Bellecour Ecoles D'ArtsPrimary secondary schools, IFAG (Business Management School), A map of arrondissements of Paris; The main attractions outside city centre include, France part of monetary union Eurozone (dark blue) of European Single MarketA member of Group of Seven (formerly Group of Eight) leading industrialised countries of 2014 ranked world's ninth largest EU's second largest economy purchasing power parity With 31 of 500 biggest companies world 2015 France ranks fourth Fortune Global 500 ahead of Germany UK France joined 11 other EU members launch euro 1999 with euro coins banknotes completely replacing French franc (₣) 2002France has mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise with substantial state enterprise government intervention government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors with majority ownership of railway electricity aircraft nuclear power telecommunications.[not citation given] has been relaxing its control over these sectors since early 1990s.[not citation given] government slowly corporatising state sector selling off holdings France Télécom Air France well insurance banking defence industries.[not citation given] France has important aerospace industry led European consortium Airbus has its own national spaceport Centre Spatial GuyanaisComposition of French economy (GDP) 2016 expenditure type. Location borders Climate, Paris located northern central France north-bending arc of river Seine whose crest includes two islands Île Saint-Louis larger Île de la Cité which form oldest part of city river's mouth English Channel (La Manche) about 233 mi (375 km) downstream from city city spread widely both banks of river Overall city relatively flat lowest point 35 m (115 ft) above sea level Paris has several prominent hills highest of which Montmartre 130 m (427 ft)Excluding outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris covers oval measuring about 87 km2 (34 sq mi) area enclosed 35 km (22 mi) ring road Boulevard Périphériquecity's last major annexation of outlying territories 1860 not only gave its modern form but also created 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs) From 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi) city limits were expanded marginally 86.9 km2 (33.6 sq mi) 1920s 1929 Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed city bringing its area about 105 km2 (41 sq mi)metropolitan area of city 2,300 km2 (890 sq mi)Measured from 'point zero' front of its Notre-Dame cathedral Paris road 450 kilometres (280 mi) southeast of London 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Calais 305 kilometres (190 mi) southwest of Brussels 774 kilometres (481 mi) north of Marseille 385 kilometres (239 mi) northeast of Nantes 135 kilometres (84 mi) southeast of RouenClimate, EPITECH Ombrosa Hauts-de-France Charles de Gaulle took active part many major events of 20th century hero of World War I leader of Free French during World War II he then became President where he facilitated decolonisation maintained France major power overcame revolt of May 1968French-marked USAF C-119 flown CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu 1954. Autochrome of 114 Infantery regiment París 14 July 1917 with French flag unfurled laying stacked arms, Originally applied whole Frankish Empire name France comes from Latin Francia or country of Franks Modern France still named today Francia Italian Spanish Frankreich (Frankish Empire) German Frankrijk Dutch all of which have more or less same historical meaningThere various theories origin of name Frank Following precedents of Edward Gibbon Jacob Grimm, name of Franks has been linked with word frank (free) Englishhas been suggested that meaning of free was adopted because after conquest of Gaul only Franks were free of taxation Another theory that derived from Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates javelin or lance throwing axe of Franks was known francisca However has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use Franks not other way aroundHistory. See also Paris Belle Époque Paris during First World War Paris between Wars (1919–1939) Paris World War II History of Paris (1946–2000), Location borders Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (located Villeurbanne). With 6 millions tourists year castles of Loire Valley (French châteaux) Loire Valley itself third leading tourist destination France this World Heritage Site noteworthy its architectural heritage its historic towns but particular its castles such Châteaux d'Amboise de Chambord d'Ussé de Villandry Chenonceau Montsoreau Château de Chantilly Versailles Vaux-le-Vicomte all three located near Paris also visitor attractionsUNESCO World Heritage Sites protected areas, Vieux Lyon (English Old Lyon) area Mediaeval Renaissance quarter of town with shops dining cobbled streets, Starting 1903 Tour de France oldest most prestigious of Grands Tours world's most famous cycling racePopular sports played France include football judo tennis, rugby pétanque France has hosted events such 1938 1998 FIFA World Cups, 2007 Rugby World Cup, will host 2023 Rugby World Cup country also hosted 1960 European Nations' Cup UEFA Euro 1984 UEFA Euro 2016 Stade de France Saint-Denis France's largest stadium was venue 1998 FIFA World Cup 2007 Rugby World Cup finals Since 1903 France hosts annual Tour de France most famous road bicycle race world France famous its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race Several major tennis tournaments take place France including Paris Masters French Open one of four Grand Slam tournaments French martial arts include Savate FencingPierre de Coubertin father of modern Olympic Games; Église Saint-Nizier Gothic church from 15th century having doorway carved 16th century Philibert Delorme, Main article Economy of Paris, There 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths routes Paris These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic physical barriers such kerb) bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted painted path road) Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes free be used cyclists with protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles Cyclists have also been given right ride both directions certain one-way streets Paris offers bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented short medium distances including one way tripsElectricity.
They take place three main sites Palais du Pharo Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot) World Trade Center2012 Marseille hosted World Water Forum Several urban projects have been developed make Marseille attractive Thus new parks museums public spaces real estate projects aim improve city's quality of life (Parc du 26e Centenaire Old Port of Marseille, numerous places Euroméditerranée) attract firms people Marseille municipality acts develop Marseille regional nexus entertainment south of France with high concentration of museums cinemas theatres clubs bars restaurants fashion shops hotels art galleriesEmployment. See description BiscayLigurian Further information Lyon Metro Lyon tramway Trolleybuses Lyon Buses Lyon Transport Rhône-Alpes TER Rhône Alpes. École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies Pierre Mignard Self-portrait between 1670 1690 oil canvas 235 cm × 188 cm (93 × 74 in) Louvre, Main article Religion Marseille Prime Minister On 14 June 1940 German army marched into Paris which had been declared open city16–17 July 1942 following German orders French police gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews including 4,115 children confined them during five days Vel d'Hiv (Vélodrome d'Hiver) from which they were transported train extermination camp Auschwitz None of children came back25 August 1944 city was liberated French 2nd Armoured Division 4th Infantry Division of United States Army General Charles de Gaulle led huge emotional crowd down Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris made rousing speech from Hôtel de VilleIn 1950s 1960s Paris became one front of Algerian War independence August 1961 pro-independence FLN targeted killed 11 Paris policemen leading imposition of curfew Muslims of Algeria (who that time were French citizens) 17 October 1961 unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against curfew led violent confrontations between police demonstrators which least 40 people were killed including some thrown into Seine anti-independence Organisation armée secrète (OAS) their part carried out series of bombings Paris throughout 1961 1962In May 1968 protesting students occupied Sorbonne put up barricades Latin Quarter Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined students movement grew into two-week general strike Supporters of government won June elections large majority May 1968 events France resulted break-up of University of Paris into 13 independent campuses1975 National Assembly changed status of Paris that of other French cities and 25 March 1977 Jacques Chirac became first elected mayor of Paris since 1793Tour Maine-Montparnasse tallest building city 57 storeys 210 metres (689 feet) high was built between 1969 1973 was highly controversial remains only building centre of city over 32 storeys highpopulation of Paris dropped from 2,850,000 1954 2,152,000 1990 middle-class families moved suburbssuburban railway network RER (Réseau Express Régional) was built complement Métro Périphérique expressway encircling city was completed 1973Most of postwar's Presidents of Fifth Republic wanted leave their own monuments Paris President Georges Pompidou started Centre Georges Pompidou (1977) Valéry Giscard d'Estaing began Musée d'Orsay (1986) President François Mitterrand power 14 years built Opéra Bastille (1985–1989) new site of Bibliothèque nationale de France (1996) Arche de la Défense (1985–1989) Louvre Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989) Jacques Chirac (2006) Musée du quai BranlyIn early 21st century population of Paris began increase slowly again more young people moved into city reached 2.25 million 2011 March 2001 Bertrand Delanoë became first Socialist Mayor of Paris 2007 effort reduce car traffic city he introduced Vélib' system which rents bicycles use of local residents visitors Bertrand Delanoë also transformed section of highway along Left Bank of Seine into urban promenade park Promenade des Berges de la Seine which he inaugurated June 2013In 2007 President Nicolas Sarkozy launched Grand Paris project integrate Paris more closely with towns region around it After many modifications new area named Metropolis of Grand Paris with population of 6.7 million was created 1 January 20162011 City of Paris national government approved plans Grand Paris Express totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines connect Paris innermost three departments around Paris airports high-speed rail (TGV) stations estimated cost of €35 billionsystem scheduled be completed 2030On 5 April 2014 Anne Hidalgo Socialist was elected first female Mayor of ParisTerrorist attacks. Main articles French language Languages of France Organisation internationale de la Francophonie Marine (blue) regional (green) national (red) parks France. Main article Religion Marseille The west of France has strictly oceanic climate (Cfb) – extends from Flanders Basque Country coastal strip several tens of kilometres wide narrower north south but wider Brittany which almost entirely this climate zoneThe climate of Southwest also oceanic but warmerThe climate of Northwest oceanic but cooler windierAway from coast climate oceanic throughout but its characteristics change somewhat Paris sedimentary basin and more so basins protected mountain chains show stronger seasonal temperature variability less rainfall during autumn winter Therefore most of territory has semi-oceanic climate forms transition zone between strictly oceanic climate near coasts other climate zonesThe semi-continental climate (Dfa) of north centre-east (Alsace plains of Saône middle part of Rhône Dauphiné Auvergne Savoy)The Mediterranean lower Rhône valley experience Mediterranean climate (Csa Csb) due effect of mountain chains isolating them from rest of country resulting Mistral Tramontane windsThe mountain (or alpine) climates (Dfc ET) confined Alps Pyrenees summits of Massif Central Jura VosgesIn overseas regions there three broad types of climate. Bellecour Ecoles D'ArtsPrimary secondary schools, Marseille served European Capital of Culture 2013 along with Košice Marseille-Provence 2013 (MP2013) featured more than 900 cultural events held throughout Marseille surrounding communities These cultural events generated more than 11 million visitsEuropean Capital of Culture was also occasion unveil more than 600 million euros new cultural infrastructure Marseille its environs including iconic MuCEM designed Rudy RicciottiTarot de Marseille, Marseille city that has its own unique culture proud of its differences from rest of France Today regional centre culture entertainment with important opera house historical maritime museums five art galleries numerous cinemas clubs bars restaurantsMarseille has large number of theatres including La Criée Le Gymnase Théâtre Toursky There also extensive arts centre La Friche former match factory behind Sainst-Charles station Alcazar until 1960s well known music hall variety theatre has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade now houses central municipal library Other music venues Marseille include Le Silo (also theatre) GRIMMarseille has also been important arts has been birthplace home of many French writers poets including Victor Gélu (fr) Valère Bernard (fr) Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand André Roussin small port of l'Estaque far end of Bay of Marseille became favourite haunt artists including Auguste Renoir Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home Aix) Georges Braque Raoul DufyEuropean Capital of Culture. Ariane four rocket taking off past tower, Wesford Graduate Business School, French President François Mitterrand West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl 1987France founding member of United Nations serves one of permanent members of UN Security Council with veto rights2015 France was described being the best networked state world because country that is member of more multi-lateral organisations than any other countryFrance member of G8 World Trade Organization (WTO), Secretariat of Pacific Community (SPC) Indian Ocean Commission (COI)associate member of Association of Caribbean States (ACS) leading member of International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of 84 fully or partly French-speaking countriesAs significant hub international relations France hosts second largest assembly of diplomatic missions world headquarters of international organisations including OECD UNESCO Interpol International Bureau of Weights Measures la FrancophoniePostwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped membership of European Union of which was founding member Since 1960s France has developed close ties with reunified Germany become most influential driving force of EU 1960s France sought exclude British from European unification process, seeking build its own standing continental Europe However since 1904 France has maintained Entente cordiale with United Kingdom there has been strengthening of links between countries especially militarilyEuropean Parliament opening Strasbourg with crowd many countries' flags flagpoles! The Eiffel Tower world's most visited paid monument icon of both Paris FranceThe Château de Marqueyssac featuring French formal garden one of Remarkable Gardens of FranceWith 83 million foreign tourists 2012, France ranked first tourist destination world ahead of United States (67 million) China (58 million) This 83 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours such North Europeans crossing France their way Spain or Italy third income from tourism due shorter duration of visitsmost popular tourist sites include (annual visitors) Eiffel Tower (6.2 million) Château de Versailles (2.8 million) Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million) Pont du Gard (1.5 million) Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million) Mont Saint-Michel (1 million) Sainte-Chapelle (683,000) Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000) Puy de Dôme (500,000) Musée Picasso (441,000) Carcassonne (362,000)Paris, Marseille second-largest city France after Paris centre of third-largest metropolitan area France after Paris Lyon east starting small fishing village of Callelongue outskirts of Marseille stretching far Cassis Calanques rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets Farther east still Sainte-Baume (a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from forest of deciduous trees) city of Toulon French Riviera north of Marseille beyond low Garlaban Etoile mountain ranges 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire west of Marseille former artists' colony of l'Estaque farther west Côte Bleue Gulf of Lion Camargue region Rhône delta airport lies north west of city Marignane Étang de BerreMarseille Calanques National Park from ISS February 2017.