Provence- The French Republic unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditionsConstitution of Fifth Republic was approved referendum 28 September 1958greatly strengthened authority of executive relation parliament executive branch itself has two leaders President of Republic currently Emmanuel Macron who head of state elected directly universal adult suffrage 5-year term (formerly 7 years), Government led president-appointed Prime MinisterThe National Assembly lower house of French ParliamentThe French Parliament bicameral legislature comprising National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) SenateNational Assembly deputies represent local constituencies directly elected 5-year termsAssembly has power dismiss government thus majority Assembly determines choice of government Senators chosen electoral college 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms) one half of seats submitted election every 3 years starting September 2008The Senate's legislative powers limited event of disagreement between two chambers National Assembly has final sayGovernment has strong influence shaping agenda of ParliamentUntil World War II Radicals were strong political force France embodied Republican Radical Radical-Socialist Party which was most important party of Third Republic Since World War II they were marginalized while French politics became characterised two politically opposed groupings one left-wing centred French Section of Workers' International its successor Socialist Party (since 1969) other right-wing centred Gaullist Party whose name changed over time Rally of French People (1947) Union of Democrats Republic (1958) Rally Republic (1976) Union Popular Movement (2007) Republicans (since 2015) 2017 presidential legislative elections radical centrist party En Marche! became dominant force overtaking both Socialists RepublicansLaw, 2nd arrondissement Cordeliers Bellecour Ainay Perrache Confluence Sainte-Blandine, The most expensive residential streets Paris 2018 average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement) 22,372 Euros per square meter Place Dauphine (1st arrondissement) (20,373 Euros) Rue de Furstemberg (6th arrondissement) 18,839 Euros per square meterThe total number of residences city of Paris 2011 was 1,356,074 up from former high of 1,334,815 2006 Among these 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent 2006)Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 before 20 percent were built between 1949 1974 only 18 percent of buildings remaining were built after that dateTwo-thirds of city's 1.3 million residences studio two-room apartments Paris averages 1.9 people per residence number that has remained constant since 1980s but much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent entire Île-de-France) major part of city's population rent-paying oneSocial or public housing represented 19.9 percent of city's total residences 2017 Its distribution varies widely throughout city from 2.6 percent of housing wealthy 7th arrondissement 24 percent 20th arrondissement 26 percent 14th arrondissement 39.9 percent 19th arrondissement poorer southwest northern edges of cityOn night of February 15–16 2018 during spell of cold weather City of Paris conducted citywide count of homeless persons carried out two thousand volunteers They found 2,952 persons sleeping streets another 672 temporary shelters total of 3,600Paris its suburbs. Tourists from around world make Louvre most-visited art museum worldGreater Paris comprising Paris its three surrounding departments received 23.6 million visitors 2017 measured hotel arrivals These included 12 million foreign visitors 11.5 million French visitors Of foreign visitors greatest number came from United States (2 million) Great Britain (1.1 million) Germany (802.6 thousand) China (774.4 thousand)In 2016 measured MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index Paris was third-busiest airline destination world with 18.03 million visitors behind Bangkok (21.47 million) London (19.88 million) According Paris Convention Visitors Bureau 393,008 workers Greater Paris or 12.4% of total workforce engaged tourism-related sectors such hotels catering transport leisureMonuments attractions. The oldest traces of human life what now France date from approximately 1.8 million years ago Humans were then confronted harsh variable climate marked several glacial erasEarly hominids led nomadic hunter-gatherer life France has large number of decorated caves from upper Palaeolithic era including one of most famous best preserved Lascaux (approximately 18,000 BC)At end of last glacial period (10,000 BC) climate became milder from approximately 7,000 BC this part of Western Europe entered Neolithic era its inhabitants became sedentaryAfter strong demographic agricultural development between 4th 3rd millennia metallurgy appeared end of 3rd millennium initially working gold copper bronze later iron France has numerous megalithic sites from Neolithic period including exceptionally dense Carnac stones site (approximately 3,300 BC)Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD), Napoleon Emperor of French his Grande Armée built vast Empire across Europe His conquests spread French revolutionary ideals across much of Europe such popular sovereignty legal equality republicanism administrative reorganization while his legal reforms had major impact worldwide Nationalism especially Germany emerged reaction against himNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of Republic 1799 becoming First Consul later Emperor of French Empire (1804–1814 1815) continuation of wars sparked European monarchies against French Republic changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars Napoleon's Empire His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz Members of Bonaparte family were appointed monarchs some of newly established kingdoms These victories led worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals reforms such Metric system Napoleonic Code Declaration of Rights of Man After catastrophic Russian campaign ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule Napoleon was defeated Bourbon monarchy restored About million Frenchmen died during Napoleonic Wars After his brief return from exile Napoleon was finally defeated 1815 Battle of Waterloo monarchy was re-established (1815–1830) with new constitutional limitationsThe discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown July Revolution of 1830 which established constitutional July Monarchy that year French troops conquered Algeria establishing first colonial presence Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt 1798 According historian Ben Kiernan French conquest pacification of Algeria from 1830 until early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people French losses from 1831–51 were 92,329 dead hospital only 3,336 killed actionIn 1848 general unrest led February Revolution end of July Monarchy abolition of slavery male universal suffrage both briefly enacted during French Revolution were re-enacted 1848 1852 president of French Republic Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon I's nephew was proclaimed emperor of second Empire Napoleon III He multiplied French interventions abroad especially Crimea Mexico Italy which resulted annexation of duchy of Savoy county of Nice then part of Kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III was unseated following defeat Franco-Prussian War of 1870 his regime was replaced Third Republicanimated gif of French colonial territory world map. The basic principles that French Republic must respect found 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of CitizenFrench law divided into two principal areas private law public law Private law includes particular civil law criminal law Public law includes particular administrative law constitutional law However practical terms French law comprises three principal areas of law civil law criminal law administrative law Criminal laws can only address future not past (criminal ex post facto laws prohibited) While administrative law often subcategory of civil law many countries completely separated France each body of law headed specific supreme court ordinary courts (which handle criminal civil litigation) headed Court of Cassation administrative courts headed Council of StateTo be applicable every law must be officially published Journal officiel de la République françaiseFrance does not recognise religious law motivation enactment of prohibitions France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished 1791) However offences against public decency (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or disturbing public order (trouble à l'ordre public) have been used repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution Since 1999 civil unions homosexual couples permitted since May 2013 same-sex marriage LGBT adoption legal France Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech press old 1881 Some consider however that hate speech laws France too broad or severe damage freedom of speech France has laws against racism antisemitism Since 1990 Gayssot Act prohibits Holocaust denialFreedom of religion constitutionally guaranteed 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen 1905 French law Separation of Churches State basis laïcité (state secularism) state does not formally recognize any religion except Alsace-Moselle Nonetheless does recognize religious associations Parliament has listed many religious movements dangerous cults since 1995 has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols schools since 2004 2010 banned wearing of face-covering Islamic veils public human rights groups such Amnesty International Human Rights Watch described law discriminatory towards Muslims However supported most of populationForeign relations, painting of Napoleon 1806 standing with hand vest attended staff Imperial guard regiment, European map of Eurozone monetary union. Basilica of St-Martin-d'Ainay one of rare surviving Romanesque basilica-style churches Lyon, Examples of France's military Clockwise from top left nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft French Chasseurs Alpins patrolling valleys of Kapisa province Afghanistan Leclerc tankThe French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) military paramilitary forces of France under President of Republic supreme commander They consist of French Army (Armée de Terre) French Navy (Marine Nationale formerly called Armée de Mer) French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) French Strategic Nuclear Force (Force Nucléaire Stratégique nicknamed Force de Frappe or Strike Force) Military Police called National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) which also fulfils civil police duties rural areas of France Together they among largest armed forces world largest EUWhile Gendarmerie integral part of French armed forces (gendarmes career soldiers) therefore under purview of Ministry of Armed Forces operationally attached Ministry of Interior far its civil police duties concernedWhen acting general purpose police force Gendarmerie encompasses counter terrorist units of Parachute Intervention Squadron of National Gendarmerie (Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) National Gendarmerie Intervention Group (Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) Search Sections of National Gendarmerie (Sections de Recherche de la Gendarmerie Nationale) responsible criminal enquiries Mobile Brigades of National Gendarmerie (Brigades mobiles de la Gendarmerie Nationale or short Gendarmerie mobile) which have task maintain public orderThe following special units also part of Gendarmerie Republican Guard (Garde républicaine) which protects public buildings hosting major French institutions Maritime Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie maritime) serving Coast Guard Provost Service (Prévôté) acting Military Police branch of GendarmerieBastille Day Paris; In addition two Centre de la Vieille Charité described above main museums are ComtéCentre-Val de Loire To west of Saône fifth arrondissement covers old city (Vieux Lyon) Fourvière hill plateau beyond 9th immediately north stretches from Gorge de Loup through Vaise neighbouring suburbs of Écully Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or Saint-Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or Collonges-au-Mont-d'OrBetween two rivers Presqu'île second first fourth arrondissements second includes most of city centre including Bellecour Perrache railway station reaches far confluence of two rivers first directly north of second covers part of city centre (including Hôtel de Ville) slopes of La Croix-Rousse north of Boulevard fourth arrondissement which covers Plateau of La Croix-Rousse up its boundary with commune of Caluire-et-CuireTo east of Rhône third sixth seventh eighth arrondissementsMayors.
See also Paris Middle Ages Paris 16th century Paris 17th century, Major religious communities Marseille include, 8th arrondissement Monplaisir (south) Bachut États-Unis Grand Trou/Moulin à Vent Grange Blanche (south) Laënnec Mermoz Monplaisir-la-Plaine. Transport A Palme d'Or from Cannes Film Festival one of Big Three film festivals alongside Venice Film Festival Berlin International Film FestivalFrance has historical strong links with cinema with two Frenchmen Auguste Louis Lumière (known Lumière Brothers) having created cinema 1895 Several important cinematic movements including late 1950s 1960s Nouvelle Vague began country noted having strong film industry due part protections afforded French government France remains leader filmmaking of 2015 producing more films than any other European countrynation also hosts Cannes Festival one of most important famous film festivals worldApart from its strong innovative film tradition France has also been gathering spot artists from across Europe world this reason French cinema sometimes intertwined with cinema of foreign nations Directors from nations such Poland (Roman Polanski Krzysztof Kieślowski Andrzej Żuławski) Argentina (Gaspar Noé Edgardo Cozarinsky) Russia (Alexandre Alexeieff Anatole Litvak) Austria (Michael Haneke) Georgia (Géla Babluani Otar Iosseliani) prominent ranks of French cinema Conversely French directors have had prolific influential careers other countries such Luc Besson Jacques Tourneur or Francis Veber United StatesAlthough French film market dominated Hollywood France only nation world where American films make up smallest share of total film revenues 50% compared with 77% Germany 69% Japan French films account 35% of total film revenues of France which highest percentage of national film revenues developed world outside United States compared 14% Spain 8% UK France 2013 2nd exporter of films world after United StatesUntil recently France had centuries been cultural center of world, although its dominant position has been surpassed United States Subsequently France takes steps protecting promoting its culture becoming leading advocate of cultural exceptionnation succeeded convincing all EU members refuse include culture audiovisuals list of liberalised sectors of WTO 1993 Moreover this decision was confirmed voting UNESCO 2005 principle of cultural exception won overwhelming victory 198 countries voted it only 2 countries U.S Israel voted against itFashion, École Centrale de Lyon, The lion symbol of city display Maison des Avocats. On 10 August 1792 angry crowd threatened palace of King Louis XVI who took refuge Legislative AssemblyPrussian army invaded France later August 1792 early September Parisians infuriated Prussian army capturing Verdun counter-revolutionary uprisings west of France murdered between 1,000 1,500 prisoners raiding Parisian prisons Assembly Paris city council seemed unable stop that bloodshedNational Convention chosen first elections under male universal suffrage, 20 September 1792 succeeded Legislative Assembly 21 September abolished monarchy proclaiming French First Republic Ex-King Louis XVI was convicted of treason guillotined January 1793 France had declared war England Dutch Republic November 1792 did same Spain March 1793 spring of 1793 Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic invaded France March France created sister republic Republic of MainzAlso March 1793 civil war of Vendée against Paris started evoked both Civil Constitution of Clergy of 1790 nationwide army conscription early 1793 elsewhere France rebellion was brewing too factionalist feud National Convention smoldering ever since October 1791 came climax with group of 'Girondins' 2 June 1793 being forced resign leave Convention counter-revolution begun March 1793 Vendée July had spread Brittany Normandy Bordeaux Marseilles Toulon Lyon Paris' Convention government between October December 1793 with brutal measures managed subdue most internal uprisings cost of tens of thousands of lives Some historians consider civil war have lasted until 1796 with toll of possibly 450,000 lives France February 1794 abolished slavery its American colonies but would reintroduce laterPolitical disagreements enmity National Convention between October 1793 July 1794 reached unprecedented levels leading dozens of Convention members being sentenced death guillotined Meanwhile France's external wars 1794 were going prosperous example Belgium 1795 government seemed return indifference towards desires needs of lower classes concerning freedom of (Catholic) religion fair distribution of food Until 1799 politicians apart from inventing new parliamentary system (the 'Directory') busied themselves with dissuading people from Catholicism from royalismNapoleon 19th century (1799–1914), No religion (39.6%) Main article Religion France. Main article Telecommunications France Main article Culture of France, Université Lumière (Lyon 2) France part of monetary union Eurozone (dark blue) of European Single MarketA member of Group of Seven (formerly Group of Eight) leading industrialised countries of 2014 ranked world's ninth largest EU's second largest economy purchasing power parity With 31 of 500 biggest companies world 2015 France ranks fourth Fortune Global 500 ahead of Germany UK France joined 11 other EU members launch euro 1999 with euro coins banknotes completely replacing French franc (₣) 2002France has mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise with substantial state enterprise government intervention government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors with majority ownership of railway electricity aircraft nuclear power telecommunications.[not citation given] has been relaxing its control over these sectors since early 1990s.[not citation given] government slowly corporatising state sector selling off holdings France Télécom Air France well insurance banking defence industries.[not citation given] France has important aerospace industry led European consortium Airbus has its own national spaceport Centre Spatial GuyanaisComposition of French economy (GDP) 2016 expenditure type.