Main article Sport Paris Olympia famous music hall Camille Pissarro Boulevard Montmartre 1897 Hermitage Museum International School of Lyon nearby Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon The entrance Old Port flanked Fort Saint-Jean Fort Saint-Nicolas. Further information Charlie Hebdo shooting November 2015 Paris attacks Louvre machete attack March 2017 Île-de-France attacks April 2017 Champs-Élysées attack. The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced first permanent photograph polished pewter plate Paris 1825 1839 after death of Niépce Louis Daguerre patented Daguerrotype which became most common form of photography until 1860s work of Étienne-Jules Marey 1880s contributed considerably development of modern photography Photography came occupy central role Parisian Surrealist activity works of Man Ray Maurice Tabard Numerous photographers achieved renown their photography of Paris including Eugène Atget noted his depictions of street scenes Robert Doisneau noted his playful pictures of people market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of romantic vision of Paris) Marcel Bovis noted his night scenes others such Jacques-Henri Lartigue Cartier-Bresson Poster art also became important art form Paris late nineteenth century through work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Jules Chéret Eugène Grasset Adolphe Willette Pierre Bonnard Georges de Feure Henri-Gabriel Ibels Gavarni Alphonse MuchaMuseums, Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon (Fine Arts Museum) main museum of city one of largest art galleries France Housed Palais Saint Pierre former 17th-century convent displays major collection of paintings artists (including Tintoretto Paolo Veronese Nicolas Poussin Rubens Rembrandt Zurbaran Canaletto Delacroix Monet Gauguin Van Gogh Cézanne Matisse Picasso Francis Bacon...) collections of sculptures drawings printings decorative arts Roman Greek antiquities second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities France after that of Louvre medal cabinet of 50.000 medals coinsThe Gallo-Roman Museum displaying many valuable objects artworks found site of Roman Lyon (Lugdunum) such Circus Games Mosaic Coligny calendar Taurobolic Altar. Color map showing Regional natural parks of France, From left right La Joliette neighbourhood (old docks) ferry ship docks new port Euroméditerranée business district (CMA CGM Tower) surrounding areas. After Revolution Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced France prior revolution with such building Parisian Pantheon or Capitole de Toulouse Built during first French Empire Arc de Triomphe Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent best example of Empire style architectureUnder Napoleon III new wave of urbanism architecture was given birth extravagant buildings such neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built urban planning of time was very organised rigorous example Haussmann's renovation of Paris architecture associated this era named Second Empire English term being taken from Second French Empire this time there was strong Gothic resurgence across Europe France associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc late 19th century Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges such Garabit viaduct remains one of most influential bridge designers of his time although he best remembered iconic Eiffel TowerIn 20th century French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings France More recently French architects have combined both modern old architectural styles Louvre Pyramid example of modern architecture added older building most difficult buildings integrate within French cities skyscrapers they visible from afar instance Paris since 1977 new buildings had be under 37 meters (121 feet) France's largest financial district La Defense where significant number of skyscrapers located Other massive buildings that challenge integrate into their environment large bridges example of way this has been done Millau Viaduct Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel Dominique Perrault Christian de Portzamparc or Paul AndreuLiterature, Stade de France, For centuries Paris has attracted artists from around world who arrive city educate themselves seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources galleries result Paris has acquired reputation City of Art Italian artists were profound influence development of art Paris 16th 17th centuries particularly sculpture reliefs Painting sculpture became pride of French monarchy French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists adorn their palaces during French Baroque Classicism era Sculptors such Girardon Coysevox Coustou acquired reputations finest artists royal court 17th-century France Pierre Mignard became first painter King Louis XIV during this period 1648 Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture) was established accommodate dramatic interest art capital This served France's top art school until 1793Auguste Renoir Bal du moulin de la Galette 1876 oil canvas 131 cm × 175 cm (52 × 69 in) Musée d'Orsay! Marseille was originally founded circa 600 BC Greek colony of Massalia populated settlers from Phocaea (modern Foça Turkey) became preeminent Greek polis Hellenized region of southern Gaul city-state sided with Roman Republic against Carthage during Second Punic War (218-201 BC) retaining its independence commercial empire throughout western Mediterranean even Rome expanded into Western Europe North Africa However city lost its independence following Roman Siege of Massilia 49 BC during Caesar's Civil War which Massalia sided with exiled faction war with Julius CaesarMarseille continued prosper Roman city becoming early center of Christianity during Western Roman Empire city maintained its position premier maritime trading hub even after its capture Visigoths 5th century AD although city went into decline following sack of 739 AD forces of Charles Martel became part of County of Provence during 10th century although its renewed prosperity was curtailed Black Death of 14th century sack of city Crown of Aragon 1423 city's fortunes rebounded with ambitious building projects of René of Anjou Count of Provence who strengthened city's fortifications during mid-15th century During 16th century city hosted naval fleet with combined forces of Franco-Ottoman alliance which threatened ports navies of Genoa Holy Roman EmpireMarseille lost significant portion of its population during Great Plague of Marseille 1720 but population had recovered mid century 1792 city became focal point of French Revolution was birthplace of France's national anthem La Marseillaise Industrial Revolution establishment of French Empire during 19th century allowed further expansion of city although was occupied German Wehrmacht November 1942 subsequently heavily damaged during World War II city has since become major center immigrant communities from former French colonies such French AlgeriaEconomy.
From left right La Joliette neighbourhood (old docks) ferry ship docks new port Euroméditerranée business district (CMA CGM Tower) surrounding areas, Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics, The National University Library campus of University of StrasbourgIn 1802 Napoleon created lycée Nevertheless Jules Ferry who considered be father of French modern school which free secular compulsory until age of 13 since 1882 (school attendance France now compulsory until age of 16)Nowadays schooling system France centralised composed of three stages primary education secondary education higher education Programme International Student Assessment coordinated OECD ranked France's education about OECD average 2015 Primary secondary education predominantly public run Ministry of National Education France education compulsory from six sixteen years old public school secular free While training remuneration of teachers curriculum responsibility of state centrally management of primary secondary schools overseen local authorities Primary education comprises two phases nursery school (école maternelle) elementary school (école élémentaire) Nursery school aims stimulate minds of very young children promote their socialisation development of basic grasp of language number Around age of six children transfer elementary school whose primary objectives learning about writing arithmetic citizenship Secondary education also consists of two phases first delivered through colleges (collège) leads national certificate (Diplôme national du brevet) second offered high schools (lycée) finishes national exams leading baccalaureate (baccalauréat available professional technical or general flavours) or certificate of professional competence (certificat d'aptitude professionelle)Higher education divided between public universities prestigious selective Grandes écoles such Sciences Po Paris Political studies HEC Paris Economics Polytechnique École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris that produce high-profile engineers or École nationale d'administration careers Grands Corps of state Grandes écoles have been criticised alleged elitism they have produced many if not most of France's high-ranking civil servants CEOs politiciansSince higher education funded state fees very low tuition fees vary from €150 €700 depending university different levels of education (licence master doctorate) One can therefore get master's degree (in 5 years) about €750–3,500 tuition fees public engineering schools comparable universities albeit little higher (around €700) However they can reach €7000 year private engineering schools while business schools which all private or partially private charge up €15000 year Health insurance students free until age of 20Culture. Since Middle Ages residents of region have spoken several dialects of Franco-Provençal Lyonnais dialect was replaced French language importance of city grew However some frenchified Franco-Provençal words can also be heard French of Lyonnais who call their little boys girls gones fenottes exampleThe Lumière brothers pioneered cinema town 1895 Institut Lumière built Auguste Lumiere's house fascinating piece of architecture its own right holds many of their first inventions other early cinematic photographic artefacts8 December each year marked Festival of Lights (la Fête des lumières) celebration of thanks Virgin Mary who purportedly saved city from deadly plague Middle Ages During event local population places candles (lumignons) their windows city of Lyon organises impressive large-scale light shows onto sides of important Lyonnais monuments such mediaeval Cathédrale St-JeanThe church of Saint Francis of Sales famous its large unaltered Cavaillé-Coll pipe organ attracting audiences from around worldThe Opéra Nouvel (New Opera House) home of Opéra National de Lyon original opera house was re-designed distinguished French architect Jean Nouvel between 1985 1993 named after himLyon also French capital of trompe l'œil walls very ancient tradition Many be seen around city This old tradition now finding contemporary expression example art of Guillaume BottazziThe Brothers of Sacred Heart Roman Catholic congregation that operates schools Europe North America was founded Lyon 1821The African Museum of Lyon one of oldest museums situated LyonThe Museum of Resistance Deportation looks various individuals prominent Resistance movement World War II building strongly linked Klaus Barbie Lyon sees itself centre of French resistance many members were shot Place Bellecour town centre exhibition largely series of mini-biographies of those involvedThe unusual project Lyon Dubai City reproduction of some districts of Lyon Dubai major point tourism LyonLyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programmeUNESCO World Heritage Site, BrittanyNouvelle-Aquitaine With more than 10 millions tourists year French Riviera (French Côte d'Azur) Southeast France second leading tourist destination country after Paris regionbenefits from 300 days of sunshine per year 115 kilometres (71 mi) of coastline beaches 18 golf courses 14 ski resorts 3,000 restaurants31 Each year Côte d'Azur hosts 50% of world's superyacht fleet66, SeaMediterranean Main articles History of France § Napoleonic France (1799–1815) History of France § Long 19th century 1815–1914 First French Empire Second French Empire French colonial empire. Hôtel national des Invalides See also Arrondissements of Paris List of mayors of Paris, Twin towns partner cities Nouvelle- Since 2016 France mainly divided into 18 administrative regions 13 regions metropolitan France (including territorial collectivity of Corsica), five located overseasregions further subdivided into 101 departments, which numbered mainly alphabetically This number used postal codes was formerly used vehicle number plates Among 101 departments of France five (French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion) overseas regions (ROMs) that also simultaneously overseas departments (DOMs) enjoy exactly same status metropolitan departments integral part of European UnionThe 101 departments subdivided into 335 arrondissements which are turn subdivided into 2,054 cantons These cantons then divided into 36,658 communes which municipalities with elected municipal council Three communes—Paris Lyon Marseille—are subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissementsThe regions departments communes all known territorial collectivities meaning they possess local assemblies well executive Arrondissements cantons merely administrative divisions However this was not always case Until 1940 arrondissements were territorial collectivities with elected assembly but these were suspended Vichy regime definitely abolished Fourth Republic 1946Overseas territories collectivities. Solo Parigi è degna di Roma solo Roma è degna di Parigi (in Italian) Ring roads of Paris Institution des Chartreux. Paris has typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) which affected North Atlantic Current overall climate throughout year mild moderately wet Summer days usually warm pleasant with average temperatures between 15 25 °C (59 77 °F) fair amount of sunshine Each year however there few days when temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F) Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur such heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) weeks reached 40 °C (104 °F) some days seldom cooled down night Spring autumn have average mild days fresh nights but changing unstable Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently both seasonswinter sunshine scarce days cool nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F) Light night frosts however quite common but temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) only few days year Snow falls every year but rarely stays ground city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulationParis has average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in) experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout year However city known intermittent abrupt heavy showers highest recorded temperature 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) 28 July 1947 lowest −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) 10 December 1879Climate data Paris (Parc Montsouris) 1981–2010 averages extremes 1872–present.