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To west of Saône fifth arrondissement covers old city (Vieux Lyon) Fourvière hill plateau beyond 9th immediately north stretches from Gorge de Loup through Vaise neighbouring suburbs of Écully Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or Collonges-au-Mont-d'OrBetween two rivers Presqu'île second first fourth arrondissements second includes most of city centre including Bellecour Perrache railway station reaches far confluence of two rivers first directly north of second covers part of city centre (including Hôtel de Ville) slopes of La Croix-Rousse north of Boulevard fourth arrondissement which covers Plateau of La Croix-Rousse up its boundary with commune of Caluire-et-CuireTo east of Rhône third sixth seventh eighth arrondissementsMayors. Seule Paris est digne de Rome seule Rome est digne de Paris (in French) Marseille has been setting many films mostly produced France or Hollywood Taxi 4 was filmed Marseille (2007). The earliest French literature dates from Middle Ages when what now known modern France did not have single uniform language There were several languages dialects writers used their own spelling grammar Some authors of French mediaeval texts unknown such Tristan Iseult Lancelot-Grail Other authors known example Chrétien de Troyes Duke William IX of Aquitaine who wrote OccitanMuch medieval French poetry literature were inspired legends of Matter of France such Song of Roland various chansons de geste Roman de Renart written 1175 Perrout de Saint Cloude tells story of mediaeval character Reynard ('the Fox') another example of early French writing important 16th-century writer was François Rabelais whose novel Gargantua Pantagruel has remained famous appreciated until now Michel de Montaigne was other major figure of French literature during that century His most famous work Essais created literary genre of essay French poetry during that century was embodied Pierre de Ronsard Joachim du Bellay Both writers founded La Pléiade literary movementDuring 17th century Madame de La Fayette published anonymously La Princesse de Clèves novel that considered be one of very first psychological novels of all times Jean de La Fontaine one of most famous fabulists of that time he wrote hundreds of fables some being far more famous than others such Ant Grasshopper Generations of French pupils had learn his fables that were seen helping teaching wisdom common sense young people Some of his verses have entered popular language become proverbs such À l'œuvre connaît l'artisan.[A workman known his chips]see description, Marseille has hot Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with mild humid winters warm hot mostly dry summers December January February coldest months averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during day 4 °C (39 °F) night July August hottest months averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during day 19 °C (66 °F) night Marignane airport (35 km (22 mi) from Marseille) but city near sea average high temperature 27 °C (81 °F) JulyMarseille officially sunniest major city France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while average sunshine France around 1,950 hours also driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually especially thanks Mistral cold dry wind originating Rhône Valley that occurs mostly winter spring which generally brings clear skies sunny weather region Less frequent Sirocco hot sand-bearing wind coming from Sahara Desert Snowfalls infrequent over 50% of years do not experience single snowfallThe hottest temperature was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) 26 July 1983 during great heat wave lowest temperature was −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) 13 February 1929 during strong cold waveClimate data Marseille (Longchamp observatory) 43°18'21.2N 5°23'37.1E (1981–2003 averages record highs lows 1868–2003). Institut supérieur européen de gestion group, The main attractions outside city centre include, Geographically Lyon's two main rivers Saône Rhône divide arrondissements into three groups. Combined Arms School, The Roman Catholic Basilique du Sacré-Cœur Frankish expansion from 481 843/870At end of Antiquity period ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms remaining Gallo-Roman territory known Kingdom of Syagrius Simultaneously Celtic Britons fleeing Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain settled western part of Armorica result Armorican peninsula was renamed Brittany Celtic culture was revived independent petty kingdoms arose this regionThe pagan Franks from whom ancient name of Francie was derived originally settled north part of Gaul but under Clovis I conquered most of other kingdoms northern central Gaul 498 Clovis I was first Germanic conqueror after fall of Roman Empire convert Catholic Christianity rather than Arianism thus France was given title Eldest daughter of Church (French La fille aînée de l'Église) papacy, French kings would be called the Most Christian Kings of France (Rex Christianissimus)painting of Clovis I conversion Catholicism 498 king being baptized tub cathedral surrounded bishop monks. Paris hosts one of largest science museums Europe Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie La Villette attracted 2.4 million visitors 2017National Museum of Natural History Left Bank attracted 1.76 million visitors 2016 famous its dinosaur artefacts mineral collections its Gallery of Evolution military history of France from Middle Ages World War II vividly presented displays Musée de l'Armée Les Invalides near tomb of Napoleon addition national museums run French Ministry of Culture City of Paris operates 14 museums including Carnavalet Museum history of Paris Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Palais de Tokyo House of Victor Hugo House of Balzac Catacombs of Paris There also notable private museums Contemporary Art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation designed architect Frank Gehry opened October 2014 Bois de Boulogne received 1.4 million visitors 2017Theatre; Tour Eiffel sunrise from trocadero Theatre traditionally has occupied large place Parisian culture many of its most popular actors today also stars of French television oldest most famous Paris theatre Comédie-Française founded 1680 Run French government performs mostly French classics Salle Richelieu Palais-Royal 2 rue de Richelieu next Louvre of Other famous theatres include Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe next Luxembourg Gardens also state institution theatrical landmark Théâtre Mogador Théâtre de la Gaîté-MontparnasseThe music hall cabaret famous Paris institutions Moulin Rouge was opened 1889 was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill its roof became birthplace of dance known French Cancan helped make famous singers Mistinguett Édith Piaf painter Toulouse-Lautrec who made posters venue 1911 dance hall Olympia Paris invented grand staircase settling its shows competing with its great rival Folies Bergère Its stars 1920s included American singer dancer Josephine Baker Later Olympia Paris presented Dalida Edith Piaf Marlene Dietrich Miles Davis Judy Garland Grateful Dead Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers including Mistinguett Maurice Chevalier Tino Rossi Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido Champs-Élysées opened 1946 Crazy Horse Saloon featuring strip-tease dance magic opened 1951 half dozen music halls exist today Paris attended mostly visitors cityLiterature, Maison Carrée temple Nemausus Corinthian columns portico Islam (5.6%).
Marine (blue) regional (green) national (red) parks France, The population of Paris today lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million 1921 principal reasons were significant decline household size dramatic migration of residents suburbs between 1962 1975 Factors migration included de-industrialisation high rent gentrification of many inner quarters transformation of living space into offices greater affluence among working families city's population loss came end 21st century population estimate of July 2004 showed population increase first time since 1954 population reached 2,234,000 2009According Eurostat EU statistical agency 2012 Commune of Paris was most densely populated city European Union with 21,616 people per square kilometre within city limits (the NUTS-3 statistical area) ahead of Inner London West which had 10,374 people per square kilometre According same census three departments bordering Paris Hauts-de-Seine Seine-Saint-Denis Val-de-Marne had population densities of over 10,000 people per square kilometre ranking among 10 most densely populated areas of EUMigration! The Château de Chenonceau nowadays part of UNESCO World Heritage Site was built early 16th centuryThe French Renaissance saw spectacular cultural development first standardisation of French language which would become official language of France language of Europe's aristocracy also saw long set of wars known Italian Wars between France Spain Holy Roman Empire Refusing accept Spanish-Portuguese claims of supremacy New World King Francis I ordered his privateers sail against his Spanish rival King Charles V who ruled Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 until 1556 Emperor's realm extended from Spain parts of what now Italy Austria Germany Belgium Netherlands French explorers such Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain claimed lands Americas France paving way expansion of First French colonial empire rise of Protestantism Europe led France civil war known French Wars of Religion where most notorious incident thousands of Huguenots were murdered St Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572Wars of Religion were ended Henry IV's Edict of Nantes which granted some freedom of religion HuguenotsUnder Louis XIII energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted centralisation of state reinforced royal power disarming domestic power holders 1620s He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords denounced use of private violence (dueling carrying weapons maintaining private army) end of 1620s Richelieu established the royal monopoly of force doctrine France Spain fought 24-year war (the Franco-Spanish War) until signing of Treaty of Pyrenees 1659 war cost France 300,000 casualties During Louis XIV's minority regency of Queen Anne Cardinal Mazarin period of trouble known Fronde occurred France This rebellion was driven great feudal lords sovereign courts reaction rise of royal absolute power FranceLouis XIV of France standing plate armor blue sash facing left holding baton, Jean-Paul Sartre Since Middle Ages residents of region have spoken several dialects of Franco-Provençal Lyonnais dialect was replaced French language importance of city grew However some frenchified Franco-Provençal words can also be heard French of Lyonnais who call their little boys girls gones fenottes exampleThe Lumière brothers pioneered cinema town 1895 Institut Lumière built Auguste Lumiere's house fascinating piece of architecture its own right holds many of their first inventions other early cinematic photographic artefacts8 December each year marked Festival of Lights (la Fête des lumières) celebration of thanks Virgin Mary who purportedly saved city from deadly plague Middle Ages During event local population places candles (lumignons) their windows city of Lyon organises impressive large-scale light shows onto sides of important Lyonnais monuments such mediaeval Cathédrale St-JeanThe church of Saint Francis of Sales famous its large unaltered Cavaillé-Coll pipe organ attracting audiences from around worldThe Opéra Nouvel (New Opera House) home of Opéra National de Lyon original opera house was re-designed distinguished French architect Jean Nouvel between 1985 1993 named after himLyon also French capital of trompe l'œil walls very ancient tradition Many be seen around city This old tradition now finding contemporary expression example art of Guillaume BottazziThe Brothers of Sacred Heart Roman Catholic congregation that operates schools Europe North America was founded Lyon 1821The African Museum of Lyon one of oldest museums situated LyonThe Museum of Resistance Deportation looks various individuals prominent Resistance movement World War II building strongly linked Klaus Barbie Lyon sees itself centre of French resistance many members were shot Place Bellecour town centre exhibition largely series of mini-biographies of those involvedThe unusual project Lyon Dubai City reproduction of some districts of Lyon Dubai major point tourism LyonLyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programmeUNESCO World Heritage Site.