Stade de France After Revolution Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced France prior revolution with such building Parisian Pantheon or Capitole de Toulouse Built during first French Empire Arc de Triomphe Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent best example of Empire style architectureUnder Napoleon III new wave of urbanism architecture was given birth extravagant buildings such neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built urban planning of time was very organised rigorous example Haussmann's renovation of Paris architecture associated this era named Second Empire English term being taken from Second French Empire this time there was strong Gothic resurgence across Europe France associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc late 19th century Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges such Garabit viaduct remains one of most influential bridge designers of his time although he best remembered iconic Eiffel TowerIn 20th century French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings France More recently French architects have combined both modern old architectural styles Louvre Pyramid example of modern architecture added older building most difficult buildings integrate within French cities skyscrapers they visible from afar instance Paris since 1977 new buildings had be under 37 meters (121 feet) France's largest financial district La Defense where significant number of skyscrapers located Other massive buildings that challenge integrate into their environment large bridges example of way this has been done Millau Viaduct Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel Dominique Perrault Christian de Portzamparc or Paul AndreuLiterature! The Historic Site of Lyon was designated UNESCO World Heritage Site 1998 its designation UNESCO cited exceptional testimony continuity of urban settlement over more than two millennia site of great commercial strategic significancespecific regions comprising Historic Site include Roman district Fourvière Renaissance district (Vieux Lyon) silk district (slopes of Croix-Rousse) Presqu'île which features architecture from 12th century modern times Both Vieux Lyon slopes of Croix-Rousse known their narrow passageways (named traboules) that pass through buildings link streets either side first examples of traboules thought have been built Lyon 4th centurytraboules allowed inhabitants get from their homes Saône quickly allowed canuts Croix-Rousse hill get from their workshops textile merchants foot of hillGastronomy, Prehistory (before 6th century BC), In late 12th century school of polyphony was established Notre-Dame Among Trouvères of northern France group of Parisian aristocrats became known their poetry songs Troubadours from south of France were also popular During reign of François I Renaissance era lute became popular French court French royal family courtiers disported themselves masques ballets allegorical dances recitals opera comedy national musical printing house was established Baroque-era noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully Jean-Philippe Rameau François CouperinConservatoire de Musique de Paris was founded 17951870 Paris had become important centre symphony ballet operatic musicRomantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz (La Symphonie fantastique) Charles Gounod (Faust) Camille Saint-Saëns (Samson et Delilah) Léo Delibes (Lakmé) Jules Massenet (Thaïs) among others Georges Bizet's Carmen premiered 3 March 1875 Carmen has since become one of most popular frequently-performed operas classical canon Among Impressionist composers who created new works piano orchestra opera chamber music other musical forms stand particular Claude Debussy (Suite bergamasque its well-known third movement Clair de lune La Mer Pelléas et Mélisande) Erik Satie (Gymnopédies Je te veux Gnossiennes Parade) Maurice Ravel (Miroirs Boléro La valse L'heure espagnole) Several foreign-born composers such Frédéric Chopin (Poland) Franz Liszt (Hungary) Jacques Offenbach (Germany) Niccolò Paganini (Italy) Igor Stravinsky (Russia) established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works their influence ParisCharles Aznavour. Ariane four rocket taking off past tower, Musée d'Orsay The city boasts wide variety of sports facilities teams most popular team city's football club Olympique de Marseille which was finalist of UEFA Champions League 1991 before winning competition 1993 club also became finalists of UEFA Europa League 1999 2004 2018 club had history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie club's home Stade Vélodrome which can seat around 67,000 people also functions other local sports well national rugby team Stade Velodrome hosted number of games during 1998 FIFA World Cup 2007 Rugby World Cup UEFA Euro 2016 local rugby teams Marseille XIII Marseille Vitrolles Rugby. Marseille famous its important pétanque activity even renowned pétanque capitale2012 Marseille hosted Pétanque World Championship city hosts every year Mondial la Marseillaise de pétanque main pétanque competitionMatch Race France 2008. Origins Parc Olympique Lyonnais The sixteenth century Maison Diamantée which houses Musée du Vieux Marseille With 6 millions tourists year castles of Loire Valley (French châteaux) Loire Valley itself third leading tourist destination France this World Heritage Site noteworthy its architectural heritage its historic towns but particular its castles such Châteaux d'Amboise de Chambord d'Ussé de Villandry Chenonceau Montsoreau Château de Chantilly Versailles Vaux-le-Vicomte all three located near Paris also visitor attractionsUNESCO World Heritage Sites protected areas. See also Paris Middle Ages Paris 16th century Paris 17th century, During Hundred Years' War Paris was occupied England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418 before being occupied outright English when Henry V of England entered French capital 1420 spite of 1429 effort Joan of Arc liberate city, would remain under English occupation until 1436In late 16th-century French Wars of Religion Paris was stronghold of Catholic League organisers of 24 August 1572 St Bartholomew's Day massacre which thousands of French Protestants were killedconflicts ended when pretender throne Henry IV after converting Catholicism gain entry capital entered city 1594 claimed crown of France This king made several improvements capital during his reign he completed construction of Paris's first uncovered sidewalk-lined bridge Pont Neuf built Louvre extension connecting Tuileries Palace created first Paris residential square Place Royale now Place des Vosges king would end his life capital assassinated narrow street near Les Halles marketplace 1610During 17th century Cardinal Richelieu chief minister of Louis XIII was determined make Paris most beautiful city Europe He built five new bridges new chapel College of Sorbonne palace himself Palais Cardinal which he bequeathed Louis XIII After Richelieu's death 1642 was renamed Palais-RoyalDue Parisian uprisings during Fronde civil war Louis XIV moved his court new palace Versailles 1682 Although no longer capital of France arts sciences city flourished with Comédie-Française Academy of Painting French Academy of Sciences demonstrate that city was safe from attack king had city walls demolished replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become Grands Boulevards of today Other marks of his reign were Collège des Quatre-Nations Place Vendôme Place des Victoires Les Invalides18th 19th centuries, The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism! SeaMediterranean Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port, Fernand Braudel remarked Historians of Lyon not sufficiently aware of bi-polarity between Paris Lyon which constant structure French development...from late Middle Ages Industrial Revolution late 15th century fairs introduced Italian merchants made Lyon economic counting house of France Even Bourse (treasury) built 1749 resembled public bazaar where accounts were settled open air When international banking moved Genoa then Amsterdam Lyon remained banking centre of FranceDuring Renaissance city's development was driven silk trade which strengthened its ties Italy Italian influence Lyon's architecture still visible among historic buildings later 1400s 1500s Lyon was also key centre of literary activity book publishing both of French writers (such Maurice Scève Antoine Heroet Louise Labé) of Italians exile (such Luigi Alamanni Gian Giorgio Trissino)Lyon under siege 1793.
IFAG (Business Management School) Main article Religion Marseille. Marseille connected Marseille Métro train system operated Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM) consists of two lines Line 1 (blue) between Castellane La Rose opened 1977 Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel Bougainville opened between 1984 1987 extension of Line 1 from Castellane La Timone was completed 1992 another extension from La Timone La Fourragère (2.5 km (1.6 mi) 4 new stations) was opened May 2010 Métro system operates turnstile system with tickets purchased nearby adjacent automated booths Both lines of Métro intersect Gare Saint-Charles Castellane Three bus rapid transit lines under construction better connect Métro farther places (Castellane -> Luminy Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome)The new tramway, History Le Grand Rex tower! Most of low-lying areas of metropolitan France located oceanic climate zone Cfb Cfc Köppen classification Corsica small part of territory bordering mediterranean basin lies Csa Csb zones French metropolitan territory relatively large climate not uniform giving rise following climate nuances. Main articles History of Paris Timeline of Paris Main article Tourism France On 7 January 2015 two French Muslim extremists attacked Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo killed thirteen people attack claimed Al-Qaeda Arabian Peninsula, 9 January third terrorist who claimed he was part of ISIL killed four hostages during attack Jewish grocery store Porte de Vincennes11 January estimated 1.5 million people marched Paris show of solidarity against terrorism support of freedom of speech13 November of same year series of coordinated bomb gunfire terrorist attacks Paris Saint-Denis claimed ISIL, killed 130 people injured more than 350On 3 February 2017 two-backpack-carrying machete-wielding attacker shouting Allahu Akbar attacked soldiers guarding Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags assailant was shot no explosives were found18 March of same year Vitry-sur-Seine bar man held patrons hostage then fled later hold gun head of Orly Airport French soldier shouting I am here die name of Allah was shot dead soldier's comrades20 April man shot dead French police officer Champs-Élysées was later shot dead himself19 June man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into police van Champs-Élysées but car only burst into flamesGeography. Main articles History of Paris Timeline of Paris, According 2012 French census 586,163 residents of City of Paris or 26.2 percent 2,782,834 residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) or 23.4 percent were born outside of Metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% 2007 census)26,700 of these City of Paris 210,159 Paris Region were people born Overseas France (more than two-thirds of whom French West Indies) therefore not counted immigrants since they were legally French citizens birthA further 103,648 City of Paris 412,114 Paris Region were born foreign countries with French citizenship birth This concerns particular many Christians Jews from North Africa who moved France Paris after times of independence not counted immigrants due their being born French citizensThe remaining group people born foreign countries with no French citizenship birth those defined immigrants under French law According 2012 census 135,853 residents of city of Paris were immigrants from Europe 112,369 were immigrants from Maghreb 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 5,059 from Turkey 91,297 from Asia (outside Turkey) 38,858 from Americas 1,365 from South Pacific Note that immigrants from Americas South Pacific Paris vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located these regions of worldIn Paris Region 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe 627,078 were immigrants from Maghreb 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 69,338 from Turkey 322,330 from Asia (outside Turkey) 113,363 from Americas 2,261 from South Pacific These last two groups of immigrants again vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located Americas South PacificIn 2012 there were 8,810 British citizens 10,019 US citizens living City of Paris (Ville de Paris) 20,466 British citizens 16,408 US citizens living entire Paris Region (Île-de-France)Religion, The Roman ruins hillside near Fourvière Basilica with Ancient Theatre of Fourvière Odeon of Lyon accompanying Gallo-Roman Museum. According 2012 French census 586,163 residents of City of Paris or 26.2 percent 2,782,834 residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) or 23.4 percent were born outside of Metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% 2007 census)26,700 of these City of Paris 210,159 Paris Region were people born Overseas France (more than two-thirds of whom French West Indies) therefore not counted immigrants since they were legally French citizens birthA further 103,648 City of Paris 412,114 Paris Region were born foreign countries with French citizenship birth This concerns particular many Christians Jews from North Africa who moved France Paris after times of independence not counted immigrants due their being born French citizensThe remaining group people born foreign countries with no French citizenship birth those defined immigrants under French law According 2012 census 135,853 residents of city of Paris were immigrants from Europe 112,369 were immigrants from Maghreb 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 5,059 from Turkey 91,297 from Asia (outside Turkey) 38,858 from Americas 1,365 from South Pacific Note that immigrants from Americas South Pacific Paris vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located these regions of worldIn Paris Region 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe 627,078 were immigrants from Maghreb 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 69,338 from Turkey 322,330 from Asia (outside Turkey) 113,363 from Americas 2,261 from South Pacific These last two groups of immigrants again vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located Americas South PacificIn 2012 there were 8,810 British citizens 10,019 US citizens living City of Paris (Ville de Paris) 20,466 British citizens 16,408 US citizens living entire Paris Region (Île-de-France)Religion. Main article Art Paris, Map of City of Lyon divided into 9 arrondissements, National Active Non-Commissioned Officers School Tour Oxygène. Marseille Provence Airport fifth busiest FranceThe city served international airport Marseille Provence Airport located Marignane airport fifth busiest French airport known 4th most important European traffic growth 2012extensive network of motorways connects Marseille north west (A7) Aix-en-Provence north (A51) Toulon (A50) French Riviera (A8) eastGare de Marseille Saint-Charles Marseille's main railway station operates direct regional services Aix-en-Provence Briançon Toulon Avignon Nice Montpellier Toulouse Bordeaux Nantes etc Gare Saint-Charles also one of main terminal stations TGV south of France making Marseille reachable three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) just over one half hours from Lyon There also direct TGV lines Lille Brussels Nantes Geneva Strasbourg Frankfurt well Eurostar services London addition night train (Intercités de Nuit) from Luxembourg Strasbourg stops here its way Nice whereas night train from Paris Nice serves Gare de Marseille-Blancarde (fr)There new long distance bus station adjacent new modern extension Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly other Bouches-du-Rhône towns including buses Aix-en-Provence Cassis La Ciotat Aubagne city also served with 11 other regional trains stations east north of cityMarseille has large ferry terminal Gare Maritime with services Corsica Sardinia Algeria TunisiaPublic transport.