part of 19th century France's influence over painting became even more important with development of new styles of painting such Impressionism Symbolism most famous impressionist painters of period were Camille Pissarro Édouard Manet Edgar Degas Claude Monet Auguste Renoirsecond generation of impressionist-style painters Paul Cézanne Paul Gauguin Toulouse-Lautrec Georges Seurat were also avant-garde of artistic evolutions, well fauvist artists Henri Matisse André Derain Maurice de VlaminckAt beginning of 20th century Cubism was developed Georges Braque Spanish painter Pablo Picasso living Paris Other foreign artists also settled worked or near Paris such Vincent van Gogh Marc Chagall Amedeo Modigliani Wassily KandinskyMany museums France entirely or partly devoted sculptures painting works huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during 18th century displayed state-owned Musée du Louvre such Mona Lisa also known La Joconde While Louvre Palace has been long time museum Musée d'Orsay was inaugurated 1986 old railway station Gare d'Orsay major reorganisation of national art collections gather French paintings from second part of 19th century (mainly Impressionism Fauvism movements)Modern works presented Musée National d'Art Moderne which moved 1976 Centre Georges Pompidou These three state-owned museums welcome close 17 million people year Other national museums hosting paintings include Grand Palais (1.3 million visitors 2008) but there also many museums owned cities most visited being Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (0.8 million entries 2008) which hosts contemporary works Outside Paris all large cities have Museum of Fine Arts with section dedicated European French painting Some of finest collections Lyon Lille Rouen Dijon Rennes GrenobleArchitecture; Main article List of French inventions discoveries, Main article Climate of Paris, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital Paris stone building with slate dome In 20th century Paris literary community was dominated figures such Colette André Gide François Mauriac André Malraux Albert Camus and after World War II Simone de Beauvoir Jean-Paul Sartre Between wars was home of many important expatriate writers including Ernest Hemingway Samuel Beckett and 1970s Milan Kundera winner of 2014 Nobel Prize Literature Patrick Modiano (who lives Paris) based most of his literary work depiction of city during World War II 1960s–1970sParis city of books bookstores 1970s 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found Paris almost all Left Bank 5th 6th 7th arrondissements Since that time because of high prices some publishers have moved out less expensive areas also city of small bookstores There about 150 bookstores 5th arrondissement alone plus another 250 book stalls along Seine Small Paris bookstores protected against competition from discount booksellers French law books even e-books cannot be discounted more than five percent below their publisher's cover priceMusic.
New York Business Directory | Los Angeles Business Directory | London Business Directory | US Business Directory | Paris Business Directory | Chicago Business Directory | Dallas Business Directory | Milan Business Directory | Philadelphia Business Directory | Houston Business Directory | Toronto Business Directory | Miami Business Directory | Washington, D.C. Business Directory | Atlanta Business Directory | Singapore Business Directory | Boston, Massachusett Business Directory |