As far French intelligence units concerned Directorate-General External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure) considered be component of Armed Forces under authority of Ministry of Defence other Central Directorate Interior Intelligence (Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur) division of National Police Force (Direction générale de la Police Nationale) therefore reports directly Ministry of Interior There has been no national conscription since 1997France has special military corps French Foreign Legion founded 1830 which consists of foreign nationals from over 140 countries who willing serve French Armed Forces become French citizens after end of their service period only other countries having similar units Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion called Tercio was founded 1920) Luxembourg (foreigners can serve National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish)France permanent member of Security Council of UN recognised nuclear state since 1960 France has signed ratified Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) acceded Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty France's annual military expenditure 2011 was US$62.5 billion or 2.3% of its GDP making fifth biggest military spender world after United States China Russia United KingdomFrench nuclear deterrence (formerly known Force de Frappe) relies complete independence current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles addition submarine fleet estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads, of which around 50 deployed Air Force using Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft while around 10 deployed French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft which operate from nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle new Rafale F3 aircraft will gradually replace all Mirage 2000N SEM nuclear strike role with improved ASMP-A missile with nuclear warheadFrance has major military industries with one of largest aerospace industries world Its industries have produced such equipment Rafale fighter Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier Exocet missile Leclerc tank among others Despite withdrawing from Eurofighter project France actively investing European joint projects such Eurocopter Tiger multipurpose frigates UCAV demonstrator nEUROn Airbus A400M France major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available export market with notable exception of nuclear-powered devicesThe Bastille Day military parade held Paris each 14 July France's national day called Bastille Day English-speaking countries (referred France Fête nationale) oldest largest regular military parade Europe Other smaller parades organised across countryGovernment finance. The Calanque of Sugiton 9th arrondissement of Marseille, Pointe Rouge Beach The Paris region most active water transport area France with most of cargo handled Ports of Paris facilities located around Paris rivers Loire Rhine Rhone Meuse Scheldt can be reached canals connecting with Seine which include Canal Saint-Martin Canal Saint-Denis Canal de l'OurcqCycling. Louis XIV sun king was absolute monarch of France made France leading European powerThe monarchy reached its peak during 17th century reign of Louis XIV turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers Palace of Versailles Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged Remembered his numerous wars he made France leading European power France became most populous country Europe had tremendous influence over European politics economy culture French became most-used language diplomacy science literature international affairs remained so until 20th century France obtained many overseas possessions Americas Africa Asia Louis XIV also revoked Edict of Nantes forcing thousands of Huguenots into exileUnder Louis XV Louis XIV's great-grandson France lost New France most of its Indian possessions after its defeat Seven Years' War which ended 1763 Its European territory kept growing however with notable acquisitions such Lorraine (1766) Corsica (1770) unpopular king Louis XV's weak rule his ill-advised financial political military decisions – well debauchery of his court– discredited monarchy which arguably paved way French Revolution 15 years after his deathLouis XVI Louis XV's grandson actively supported Americans who were seeking their independence from Great Britain (realised Treaty of Paris (1783)) financial crisis that followed France's involvement American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors French Revolution Much of Enlightenment occurred French intellectual circles major scientific breakthroughs inventions such discovery of oxygen (1778) first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783) were achieved French scientists French explorers such Bougainville Lapérouse took part voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around globe Enlightenment philosophy which reason advocated primary source legitimacy authority undermined power of support monarchy helped pave way French RevolutionRevolutionary France (1789–1799). Église Saint-Polycarpe (1665–1670) Classical church, The main French research bodies including CNRS INSERM INRA all well represented Marseille Scientific research concentrated several sites across city including Luminy where there institutes developmental biology (the IBDML) immunology (CIML) marine sciences neurobiology (INMED) CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus (a world-renowned institute of molecular environmental microbiology) Timone hospital site (known work medical microbiology) Marseille also home headquarters of IRD which promotes research into questions affecting developing countriesTransport, President Édouard Philippe For almost all of its long history except few brief periods Paris was governed directly representatives of king emperor or president of France city was not granted municipal autonomy National Assembly until 1974first modern elected mayor of Paris was Jacques Chirac elected 20 March 1977 becoming city's first mayor since 1793 current mayor Anne Hidalgo socialist elected 5 April 2014The mayor of Paris elected indirectly Paris voters voters of each arrondissement elect Conseil de Paris (Council of Paris) composed of 163 members Each arrondissement has number of members depending upon its population from 10 members each of least-populated arrondissements (1st through 9th) 36 members most populated (the 15th) elected council members select mayor Sometimes candidate who receives most votes citywide not selected if other candidate has won support of majority of council members Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (2001–2014) was elected only minority of city voters but majority of council membersThe Hôtel de Ville or city hall has been same site since 1357Once elected council plays largely passive role city government primarily because meets only once month current council divided between coalition of left of 91 members including socialists communists greens extreme left 71 members centre right plus few members from smaller partiesEach of Paris' 20 arrondissements has its own town hall directly elected council (conseil d'arrondissement) which turn elects arrondissement mayorcouncil of each arrondissement composed of members of Conseil de Paris also members who serve only council of arrondissement number of deputy mayors each arrondissement varies depending upon its population There total of 20 arrondissement mayors 120 deputy mayorsThe budget of city 2018 9.5 billion Euros with expected deficit of 5.5 billion Euros 7.9 billion Euros designated city administration 1.7 billion Euros investment number of city employees increased from 40,000 2001 55,000 2018 largest part of investment budget earmarked public housing (262 million Euros) real estate (142 million Euros)Métropole du Grand Paris!
The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris oldest hospital city, As capital of France Paris seat of France's national government executive two chief officers each have their own official residences which also serve their offices President of French Republic resides Élysée Palace 8th arrondissement, while Prime Minister's seat Hôtel Matignon 7th arrondissement Government ministries located various parts of city many located 7th arrondissement near MatignonThe two houses of French Parliament located Left Bank upper house Senate meets Palais du Luxembourg 6th arrondissement while more important lower house Assemblée Nationale meets Palais Bourbon 7th arrondissement President of Senate second-highest public official France (the President of Republic being sole superior) resides Petit Luxembourg smaller palace annexe Palais du LuxembourgThe Palais-Royal residence of Conseil d'État. City government Champagne widely regarded luxury good originates from Champagne region Northeast FranceFrance has historically been large producer of agricultural products Extensive tracts of fertile land application of modern technology EU subsidies have combined make France leading agricultural producer exporter Europe (representing 20% of EU's agricultural production) world's third biggest exporter of agricultural productsWheat poultry dairy beef pork well internationally recognised processed foods primary French agricultural exports Rosé wines primarily consumed within country but Champagne Bordeaux wines major exports being known worldwide EU agriculture subsidies France have decreased recent years but still amounted $8 billion 2007 That same year France sold 33.4 billion euros of transformed agricultural products France produces rum via sugar cane-based distilleries almost all of which located overseas territories such Martinique Guadeloupe La Réunion Agriculture important sector of France's economy 3.8% of active population employed agriculture whereas total agri-food industry made up 4.2% of French GDP 2005Tourism. A map of arrondissements of Paris, Main article Sport Paris ESME-Sudria, One of Lascaux paintings horse – approximately 18,000 BC Grand EstBourgogne-Franche-Comté. Marseille connected Marseille Métro train system operated Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM) consists of two lines Line 1 (blue) between Castellane La Rose opened 1977 Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel Bougainville opened between 1984 1987 extension of Line 1 from Castellane La Timone was completed 1992 another extension from La Timone La Fourragère (2.5 km (1.6 mi) 4 new stations) was opened May 2010 Métro system operates turnstile system with tickets purchased nearby adjacent automated booths Both lines of Métro intersect Gare Saint-Charles Castellane Three bus rapid transit lines under construction better connect Métro farther places (Castellane -> Luminy Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome)The new tramway, See also Paris 18th century Paris during Second Empire Haussmann's renovation of Paris, Temple du Change (17th 18th century) former stock exchange of Lyon Protestant temple since 18th century! Palais des congrès de Lyon (1998) designed Renzo Piano group of buildings various functions, Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon (Fine Arts Museum) main museum of city one of largest art galleries France Housed Palais Saint Pierre former 17th-century convent displays major collection of paintings artists (including Tintoretto Paolo Veronese Nicolas Poussin Rubens Rembrandt Zurbaran Canaletto Delacroix Monet Gauguin Van Gogh Cézanne Matisse Picasso Francis Bacon...) collections of sculptures drawings printings decorative arts Roman Greek antiquities second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities France after that of Louvre medal cabinet of 50.000 medals coinsThe Gallo-Roman Museum displaying many valuable objects artworks found site of Roman Lyon (Lugdunum) such Circus Games Mosaic Coligny calendar Taurobolic Altar. France one of biggest contributors European Space Agency which conceived Ariane rocket family launched from French GuianaSince Middle Ages France has been major contributor scientific technological achievement Around beginning of 11th century Pope Sylvester II born Gerbert d'Aurillac reintroduced abacus armillary sphere introduced Arabic numerals clocks Northern Western EuropeUniversity of Paris founded mid-12th century still one of most important universities Western world 17th century mathematician René Descartes defined method acquisition of scientific knowledge while Blaise Pascal became famous his work probability fluid mechanics They were both key figures of Scientific revolution which blossomed Europe during this period Academy of Sciences was founded Louis XIV encourage protect spirit of French scientific research was forefront of scientific developments Europe 17th 18th centuries one of earliest academies of sciencesThe Age of Enlightenment was marked work of biologist Buffon chemist Lavoisier who discovered role of oxygen combustion while Diderot D'Alembert published Encyclopédie which aimed give access useful knowledge people knowledge that they can apply their everyday life With Industrial Revolution 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments France with scientists such Augustin Fresnel founder of modern optics Sadi Carnot who laid foundations of thermodynamics Louis Pasteur pioneer of microbiology Other eminent French scientists of 19th century have their names inscribed Eiffel TowerFamous French scientists of 20th century include mathematician physicist Henri Poincaré physicists Henri Becquerel Pierre Marie Curie remained famous their work radioactivity physicist Paul Langevin virologist Luc Montagnier co-discoverer of HIV AIDS Hand transplantation was developed 23 September 1998 Lyon team assembled from different countries around world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who shortly thereafter performed first successful double hand transplant Telesurgery was developed Jacques Marescaux his team 7 September 2001 across Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg Lindbergh Operation)face transplant was first done 27 November 2005 Dr Bernard DevauchelleTop view of ring of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, The former main building of University of Paris now used classes from Paris-Sorbonne University other autonomous campusesParis département with highest proportion of highly educated people 2009 around 40 percent of Parisians held licence-level diploma or higher highest proportion France, while 13 percent have no diploma third-lowest percentage France Education Paris Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people 170,000 of whom teachers professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children students around 9,000 primary secondary higher education schools institutionsThe University of Paris founded 12th century often called Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities 1970 following student demonstrations 1968 Most of campuses today Latin Quarter where old university was located while others scattered around city suburbs.[citation not found], Main article Art Paris See also Marseille-Provence 2013. Web@cademie Rhône-AlpesOccitanie la LoireBrittany Main article Telecommunications France Combined Arms School Main articles Music Paris History of music Paris A relief map of Metropolitan France showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitantsPanorama of Mont Blanc mountain range above gray clouds under blue sky. Main article Culture of France Main articles Demographics of France French people Tour de France pelleton 9 July 2005 begin of ascend Cote de Bad Herrenalb.