Pays de, A relief map of Metropolitan France showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitantsPanorama of Mont Blanc mountain range above gray clouds under blue sky, Hauts-de-France Place des Vosges. Map of 25 largest urban units population ESDES Business School Most French rulers since Middle Ages made point of leaving their mark city that contrary many other of world's capitals has never been destroyed catastrophe or war modernising its infrastructure through centuries Paris has preserved even its earliest history its street mapits origin before Middle Ages city was composed around several islands sandbanks bend of Seine of those two remain today île Saint-Louis île de la Cité third one 1827 artificially created île aux CygnesModern Paris owes much of its downtown plan architectural harmony Napoleon III his Prefect of Seine Baron Haussmann Between 1853 1870 they rebuilt city centre created wide downtown boulevards squares where boulevards intersected imposed standard facades along boulevards required that facades be built of distinctive cream-grey Paris stone They also built major parks around city centrehigh residential population of its city centre also makes much different from most other western major citiesParis's urbanism laws have been under strict control since early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment building height building distribution concerned recent developments 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised 50 m (160 ft) central areas 180 metres (590 ft) some of Paris's peripheral quarters yet some of city's more central quarters even older building-height laws still remain effect210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held La Défense quarter Tour First tower Courbevoie since its 2011 constructionParisian examples of European architecture date back more than millennium including Romanesque church of Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163) early Gothic Architecture of Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144) Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345) Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248) Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) Les Invalides (1670–1708) 19th century produced neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842) Palais Garnier Opera House (1875) neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919) exuberant Belle Époque modernism of Eiffel Tower (1889) Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include Centre Georges Pompidou Richard Rogers Renzo Piano (1977) Louvre Pyramid I M Pei (1989) Contemporary architecture includes Musée du quad Branly Jean Nouvel (2006) contemporary art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation Frank Gehry (2014)., new Tribunal de Justice Renzo Piano (2018)Housing. Further information Lyon Metro Lyon tramway Trolleybuses Lyon Buses Lyon Transport Rhône-Alpes TER Rhône Alpes The basic principles that French Republic must respect found 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of CitizenFrench law divided into two principal areas private law public law Private law includes particular civil law criminal law Public law includes particular administrative law constitutional law However practical terms French law comprises three principal areas of law civil law criminal law administrative law Criminal laws can only address future not past (criminal ex post facto laws prohibited) While administrative law often subcategory of civil law many countries completely separated France each body of law headed specific supreme court ordinary courts (which handle criminal civil litigation) headed Court of Cassation administrative courts headed Council of StateTo be applicable every law must be officially published Journal officiel de la République françaiseFrance does not recognise religious law motivation enactment of prohibitions France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished 1791) However offences against public decency (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or disturbing public order (trouble à l'ordre public) have been used repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution Since 1999 civil unions homosexual couples permitted since May 2013 same-sex marriage LGBT adoption legal France Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech press old 1881 Some consider however that hate speech laws France too broad or severe damage freedom of speech France has laws against racism antisemitism Since 1990 Gayssot Act prohibits Holocaust denialFreedom of religion constitutionally guaranteed 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen 1905 French law Separation of Churches State basis laïcité (state secularism) state does not formally recognize any religion except Alsace-Moselle Nonetheless does recognize religious associations Parliament has listed many religious movements dangerous cults since 1995 has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols schools since 2004 2010 banned wearing of face-covering Islamic veils public human rights groups such Amnesty International Human Rights Watch described law discriminatory towards Muslims However supported most of populationForeign relations. Main article Tourism France The Parisii sub-tribe of Celtic Senones inhabited Paris area from around middle of 3rd century BC One of area's major north–south trade routes crossed Seine île de la Cité this meeting place of land water trade routes gradually became important trading centreParisii traded with many river towns (some far away Iberian Peninsula) minted their own coins that purposeGold coins minted Parisii (1st century BC). Medieval philosophy was dominated Scholasticism until emergence of Humanism Renaissance Modern philosophy began France 17th century with philosophy of René Descartes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Descartes revitalised Western philosophy which had been declined after Greek Roman eras His Meditations First Philosophy changed primary object of philosophical thought raised some of most fundamental problems foreigners such Spinoza Leibniz Hume Berkeley KantFrans Hals painting of René Descartes facing right black coat white collar. A Palme d'Or from Cannes Film Festival one of Big Three film festivals alongside Venice Film Festival Berlin International Film FestivalFrance has historical strong links with cinema with two Frenchmen Auguste Louis Lumière (known Lumière Brothers) having created cinema 1895 Several important cinematic movements including late 1950s 1960s Nouvelle Vague began country noted having strong film industry due part protections afforded French government France remains leader filmmaking of 2015 producing more films than any other European countrynation also hosts Cannes Festival one of most important famous film festivals worldApart from its strong innovative film tradition France has also been gathering spot artists from across Europe world this reason French cinema sometimes intertwined with cinema of foreign nations Directors from nations such Poland (Roman Polanski Krzysztof Kieślowski Andrzej Żuławski) Argentina (Gaspar Noé Edgardo Cozarinsky) Russia (Alexandre Alexeieff Anatole Litvak) Austria (Michael Haneke) Georgia (Géla Babluani Otar Iosseliani) prominent ranks of French cinema Conversely French directors have had prolific influential careers other countries such Luc Besson Jacques Tourneur or Francis Veber United StatesAlthough French film market dominated Hollywood France only nation world where American films make up smallest share of total film revenues 50% compared with 77% Germany 69% Japan French films account 35% of total film revenues of France which highest percentage of national film revenues developed world outside United States compared 14% Spain 8% UK France 2013 2nd exporter of films world after United StatesUntil recently France had centuries been cultural center of world, although its dominant position has been surpassed United States Subsequently France takes steps protecting promoting its culture becoming leading advocate of cultural exceptionnation succeeded convincing all EU members refuse include culture audiovisuals list of liberalised sectors of WTO 1993 Moreover this decision was confirmed voting UNESCO 2005 principle of cultural exception won overwhelming victory 198 countries voted it only 2 countries U.S Israel voted against itFashion. A map of arrondissements of Paris, No religion (39.6%), The Region of Île de France including Paris its surrounding communities governed Regional Council which has its headquarters 7th arrondissement of Paris composed of 209 members representing different communes within region 15 December 2015 list of candidates of Union of Right coalition of centrist right-wing parties led Valérie Pécresse narrowly won regional election defeating coalition of Socialists ecologists Socialists had governed region seventeen years regional council has 121 members from Union of Right 66 from Union of Left 22 from extreme right National FrontNational government.
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