Lyon has humid subtropical climate (Cfa) albeit having some characteristics of oceanic climate (Cfb) mean temperature Lyon coldest month 3.2 °C (37.8 °F) January warmest month July 22 °C (71.6 °F) hence maintaining its subtropical classification Precipitation adequate year-round average of 830 mm (32.7 in) but winter months driest highest recorded temperature 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) 13 August 2003 while lowest recorded temperature −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) 22 December 1938Administration, The Château de Chenonceau nowadays part of UNESCO World Heritage Site was built early 16th centuryThe French Renaissance saw spectacular cultural development first standardisation of French language which would become official language of France language of Europe's aristocracy also saw long set of wars known Italian Wars between France Spain Holy Roman Empire Refusing accept Spanish-Portuguese claims of supremacy New World King Francis I ordered his privateers sail against his Spanish rival King Charles V who ruled Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 until 1556 Emperor's realm extended from Spain parts of what now Italy Austria Germany Belgium Netherlands French explorers such Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain claimed lands Americas France paving way expansion of First French colonial empire rise of Protestantism Europe led France civil war known French Wars of Religion where most notorious incident thousands of Huguenots were murdered St Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572Wars of Religion were ended Henry IV's Edict of Nantes which granted some freedom of religion HuguenotsUnder Louis XIII energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted centralisation of state reinforced royal power disarming domestic power holders 1620s He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords denounced use of private violence (dueling carrying weapons maintaining private army) end of 1620s Richelieu established the royal monopoly of force doctrine France Spain fought 24-year war (the Franco-Spanish War) until signing of Treaty of Pyrenees 1659 war cost France 300,000 casualties During Louis XIV's minority regency of Queen Anne Cardinal Mazarin period of trouble known Fronde occurred France This rebellion was driven great feudal lords sovereign courts reaction rise of royal absolute power FranceLouis XIV of France standing plate armor blue sash facing left holding baton. Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading People (1830) portrays July Revolution using stylistic views of Romanticism Since Liberty part of motto Liberté égalité fraternité French put it this painting has become primary symbol of French Republic, KEDGE Business School According historian Dio Cassius 43 BC Roman Senate ordered creation of settlement Roman refugees of war with Allobroges These refugees had been expelled from Vienne were now encamped confluence of Saône Rhône rivers foundation was built Fourvière hill officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia name invoking prosperity blessing of gods city became increasingly referred Lugdunum (and occasionally Lugudunum)earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name Desired Mountain offered 9th-century Endlicher Glossarycontrast some modern scholars have proposed Gaulish hill-fort named Lug[o]dunon after Celtic god Lugus ('Light' cognate with Old Irish Lugh Modern Irish Lú) dúnon (hill-fort)The Roman-era Theatre Fourvière Hill. Mont Blanc highest summit Western Europe marks border with ItalyThe vast majority of France's territory population situated Western Europe called Metropolitan France distinguish from country's various overseas polities bordered North Sea north English Channel northwest Atlantic Ocean west Mediterranean sea southeast land borders consist of Belgium Luxembourg northeast Germany Switzerland east Italy Monaco southeast Andorra Spain south southwest With exception of northeast most of France's land borders roughly delineated natural boundaries geographic features south southeast Pyrenees Alps Jura respectively east Rhine river Due its shape France often referred l'Hexagone (The Hexagon) Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands of which largest Corsica Metropolitan France situated mostly between latitudes 41° 51° N longitudes 6° W 10° E western edge of Europe thus lies within northern temperate zone Its continental part covers about 1000 km from north south from east westFrance has several overseas regions across world which organised along different. Armenian Apostolic (80,000) Université de Provence Aix-Marseille I Main article Lyonnaise cuisine. La Martiniere Lyon Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port, Emmanuel Macron (cropped).jpg Édouard Philippe (cropped).jpg Université Claude Bernard (Lyon 1).
Religion France (2016), With 6 millions tourists year castles of Loire Valley (French châteaux) Loire Valley itself third leading tourist destination France this World Heritage Site noteworthy its architectural heritage its historic towns but particular its castles such Châteaux d'Amboise de Chambord d'Ussé de Villandry Chenonceau Montsoreau Château de Chantilly Versailles Vaux-le-Vicomte all three located near Paris also visitor attractionsUNESCO World Heritage Sites protected areas, Lyon–Saint Exupéry Airport located east of Lyon serves base domestic international flights key transport facility entire Rhône-Alpes region with coach links other cities area in-house train station Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry connects airport nationwide TGV network Rhônexpress tram monopoly links airport with business quarter of La Part Dieu less than 30 minutes offers connections with Underground A Tramway T1 T3 & T4 bus lines Lyon public transport Sytrail offers no service despite bus service operating nearby suburb regular price of public transport €1.90 opposed €15 one way Rhonexpress suburb of Bron smaller Lyon-Bron Airport provides alternative domestic aviationLyon has two major railway stations Lyon Part-Dieu which was built accommodate TGV Lyon Perrache older station that now provides mostly regional service Smaller railway stations include Gorge-de-Loup Vaise Vénissieux Saint-Paul Jean Macé Lyon was first city be connected Paris TGV 1981 Since that time TGV train network has expanded links Lyon directly Perpignan Toulouse Nice Marseille Strasbourg Nantes Lille International trains operate directly Madrid Barcelona Milan Turin Geneva Frankfurt Luxembourg Brussels LondonThe city heart of dense road network located meeting point of several highways A6 (to Paris) A7 (to Marseille) A42 (to Geneva) A43 (to Grenoble) city now bypassed A46 double motorway tunnel passes under Fourvière connecting A6 A7 autoroutes both forming Autoroute du SoleilLyon served Eurolines intercity coach organisation Its Lyon terminal located city's Perrache railway station which serves intermodal transportation hub that also includes tramways local regional trains buses terminus of Metro line A of Tramway T2 bicycle service Vélo'v taxisPublic transport map. This section needs be updated Please update this article reflect recent events or newly available information (June 2017), Map of City of Lyon divided into 9 arrondissements, A tropical climate (Am) most overseas regions including eastern French Guiana high constant temperature throughout year with dry wet seasonAn equatorial climate (Af) western French Guiana high constant temperature with even precipitation throughout yearA subpolar climate (Et) Saint Pierre Miquelon most of French Southern Antarctic Lands short mild summers long very cold wintersEnvironment. In addition Marseille has three grandes écoles, See also France 19th century France 20th century.