La Martiniere Lyon Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics. The European Parliament Strasbourg near border with Germany France founding member of all EU institutionsFrance member of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) but under President de Gaulle excluded itself from joint military command protest special relationship between United States Britain preserve independence of French foreign security policies However result of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American politics (much criticised France leftists part of right) France rejoined NATO joint military command 4 April 2009In early 1990s country drew considerable criticism from other nations its underground nuclear tests French Polynesia France vigorously opposed 2003 invasion of Iraq, straining bilateral relations with United States United KingdomFrance retains strong political economic influence its former African colonies (Françafrique) has supplied economic aid troops peace-keeping missions Ivory Coast Chad Recently after unilateral declaration of independence of northern Mali Tuareg MNLA subsequent regional Northern Mali conflict with several Islamist groups including Ansar Dine MOJWA France other African states intervened help Malian Army retake controlIn 2013 France was fourth-largest (in absolute terms) donor of development aid world behind United States United Kingdom Germany This represents 0.36% of its GDP this regard rating France twelfth largest donor listorganisation managing French help French Development Agency which finances primarily humanitarian projects sub-Saharan Africamain goals of this support developing infrastructure access health care education implementation of appropriate economic policies consolidation of rule of law democracyMilitary, The Region of Île de France including Paris its surrounding communities governed Regional Council which has its headquarters 7th arrondissement of Paris composed of 209 members representing different communes within region 15 December 2015 list of candidates of Union of Right coalition of centrist right-wing parties led Valérie Pécresse narrowly won regional election defeating coalition of Socialists ecologists Socialists had governed region seventeen years regional council has 121 members from Union of Right 66 from Union of Left 22 from extreme right National FrontNational government, On 14 June 1940 German army marched into Paris which had been declared open city16–17 July 1942 following German orders French police gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews including 4,115 children confined them during five days Vel d'Hiv (Vélodrome d'Hiver) from which they were transported train extermination camp Auschwitz None of children came back25 August 1944 city was liberated French 2nd Armoured Division 4th Infantry Division of United States Army General Charles de Gaulle led huge emotional crowd down Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris made rousing speech from Hôtel de VilleIn 1950s 1960s Paris became one front of Algerian War independence August 1961 pro-independence FLN targeted killed 11 Paris policemen leading imposition of curfew Muslims of Algeria (who that time were French citizens) 17 October 1961 unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against curfew led violent confrontations between police demonstrators which least 40 people were killed including some thrown into Seine anti-independence Organisation armée secrète (OAS) their part carried out series of bombings Paris throughout 1961 1962In May 1968 protesting students occupied Sorbonne put up barricades Latin Quarter Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined students movement grew into two-week general strike Supporters of government won June elections large majority May 1968 events France resulted break-up of University of Paris into 13 independent campuses1975 National Assembly changed status of Paris that of other French cities and 25 March 1977 Jacques Chirac became first elected mayor of Paris since 1793Tour Maine-Montparnasse tallest building city 57 storeys 210 metres (689 feet) high was built between 1969 1973 was highly controversial remains only building centre of city over 32 storeys highpopulation of Paris dropped from 2,850,000 1954 2,152,000 1990 middle-class families moved suburbssuburban railway network RER (Réseau Express Régional) was built complement Métro Périphérique expressway encircling city was completed 1973Most of postwar's Presidents of Fifth Republic wanted leave their own monuments Paris President Georges Pompidou started Centre Georges Pompidou (1977) Valéry Giscard d'Estaing began Musée d'Orsay (1986) President François Mitterrand power 14 years built Opéra Bastille (1985–1989) new site of Bibliothèque nationale de France (1996) Arche de la Défense (1985–1989) Louvre Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989) Jacques Chirac (2006) Musée du quai BranlyIn early 21st century population of Paris began increase slowly again more young people moved into city reached 2.25 million 2011 March 2001 Bertrand Delanoë became first Socialist Mayor of Paris 2007 effort reduce car traffic city he introduced Vélib' system which rents bicycles use of local residents visitors Bertrand Delanoë also transformed section of highway along Left Bank of Seine into urban promenade park Promenade des Berges de la Seine which he inaugurated June 2013In 2007 President Nicolas Sarkozy launched Grand Paris project integrate Paris more closely with towns region around it After many modifications new area named Metropolis of Grand Paris with population of 6.7 million was created 1 January 20162011 City of Paris national government approved plans Grand Paris Express totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines connect Paris innermost three departments around Paris airports high-speed rail (TGV) stations estimated cost of €35 billionsystem scheduled be completed 2030On 5 April 2014 Anne Hidalgo Socialist was elected first female Mayor of ParisTerrorist attacks. Institution des Chartreux French President François Mitterrand West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl 1987France founding member of United Nations serves one of permanent members of UN Security Council with veto rights2015 France was described being the best networked state world because country that is member of more multi-lateral organisations than any other countryFrance member of G8 World Trade Organization (WTO), Secretariat of Pacific Community (SPC) Indian Ocean Commission (COI)associate member of Association of Caribbean States (ACS) leading member of International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of 84 fully or partly French-speaking countriesAs significant hub international relations France hosts second largest assembly of diplomatic missions world headquarters of international organisations including OECD UNESCO Interpol International Bureau of Weights Measures la FrancophoniePostwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped membership of European Union of which was founding member Since 1960s France has developed close ties with reunified Germany become most influential driving force of EU 1960s France sought exclude British from European unification process, seeking build its own standing continental Europe However since 1904 France has maintained Entente cordiale with United Kingdom there has been strengthening of links between countries especially militarilyEuropean Parliament opening Strasbourg with crowd many countries' flags flagpoles, Geographically Lyon's two main rivers Saône Rhône divide arrondissements into three groups, Lyon has humid subtropical climate (Cfa) albeit having some characteristics of oceanic climate (Cfb) mean temperature Lyon coldest month 3.2 °C (37.8 °F) January warmest month July 22 °C (71.6 °F) hence maintaining its subtropical classification Precipitation adequate year-round average of 830 mm (32.7 in) but winter months driest highest recorded temperature 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) 13 August 2003 while lowest recorded temperature −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) 22 December 1938Administration.
As capital of France Paris seat of France's national government executive two chief officers each have their own official residences which also serve their offices President of French Republic resides Élysée Palace 8th arrondissement, while Prime Minister's seat Hôtel Matignon 7th arrondissement Government ministries located various parts of city many located 7th arrondissement near MatignonThe two houses of French Parliament located Left Bank upper house Senate meets Palais du Luxembourg 6th arrondissement while more important lower house Assemblée Nationale meets Palais Bourbon 7th arrondissement President of Senate second-highest public official France (the President of Republic being sole superior) resides Petit Luxembourg smaller palace annexe Palais du LuxembourgThe Palais-Royal residence of Conseil d'État, Napoleon Emperor of French his Grande Armée built vast Empire across Europe His conquests spread French revolutionary ideals across much of Europe such popular sovereignty legal equality republicanism administrative reorganization while his legal reforms had major impact worldwide Nationalism especially Germany emerged reaction against himNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of Republic 1799 becoming First Consul later Emperor of French Empire (1804–1814 1815) continuation of wars sparked European monarchies against French Republic changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars Napoleon's Empire His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz Members of Bonaparte family were appointed monarchs some of newly established kingdoms These victories led worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals reforms such Metric system Napoleonic Code Declaration of Rights of Man After catastrophic Russian campaign ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule Napoleon was defeated Bourbon monarchy restored About million Frenchmen died during Napoleonic Wars After his brief return from exile Napoleon was finally defeated 1815 Battle of Waterloo monarchy was re-established (1815–1830) with new constitutional limitationsThe discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown July Revolution of 1830 which established constitutional July Monarchy that year French troops conquered Algeria establishing first colonial presence Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt 1798 According historian Ben Kiernan French conquest pacification of Algeria from 1830 until early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people French losses from 1831–51 were 92,329 dead hospital only 3,336 killed actionIn 1848 general unrest led February Revolution end of July Monarchy abolition of slavery male universal suffrage both briefly enacted during French Revolution were re-enacted 1848 1852 president of French Republic Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon I's nephew was proclaimed emperor of second Empire Napoleon III He multiplied French interventions abroad especially Crimea Mexico Italy which resulted annexation of duchy of Savoy county of Nice then part of Kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III was unseated following defeat Franco-Prussian War of 1870 his regime was replaced Third Republicanimated gif of French colonial territory world map, Lyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programFrance (French [fʁɑ̃s]) officially French Republic (French République française French pronunciation [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]) country whose territory consists of metropolitan France Western Europe several overseas regions territories.[XIII] metropolitan area of France extends from Mediterranean Sea English Channel North Sea from Rhine Atlantic Ocean overseas territories include French Guiana South America several islands Atlantic Pacific Indian oceans country's 18 integral regions (five of which situated overseas) span combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) total population of 67.3 million (as of October 2018) France sovereign state unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital Paris country's largest city main cultural commercial centre Other major urban areas include Lyon Marseille Toulouse Bordeaux Lille NiceDuring Iron Age what now metropolitan France was inhabited Gauls Celtic people Rome annexed area 51 BC holding until arrival of Germanic Franks 476 who formed Kingdom of France France emerged major European power Late Middle Ages following its victory Hundred Years' War (1337 1453) During Renaissance French culture flourished global colonial empire was established which 20th century would become second largest world16th century was dominated religious civil wars between Catholics Protestants (Huguenots) France became Europe's dominant cultural political military power 17th century under Louis XIV late 18th century French Revolution overthrew absolute monarchy established one of modern history's earliest republics saw drafting of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen which expresses nation's ideals this dayIn 19th century Napoleon took power established First French Empire His subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped course of continental Europe Following collapse of Empire France endured tumultuous succession of governments culminating with establishment of French Third Republic 1870 France was major participant World War I from which emerged victorious was one of Allies World War II but came under occupation Axis powers 1940 Following liberation 1944 Fourth Republic was established later dissolved course of Algerian War Fifth Republic led Charles de Gaulle was formed 1958 remains today Algeria nearly all other colonies became independent 1960s typically retained close economic military connections with FranceFrance has long been global centre of art science philosophy hosts world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites leading tourist destination receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually France developed country with world's seventh-largest economy nominal GDP, tenth-largest purchasing power parityterms of aggregate household wealth ranks fourth world France performs well international rankings of education health care life expectancy human development France considered great power global affairs, being one of five permanent members of United Nations Security Council with power veto official nuclear-weapon state leading member state of European Union Eurozone, member of Group of 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organisation Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) World Trade Organization (WTO) La FrancophonieEtymology. This section needs expansion You can help adding it (June 2017). Main article Health France Paris hosts one of largest science museums Europe Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie La Villette attracted 2.4 million visitors 2017National Museum of Natural History Left Bank attracted 1.76 million visitors 2016 famous its dinosaur artefacts mineral collections its Gallery of Evolution military history of France from Middle Ages World War II vividly presented displays Musée de l'Armée Les Invalides near tomb of Napoleon addition national museums run French Ministry of Culture City of Paris operates 14 museums including Carnavalet Museum history of Paris Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Palais de Tokyo House of Victor Hugo House of Balzac Catacombs of Paris There also notable private museums Contemporary Art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation designed architect Frank Gehry opened October 2014 Bois de Boulogne received 1.4 million visitors 2017Theatre. There several popular festivals different neighborhoods with concerts animations outdoor bars like Fête du Panier June 21 June there dozens of free concerts city part of France's Fête de la Musique featuring music from all over world Being free events many Marseille residents attendMarseille hosts Gay Pride event early July 2013 Marseille hosted Europride international LGBT event 10 July–20 beginning of July there International Documentary Festival end of September electronic music festival Marsatac takes place October Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world musicHip hop music, Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon (Fine Arts Museum) main museum of city one of largest art galleries France Housed Palais Saint Pierre former 17th-century convent displays major collection of paintings artists (including Tintoretto Paolo Veronese Nicolas Poussin Rubens Rembrandt Zurbaran Canaletto Delacroix Monet Gauguin Van Gogh Cézanne Matisse Picasso Francis Bacon...) collections of sculptures drawings printings decorative arts Roman Greek antiquities second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities France after that of Louvre medal cabinet of 50.000 medals coinsThe Gallo-Roman Museum displaying many valuable objects artworks found site of Roman Lyon (Lugdunum) such Circus Games Mosaic Coligny calendar Taurobolic Altar, For centuries Paris has attracted artists from around world who arrive city educate themselves seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources galleries result Paris has acquired reputation City of Art Italian artists were profound influence development of art Paris 16th 17th centuries particularly sculpture reliefs Painting sculpture became pride of French monarchy French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists adorn their palaces during French Baroque Classicism era Sculptors such Girardon Coysevox Coustou acquired reputations finest artists royal court 17th-century France Pierre Mignard became first painter King Louis XIV during this period 1648 Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture) was established accommodate dramatic interest art capital This served France's top art school until 1793Auguste Renoir Bal du moulin de la Galette 1876 oil canvas 131 cm × 175 cm (52 × 69 in) Musée d'Orsay. Main article French architecture, 3rd arrondissement Guillotière (north) Préfecture Part-Dieu Villette Dauphiné/Sans Souci Montchat Grange Blanche (north) Monplaisir (north), Centre d'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation. See also Paris 18th century Paris during Second Empire Haussmann's renovation of Paris Camille Pissarro Boulevard Montmartre 1897 Hermitage Museum! According historian Dio Cassius 43 BC Roman Senate ordered creation of settlement Roman refugees of war with Allobroges These refugees had been expelled from Vienne were now encamped confluence of Saône Rhône rivers foundation was built Fourvière hill officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia name invoking prosperity blessing of gods city became increasingly referred Lugdunum (and occasionally Lugudunum)earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name Desired Mountain offered 9th-century Endlicher Glossarycontrast some modern scholars have proposed Gaulish hill-fort named Lug[o]dunon after Celtic god Lugus ('Light' cognate with Old Irish Lugh Modern Irish Lú) dúnon (hill-fort)The Roman-era Theatre Fourvière Hill, The first book printed France Epistolae (Letters) Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza) was published Paris 1470 press established Johann Heynlin Since then Paris has been centre of French publishing industry home of some of world's best-known writers poets setting many classic works of French literature Almost all books published Paris Middle Ages were Latin rather than French Paris did not become acknowledged capital of French literature until 17th century with authors such Boileau Corneille La Fontaine Molière Racine several coming from provinces foundation of Académie française 18th century literary life of Paris revolved around cafés salons was dominated Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau Pierre de Marivaux BeaumarchaisDuring 19th century Paris was home subject some of France's greatest writers including Charles Baudelaire Stéphane Mallarmé Mérimée Alfred de Musset Marcel Proust Émile Zola Alexandre Dumas Gustave Flaubert Guy de Maupassant Honoré de Balzac Victor Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired renovation of its setting Notre-Dame de Paris Another of Victor Hugo's works Les Misérables written while he was exile outside France during Second Empire described social change political turmoil Paris early 1830s One of most popular of all French writers Jules Verne worked Theatre Lyrique Paris stock exchange while he did research his stories National Library.[citation not found], The Eiffel Tower La Défense disctrictThe economy of City of Paris based largely services commerce of 390,480 enterprises city 80.6 percent engaged commerce transportation diverse services 6.5 percent construction just 3.8 percent industrystory similar Paris Region (Île-de-France) 76.7 percent of enterprises engaged commerce services 3.4 percent industryAt 2012 census 59.5% of jobs Paris Region were market services (12.0% wholesale retail trade 9.7% professional scientific technical services 6.5% information communication 6.5% transportation warehousing 5.9% finance insurance 5.8% administrative support services 4.6% accommodation food services 8.5% various other market services) 26.9% non-market services (10.4% human health social work activities 9.6% public administration defence 6.9% education) 8.2% manufacturing utilities (6.6% manufacturing 1.5% utilities) 5.2% construction 0.2% agricultureThe Paris Region had 5.4 million salaried employees 2010 of whom 2.2 million were concentrated 39 pôles d'emplois or business districts largest of these terms of number of employees known French QCA or quartier central des affaires western part of City of Paris 2nd 8th 9th 16th 18th arrondissements 2010 was workplace of 500,000 salaried employees about 30 percent of salaried employees Paris 10 percent of those Île-de-France largest sectors of activity central business district were finance insurance (16 percent of employees district) business services (15 percent) district also includes large concentration of department stores shopping areas hotels restaurants well government offices ministriesThe second-largest business district terms of employment La Défense just west of city where many companies installed their offices 1990s 2010 was workplace of 144,600 employees of whom 38 percent worked finance insurance 16 percent business support services Two other important districts Neuilly-sur-Seine Levallois-Perret extensions of Paris business district of La Défense Another district including Boulogne-Billancourt Issy-les-Moulineaux southern part of 15th arrondissement centre of activity media information technologyThe top ten French companies listed Fortune Global 500 2018 all have their headquarters Paris Region six central business district of City of Paris four close city Hauts-de-Seine Department three La Défense one Boulogne-Billancourt Some companies like Société Générale have offices both Paris La DéfenseThe Paris Region France's leading region economic activity with GDP of €681 billion (~US$850 billion) €56,000 (~US$70,000) per capita2011 its GDP ranked second among regions of Europe its per-capita GDP was 4th highest Europe While Paris region's population accounted 18.8 percent of metropolitan France 2011, Paris region's GDP accounted 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDPThe Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry high-value-added service industries (finance services) high-tech manufacturing (electronics optics aerospace etc.)Paris region's most intense economic activity through central Hauts-de-Seine department suburban La Défense business district places Paris's economic centre west of city triangle between Opéra Garnier La Défense Val de Seine While Paris economy dominated services employment manufacturing sector has declined sharply region remains important manufacturing centre particularly aeronautics automobiles eco industriesIn 2017 worldwide cost of living survey Economist Intelligence Unit based survey made September 2016 Paris ranked seventh most expensive city world second most expensive Europe after ZurichEmployment. Electricity provided Paris through peripheral grid fed multiple sources of 2012 around 50% of electricity generated Île-de-France comes from cogeneration energy plants located near outer limits of region other energy sources include Nogent nuclear power plant (35%) trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants these provide city heat well) methane gas (5%) hydraulics (1%) solar power (0.1%) negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh)quarter of Paris's district heating come from plant Saint-Ouen burning 50/50-mix of coal 140,000 tonnes of wood pellets from USA per yearWater sanitation, The population of Paris had dropped 100,000 during Revolution but between 1799 1815 surged with 160,000 new residents reaching 660,000 Napoleon Bonaparte replaced elected government of Paris with prefect reporting only him He began erecting monuments military glory including Arc de Triomphe improved neglected infrastructure of city with new fountains Canal de l'Ourcq Père Lachaise Cemetery city's first metal bridge Pont des ArtsRichelieu reading room National Library of France, Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics.