Auvergne- IDRAC (International School of Management) In addition two Centre de la Vieille Charité described above main museums are. CorsicaFrench GuianaGuadeloupeMartiniqueMayotteRéunionBelgiumLuxembourgGermanySwitzerlandItalyUnited KingdomAndorraBrazilSurinameSpainChannelBay of Caves Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil part of UNESCO Prehistoric Sites Decorated Caves of Vézère ValleyGeological formations near Roussillon Vaucluse dating back Post-classical historyMetropolitan France has wide variety of topographical sets natural landscapes Large parts of current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like Hercynian uplift Paleozoic Era during which Armorican Massif Massif Central Morvan Vosges Ardennes ranges island of Corsica were formed These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such Aquitaine basin southwest Paris basin north latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such silt beds of Beauce Brie Various routes of natural passage such Rhône valley allow easy communications Alpine Pyrenean Jura mountains much younger have less eroded forms 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft) above sea level Mont Blanc located Alps French Italian border highest point Western EuropeAlthough 60% of municipalities classified having seismic risks these risks remain moderate coastlines offer contrasting landscapes mountain ranges along French Riviera coastal cliffs such Côte d'Albâtre wide sandy plains Languedoc Corsica lies off Mediterranean coast France has extensive river system consisting of four major rivers Seine Loire Garonne Rhône their tributaries whose combined catchment includes over 62% of metropolitan territory Rhône divides Massif Central from Alps flows into Mediterranean Sea Camargue Other water courses drain towards Meuse Rhine along north-eastern borders France has 11 million square kilometres (4.2×106 sq mi) of marine waters within three oceans under its jurisdiction of which 97% overseasClimate. Main article Religion Marseille René Descartes founder of modern philosophyFrench philosophers produced some of most important political works of Age of Enlightenment Spirit of Laws Baron de Montesquieu theorised principle of separation of powers which has been implemented all liberal democracies since was first applied United States Voltaire came embody Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties such right free trial freedom of religion19th-century French thought was targeted responding social malaise following French Revolution Rationalist philosophers such Victor Cousin Auguste Comte who called new social doctrine were opposed reactionary thinkers such Joseph de Maistre Louis de Bonald Félicité Robert de Lamennais who blamed rationalist rejection of traditional order De Maistre considered together with Englishman Edmund Burke one of founders of European conservatism while Comte regarded founder of positivism which Émile Durkheim reformulated basis social researchIn 20th century partly reaction perceived excesses of positivism French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such Henri Bergson influenced American pragmatism Whitehead's version of process philosophy Meanwhile French epistemology became prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré Gaston Bachelard Jean Cavaillès Jules Vuillemin Influenced German phenomenology existentialism philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre gained strong influence after World War II late-20th-century-France became craddle of postmodern philosophy with Jean-François Lyotard Jean Baudrillard Jacques Derrida Michel FoucaultMusic. Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action, Main articles Arrondissements of Marseille Cantons of Marseille, The Maison Carrée was temple of Gallo-Roman city of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes) one of best-preserved vestiges of Roman EmpireIn 600 BC Ionian Greeks originating from Phocaea founded colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille) shores of Mediterranean Sea This makes France's oldest city same time some Gallic Celtic tribes penetrated parts of current territory of France this occupation spread rest of France between 5th 3rd century BCThe Roman-era Theatre of Autun (Latin Augustodunum) Saône-et-Loire one of main historical sites of BurgundyThe concept of Gaul emerged that time corresponds territories of Celtic settlement ranging between Rhine Atlantic Ocean Pyrenees Mediterranean borders of modern France roughly same those of ancient Gaul which was inhabited Celtic Gauls Gaul was then prosperous country of which southernmost part was heavily subject Greek Roman cultural economic influencesAround 125 BC south of Gaul was conquered Romans who called this region Provincia Nostra (Our Province) which over time evolved into name Provence French Julius Caesar conquered remainder of Gaul overcame revolt carried out Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix 52 BC Gaul was divided Augustus into Roman provinces Many cities were founded during Gallo-Roman period including Lugdunum (present-day Lyon) which considered capital of Gauls These cities were built traditional Roman style with forum theatre circus amphitheatre thermal baths Gauls mixed with Roman settlers eventually adopted Roman culture Roman speech (Latin from which French language evolved) Roman polytheism merged with Gallic paganism into same syncretismFrom 250s 280s AD Roman Gaul suffered serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked several occasions barbarians Nevertheless situation improved first half of 4th century which was period of revival prosperity Roman Gaul312 Emperor Constantin I converted Christianity Subsequently Christians who had been persecuted until then increased rapidly across entire Roman Empire But from beginning of 5th century Barbarian Invasions resumed, Germanic tribes such Vandals Suebi Alans crossed Rhine settled Gaul Spain other parts of collapsing Roman EmpireEarly Middle Ages (5th century–10th century). AquitaineAuvergne-Rhône-Alpes Main article History of France Main article Religion France Main article Lutetia Main article Music of France Antiquity. Ariane four rocket taking off past tower, François Mitterrand Chancellor Helmut Kohl 24 September 1987 press conference with microphones. Jewish (52,000) KEDGE Business School Population density French Republic 1999 censusWith estimated total population of 67.15 million people of October 2017, with 65 million metropolitan France France 20th most populous country world third-most populous Europe France also second most populous country European Union after GermanyFrance outlier among developed countries general European countries particular having fairly high rate of natural population growth birth rates alone France was responsible almost all natural population growth European Union 2006 with natural growth rate (excess of births over deaths) rising 300,000 with immigration population grew with almost 400,000 people, although late 2010s fell 200,000 This was highest rate since end of baby boom 1973 coincides with rise of total fertility rate from nadir of 1.7 1994 2.0 2010 of January 2017 fertility rate was 1.93From 2006 2011 population growth was average +0.6% per year Immigrants also major contributors this trend 2010 27% of newborns metropolitan France had least one foreign-born parent 24% had least one parent born outside of Europe (parents born overseas territories considered born France)Ethnic groups, Economic conditions political unrest Europe rest of world brought several other waves of immigrants during 20th century Greeks Italians started arriving end of 19th century first half of 20th century up 40% of city's population was of Italian origin Russians 1917 Armenians 1915 1923 Vietnamese 1920s 1954 after 1975 Corsicans during 1920s 1930s Spanish after 1936 North Africans (both Arab Berber) inter-war period Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945 pieds-noirs from former French Algeria 1962 then from Comoros 2006 was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered be of Maghrebi origin mostly from Algeria second largest group Marseille terms of single nationalities were from Comoros amounting some 45,000 peopleCurrently over one third of population of Marseille can trace their roots back Italy Marseille also has second-largest Corsican Armenian populations of France Other significant communities include Maghrebis Turks Comorians Chinese VietnameseIn 1999 several arrondissements about 40% of young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent)Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel work city of Marseille attracted better job opportunities good climate of this Mediterranean city main nationalities Romanians PolesReligion. Buddhist (3,000)Culture Victor Hugo, Urbanism architecture Main article Administration of Paris, Ambox current red.svg Châteaux See also Urban area (France) Urban unit.
Ecole Centrale de Marseille part of Centrale Graduate School. See also Paris Middle Ages Paris 16th century Paris 17th century ESDES Business School Catholic University of Lyon. Centre- Employment economic sector Paris area (petite couronne) with population unemployment figures (2012), View of Petit Nice Marseille's corniche (7th arrondissement) with Frioul archipelago Château d'If background, This section may be need of reorganization comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines Please help editing article make improvements overall structure (June 2017) (Learn how when remove this template message). Joan of Arc led French army several important victories during Hundred Years' War which paved way final victoryanimated gif showing changes French borders.