Provence- Geographically Lyon's two main rivers Saône Rhône divide arrondissements into three groups; La Martiniere Lyon Main articles Kingdom of France Capetian dynasty Valois dynasty Bourbon dynasty, Fernand Braudel remarked Historians of Lyon not sufficiently aware of bi-polarity between Paris Lyon which constant structure French development...from late Middle Ages Industrial Revolution late 15th century fairs introduced Italian merchants made Lyon economic counting house of France Even Bourse (treasury) built 1749 resembled public bazaar where accounts were settled open air When international banking moved Genoa then Amsterdam Lyon remained banking centre of FranceDuring Renaissance city's development was driven silk trade which strengthened its ties Italy Italian influence Lyon's architecture still visible among historic buildings later 1400s 1500s Lyon was also key centre of literary activity book publishing both of French writers (such Maurice Scève Antoine Heroet Louise Labé) of Italians exile (such Luigi Alamanni Gian Giorgio Trissino)Lyon under siege 1793. France part of monetary union Eurozone (dark blue) of European Single MarketA member of Group of Seven (formerly Group of Eight) leading industrialised countries of 2014 ranked world's ninth largest EU's second largest economy purchasing power parity With 31 of 500 biggest companies world 2015 France ranks fourth Fortune Global 500 ahead of Germany UK France joined 11 other EU members launch euro 1999 with euro coins banknotes completely replacing French franc (₣) 2002France has mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise with substantial state enterprise government intervention government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors with majority ownership of railway electricity aircraft nuclear power telecommunications.[not citation given] has been relaxing its control over these sectors since early 1990s.[not citation given] government slowly corporatising state sector selling off holdings France Télécom Air France well insurance banking defence industries.[not citation given] France has important aerospace industry led European consortium Airbus has its own national spaceport Centre Spatial GuyanaisComposition of French economy (GDP) 2016 expenditure type; Chanel's headquarters storefront window Place Vendôme Paris with awning, See also Marseille-Provence 2013 The west of France has strictly oceanic climate (Cfb) – extends from Flanders Basque Country coastal strip several tens of kilometres wide narrower north south but wider Brittany which almost entirely this climate zoneThe climate of Southwest also oceanic but warmerThe climate of Northwest oceanic but cooler windierAway from coast climate oceanic throughout but its characteristics change somewhat Paris sedimentary basin and more so basins protected mountain chains show stronger seasonal temperature variability less rainfall during autumn winter Therefore most of territory has semi-oceanic climate forms transition zone between strictly oceanic climate near coasts other climate zonesThe semi-continental climate (Dfa) of north centre-east (Alsace plains of Saône middle part of Rhône Dauphiné Auvergne Savoy)The Mediterranean lower Rhône valley experience Mediterranean climate (Csa Csb) due effect of mountain chains isolating them from rest of country resulting Mistral Tramontane windsThe mountain (or alpine) climates (Dfc ET) confined Alps Pyrenees summits of Massif Central Jura VosgesIn overseas regions there three broad types of climate. Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (located Villeurbanne), In Antarctic Adélie LandFrance has land borders with Brazil Suriname via French Guiana with Kingdom of Netherlands through French portion of Saint MartinMetropolitan France covers 551,500 square kilometres (212,935 sq mi), largest among European Union members France's total land area with its overseas departments territories (excluding Adélie Land) 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) 0.45% of total land area Earth France possesses wide variety of landscapes from coastal plains north west mountain ranges of Alps southeast Massif Central south central Pyrenees southwestDue its numerous overseas departments territories scattered across planet France possesses second-largest Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) world covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 mi2) just behind EEZ of United States (11,351,000 km2 or 4,383,000 mi2) but ahead of EEZ of Australia (8,148,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2) Its EEZ covers approximately 8% of total surface of all EEZs of worldGeology topography hydrography, world map of French speaking countries. ComtéCentre-Val de Loire There 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths routes Paris These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic physical barriers such kerb) bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted painted path road) Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes free be used cyclists with protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles Cyclists have also been given right ride both directions certain one-way streets Paris offers bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented short medium distances including one way tripsElectricity. Église Saint-Nizier Gothic church from 15th century having doorway carved 16th century Philibert Delorme, Motorways around Marseille, Main article Lugdunum France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power highest percentage world Photo of Cattenom Nuclear Power PlantÉlectricité de France (EDF) main electricity generation distribution company France also one of world's largest producers of electricity 2003 produced 22% of European Union's electricity, primarily from nuclear power France smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among G8 due its heavy investment nuclear powerof 2016 72% of electricity produced France generated 58 nuclear power plantsthis context renewable energies having difficulty taking off France also uses hydroelectric dams produce electricity such Eguzon dam Étang de Soulcem Lac de VouglansTransport.
Main article Cinema of France The Maison Carrée was temple of Gallo-Roman city of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes) one of best-preserved vestiges of Roman EmpireIn 600 BC Ionian Greeks originating from Phocaea founded colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille) shores of Mediterranean Sea This makes France's oldest city same time some Gallic Celtic tribes penetrated parts of current territory of France this occupation spread rest of France between 5th 3rd century BCThe Roman-era Theatre of Autun (Latin Augustodunum) Saône-et-Loire one of main historical sites of BurgundyThe concept of Gaul emerged that time corresponds territories of Celtic settlement ranging between Rhine Atlantic Ocean Pyrenees Mediterranean borders of modern France roughly same those of ancient Gaul which was inhabited Celtic Gauls Gaul was then prosperous country of which southernmost part was heavily subject Greek Roman cultural economic influencesAround 125 BC south of Gaul was conquered Romans who called this region Provincia Nostra (Our Province) which over time evolved into name Provence French Julius Caesar conquered remainder of Gaul overcame revolt carried out Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix 52 BC Gaul was divided Augustus into Roman provinces Many cities were founded during Gallo-Roman period including Lugdunum (present-day Lyon) which considered capital of Gauls These cities were built traditional Roman style with forum theatre circus amphitheatre thermal baths Gauls mixed with Roman settlers eventually adopted Roman culture Roman speech (Latin from which French language evolved) Roman polytheism merged with Gallic paganism into same syncretismFrom 250s 280s AD Roman Gaul suffered serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked several occasions barbarians Nevertheless situation improved first half of 4th century which was period of revival prosperity Roman Gaul312 Emperor Constantin I converted Christianity Subsequently Christians who had been persecuted until then increased rapidly across entire Roman Empire But from beginning of 5th century Barbarian Invasions resumed, Germanic tribes such Vandals Suebi Alans crossed Rhine settled Gaul Spain other parts of collapsing Roman EmpireEarly Middle Ages (5th century–10th century). Nuclear power plant Cattenom France four large cooling towers expelling white water vapor against blue sky, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility GrenobleFrance was fourth country achieve nuclear capability has third largest nuclear weapons arsenal world also leader civilian nuclear technology France was third nation after former USSR United States launch its own space satellite remains biggest contributor European Space Agency (ESA)European Airbus formed from French group Aérospatiale along with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) designs develops civil military aircraft well communications systems missiles space rockets helicopters satellites related systems France also hosts major international research instruments such European Synchrotron Radiation Facility or Institut Laue–Langevin remains major member of CERN also owns Minatec Europe's leading nanotechnology research centerSNCF French national railroad company has developed TGV high speed train which holds series of world speed records TGV has been fastest wheeled train commercial use since reaching speed of 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) 3 April 2007 Western Europe now serviced network of TGV linesAs of 2018 69 French people have been awarded Nobel Prize 12 have received Fields MedalDemographics. Outside central Marseille The Old Port or Vieux-Port main harbour marina of city guarded two massive forts (Fort Saint-Nicolas Fort Saint-Jean) one of main places eat city Dozens of cafés line waterfront Quai des Belges end of harbour site of daily fish market Much of northern quayside area was rebuilt architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction Nazis 1943The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) baroque building dating from 17th centuryThe Centre Bourse adjacent Rue St Ferreol district (including Rue de Rome Rue Paradis) main shopping area central MarseilleThe Porte d'Aix triumphal arch commemorating French victories Spanish ExpeditionThe Hôtel-Dieu former hospital Le Panier transformed into InterContinental hotel 2013La Vieille Charité Le Panier architecturally significant building designed Puget brothers central baroque chapel situated courtyard lined with arcaded galleries Originally built alms house now home archeological museum gallery of African Asian art well bookshops café also houses Marseille International Poetry CentreThe Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure or La Major founded 4th century enlarged 11th century completely rebuilt second half of 19th century architects Léon Vaudoyer Henri-Jacques Espérandieu present day cathedral gigantic edifice Romano-Byzantine style romanesque transept choir altar survive from older medieval cathedral spared from complete destruction only result of public protests timeThe 12th-century parish church of Saint-Laurent adjoining 17th-century chapel of Sainte-Catherine quayside near CathedralThe Abbey of Saint-Victor one of oldest places of Christian worship Europe Its 5th-century crypt catacombs occupy site of Hellenic burial ground later used Christian martyrs venerated ever since Continuing medieval tradition, every year Candlemas Black Madonna from crypt carried procession along Rue Sainte blessing from archbishop followed mass distribution of navettes green votive candlesMuseums.