Sainte Chapelle interior showing painted stonework vaulting stained glass, The population of Paris today lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million 1921 principal reasons were significant decline household size dramatic migration of residents suburbs between 1962 1975 Factors migration included de-industrialisation high rent gentrification of many inner quarters transformation of living space into offices greater affluence among working families city's population loss came end 21st century population estimate of July 2004 showed population increase first time since 1954 population reached 2,234,000 2009According Eurostat EU statistical agency 2012 Commune of Paris was most densely populated city European Union with 21,616 people per square kilometre within city limits (the NUTS-3 statistical area) ahead of Inner London West which had 10,374 people per square kilometre According same census three departments bordering Paris Hauts-de-Seine Seine-Saint-Denis Val-de-Marne had population densities of over 10,000 people per square kilometre ranking among 10 most densely populated areas of EUMigration, OccitanieProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur The Palais Longchamp with its monumental fountain. Calanques National Park Bouches-du-Rhône one of best known protected areas of FranceFrance was one of first countries create environment ministry 1971 Although one of most industrialised countries world France ranked only 17th carbon dioxide emissions behind less populous nations such Canada or Australia This because France decided invest nuclear power following 1973 oil crisis, which now accounts 75% of its electricity production results less pollutionThe forest of Rambouillet Yvelines illustrates France's flora diversityLike all European Union state members France agreed cut carbon emissions least 20% of 1990 levels year 2020, compared United States plan reduce emissions 4% of 1990 levelsof 2009 French carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of China'scountry was set impose carbon tax 2009 17 euros per tonne of carbon emitted, which would have raised 4 billion euros of revenue annually However plan was abandoned due fears of burdening French businessesForests account 28% of France's land area, some of most diverse Europe comprising more than 140 species of trees There nine national parks 46 natural parks France, with government planning convert 20% of its Exclusive Economic Zone into Marine Protected Area 2020regional nature park (French parc naturel régional or PNR) public establishment France between local authorities French national government covering inhabited rural area of outstanding beauty order protect scenery heritage well setting up sustainable economic development areaPNR sets goals guidelines managed human habitation sustainable economic development protection of natural environment based each park's unique landscape heritage parks foster ecological research programmes public education natural sciencesof 2014 there 49 PNRs FranceAccording 2016 Environmental Performance Index conducted Yale Columbia France was tenth-most environmentally-conscious country worldAdministrative divisions, Map of City of Lyon divided into 9 arrondissements. See also French cuisine, Église Saint-Paul Romanesque (12th 13th century) Gothic (15th–16th century) church, Le Figaro was founded 1826 many of France's most prominent authors have written its columns over decades still considered newspaper of recordBest-selling daily national newspapers France Le Parisien Aujourd'hui en France (with 460,000 sold daily) Le Monde Le Figaro with around 300,000 copies sold daily but also L'Équipe dedicated sports coverage past years free dailies made breakthrough with Metro 20 Minutes Direct Plus distributed more than 650,000 copies respectively However widest circulations reached regional daily Ouest France with more than 750,000 copies sold 50 other regional papers have also high salessector of weekly magazines stronger diversified with more than 400 specialised weekly magazines published countryThe most influential news magazines left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur centrist L'Express right-wing Le Point (more than 400.000 copies), but highest circulation weeklies reached TV magazines women's magazines among them Marie Claire ELLE which have foreign versions Influential weeklies also include investigative satirical papers Le Canard Enchaîné Charlie Hebdo well Paris Match Like most industrialised nations print media have been affected severe crisis past decade 2008 government launched major initiative help sector reform become financially independent, but 2009 had give 600,000 euros help print media cope with economic crisis addition existing subsidiesIn 1974 after years of centralised monopoly radio television governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions but three already-existing TV channels four national radio stations remained under state-control was only 1981 that government allowed free broadcasting territory ending state monopoly radio French television was partly liberalised next two decade with creation of several commercial channels mainly thanks cable satellite television 2005 national service Télévision Numérique Terrestre introduced digital television all over territory allowing creation of other channelsThe four existing national channels now owned state-owned consortium France Télévisions while public broadcasting group Radio France run five national radio stations Among these public media Radio France Internationale which broadcasts programmes French all over world Franco-German TV channel TV5 Monde 2006 government created global news channel France 24 Long-established TV channels TF1 (privatised 1987) France 2 France 3 have highest shares while radio stations RTL Europe 1 state-owned France Inter least listened toSociety. History Unemployment economy fell from 20% 1995 14% 2004 However Marseille unemployment rate remains higher than national average some parts of Marseille youth unemployment reported be high 40%Administration.
Origins Hauts-de-France Main article Paris Métro Parc de Parilly (178 hectares)Education To west of Saône fifth arrondissement covers old city (Vieux Lyon) Fourvière hill plateau beyond 9th immediately north stretches from Gorge de Loup through Vaise neighbouring suburbs of Écully Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or Collonges-au-Mont-d'OrBetween two rivers Presqu'île second first fourth arrondissements second includes most of city centre including Bellecour Perrache railway station reaches far confluence of two rivers first directly north of second covers part of city centre (including Hôtel de Ville) slopes of La Croix-Rousse north of Boulevard fourth arrondissement which covers Plateau of La Croix-Rousse up its boundary with commune of Caluire-et-CuireTo east of Rhône third sixth seventh eighth arrondissementsMayors. Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks gardens covering more than 3,000 hectares containing more than 250,000 trees.[verification needed] Two of Paris's oldest most famous gardens Tuileries Garden created 1564 Tuileries Palace redone André Le Nôtre between 1664 1672, Luxembourg Garden Luxembourg Palace built Marie de' Medici 1612 which today houses French SenateJardin des Plantes was first botanical garden Paris created 1626 Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse cultivation of medicinal plantsBetween 1853 1870 Emperor Napoleon III city's first director of parks gardens Jean-Charles Alphand created Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Parc Montsouris Parc des Buttes-Chaumont located four points of compass around city well many smaller parks squares gardens Paris's quarters Since 1977 city has created 166 new parks most notably Parc de la Villette (1987) Parc André Citroën (1992) Parc de Bercy (1997) One of newest parks Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013) built former highway Left Bank of Seine between Pont de l'Alma Musée d'Orsay has floating gardens gives view of city's landmarksCemeteries. Main article Religion Marseille, The west of France has strictly oceanic climate (Cfb) – extends from Flanders Basque Country coastal strip several tens of kilometres wide narrower north south but wider Brittany which almost entirely this climate zoneThe climate of Southwest also oceanic but warmerThe climate of Northwest oceanic but cooler windierAway from coast climate oceanic throughout but its characteristics change somewhat Paris sedimentary basin and more so basins protected mountain chains show stronger seasonal temperature variability less rainfall during autumn winter Therefore most of territory has semi-oceanic climate forms transition zone between strictly oceanic climate near coasts other climate zonesThe semi-continental climate (Dfa) of north centre-east (Alsace plains of Saône middle part of Rhône Dauphiné Auvergne Savoy)The Mediterranean lower Rhône valley experience Mediterranean climate (Csa Csb) due effect of mountain chains isolating them from rest of country resulting Mistral Tramontane windsThe mountain (or alpine) climates (Dfc ET) confined Alps Pyrenees summits of Massif Central Jura VosgesIn overseas regions there three broad types of climate. Jean-Paul Sartre Palais des congrès de Lyon (1998) designed Renzo Piano group of buildings various functions; History Because of its pre-eminence Mediterranean port Marseille has always been one of main gateways into France This has attracted many immigrants made Marseille cosmopolitan melting pot end of 18th century about half population originated from elsewhere Provence mostly also from southern France.[page needed]! Marseille was originally founded circa 600 BC Greek colony of Massalia populated settlers from Phocaea (modern Foça Turkey) became preeminent Greek polis Hellenized region of southern Gaul city-state sided with Roman Republic against Carthage during Second Punic War (218-201 BC) retaining its independence commercial empire throughout western Mediterranean even Rome expanded into Western Europe North Africa However city lost its independence following Roman Siege of Massilia 49 BC during Caesar's Civil War which Massalia sided with exiled faction war with Julius CaesarMarseille continued prosper Roman city becoming early center of Christianity during Western Roman Empire city maintained its position premier maritime trading hub even after its capture Visigoths 5th century AD although city went into decline following sack of 739 AD forces of Charles Martel became part of County of Provence during 10th century although its renewed prosperity was curtailed Black Death of 14th century sack of city Crown of Aragon 1423 city's fortunes rebounded with ambitious building projects of René of Anjou Count of Provence who strengthened city's fortifications during mid-15th century During 16th century city hosted naval fleet with combined forces of Franco-Ottoman alliance which threatened ports navies of Genoa Holy Roman EmpireMarseille lost significant portion of its population during Great Plague of Marseille 1720 but population had recovered mid century 1792 city became focal point of French Revolution was birthplace of France's national anthem La Marseillaise Industrial Revolution establishment of French Empire during 19th century allowed further expansion of city although was occupied German Wehrmacht November 1942 subsequently heavily damaged during World War II city has since become major center immigrant communities from former French colonies such French AlgeriaEconomy. Main article List of French inventions discoveries, See also Arrondissements of Paris List of mayors of Paris, Outside central Marseille Université Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille III!