France uses civil legal system that is law arises primarily from written statutes judges not make law but merely interpret (though amount of judicial interpretation certain areas makes equivalent case law) Basic principles of rule of law were laid Napoleonic Code (which was turn largely based royal law codified under Louis XIV) agreement with principles of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental society Guy Canivet first president of Court of Cassation wrote about management of prisons Freedom rule its restriction exception any restriction of Freedom must be provided Law must follow principles of necessity proportionality That is Law should lay out prohibitions only if they needed if inconveniences caused this restriction do not exceed inconveniences that prohibition supposed remedycolor drawing of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen from 1789. Église Saint-Just (16th 18th century) Classical church See also List of railway stations Paris. Église Saint-Paul Romanesque (12th 13th century) Gothic (15th–16th century) church, Marseille's main cultural attraction was since its creation end of 18th century until late 1970s Opéra Located near Old Port Canebière very heart of city its architectural style was comparable classical trend found other opera houses built same time Lyon Bordeaux 1919 fire almost completely destroyed house leaving only stone colonnade peristyle from original façadeclassical façade was restored opera house reconstructed predominantly Art Deco style result of major competition Currently Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each yearSince 1972 Ballet national de Marseille has performed opera house its director from its foundation 1998 was Roland PetitPopular events festivals, The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced first permanent photograph polished pewter plate Paris 1825 1839 after death of Niépce Louis Daguerre patented Daguerrotype which became most common form of photography until 1860s work of Étienne-Jules Marey 1880s contributed considerably development of modern photography Photography came occupy central role Parisian Surrealist activity works of Man Ray Maurice Tabard Numerous photographers achieved renown their photography of Paris including Eugène Atget noted his depictions of street scenes Robert Doisneau noted his playful pictures of people market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of romantic vision of Paris) Marcel Bovis noted his night scenes others such Jacques-Henri Lartigue Cartier-Bresson Poster art also became important art form Paris late nineteenth century through work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Jules Chéret Eugène Grasset Adolphe Willette Pierre Bonnard Georges de Feure Henri-Gabriel Ibels Gavarni Alphonse MuchaMuseums. Marseille tarot card The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital teaching hospital Paris one of Europe's largest hospitalsThe French health care system one of universal health care largely financed government national health insurance its 2000 assessment of world health care systems World Health Organization found that France provided close best overall health care worldFrench healthcare system was ranked first worldwide World Health Organization 19972011 France spent 11.6% of GDP health care or US$4,086 per capita, figure much higher than average spent countries Europe but less than United States Approximately 77% of health expenditures covered government funded agenciesCare generally free people affected chronic diseases (affections de longues durées) such cancer AIDS or cystic fibrosis Average life expectancy birth 78 years men 85 years women one of highest of European Union World There 3.22 physicians every 1000 inhabitants France, average health care spending per capita was US$4,719 2008of 2007 approximately 140,000 inhabitants (0.4%) of France living with HIV/AIDSEven if French have reputation of being one of thinnest people developed countries, France—like other rich countries—faces increasing recent epidemic of obesity due mostly replacement French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine junk foodFrench obesity rate still far below that of United States (the obesity rate France same United States had 1970s), still lowest of Europe Authorities now regard obesity one of main public health issues fight fiercely Rates of childhood obesity slowing France while continuing grow other countriesEducation; Hôtel national des Invalides Main article Music of France Sainte-Geneviève Library Napoleon Emperor of French his Grande Armée built vast Empire across Europe His conquests spread French revolutionary ideals across much of Europe such popular sovereignty legal equality republicanism administrative reorganization while his legal reforms had major impact worldwide Nationalism especially Germany emerged reaction against himNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of Republic 1799 becoming First Consul later Emperor of French Empire (1804–1814 1815) continuation of wars sparked European monarchies against French Republic changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars Napoleon's Empire His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz Members of Bonaparte family were appointed monarchs some of newly established kingdoms These victories led worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals reforms such Metric system Napoleonic Code Declaration of Rights of Man After catastrophic Russian campaign ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule Napoleon was defeated Bourbon monarchy restored About million Frenchmen died during Napoleonic Wars After his brief return from exile Napoleon was finally defeated 1815 Battle of Waterloo monarchy was re-established (1815–1830) with new constitutional limitationsThe discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown July Revolution of 1830 which established constitutional July Monarchy that year French troops conquered Algeria establishing first colonial presence Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt 1798 According historian Ben Kiernan French conquest pacification of Algeria from 1830 until early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people French losses from 1831–51 were 92,329 dead hospital only 3,336 killed actionIn 1848 general unrest led February Revolution end of July Monarchy abolition of slavery male universal suffrage both briefly enacted during French Revolution were re-enacted 1848 1852 president of French Republic Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon I's nephew was proclaimed emperor of second Empire Napoleon III He multiplied French interventions abroad especially Crimea Mexico Italy which resulted annexation of duchy of Savoy county of Nice then part of Kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III was unseated following defeat Franco-Prussian War of 1870 his regime was replaced Third Republicanimated gif of French colonial territory world map. Centre d'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation They take place three main sites Palais du Pharo Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot) World Trade Center2012 Marseille hosted World Water Forum Several urban projects have been developed make Marseille attractive Thus new parks museums public spaces real estate projects aim improve city's quality of life (Parc du 26e Centenaire Old Port of Marseille, numerous places Euroméditerranée) attract firms people Marseille municipality acts develop Marseille regional nexus entertainment south of France with high concentration of museums cinemas theatres clubs bars restaurants fashion shops hotels art galleriesEmployment.
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