Theatre traditionally has occupied large place Parisian culture many of its most popular actors today also stars of French television oldest most famous Paris theatre Comédie-Française founded 1680 Run French government performs mostly French classics Salle Richelieu Palais-Royal 2 rue de Richelieu next Louvre of Other famous theatres include Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe next Luxembourg Gardens also state institution theatrical landmark Théâtre Mogador Théâtre de la Gaîté-MontparnasseThe music hall cabaret famous Paris institutions Moulin Rouge was opened 1889 was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill its roof became birthplace of dance known French Cancan helped make famous singers Mistinguett Édith Piaf painter Toulouse-Lautrec who made posters venue 1911 dance hall Olympia Paris invented grand staircase settling its shows competing with its great rival Folies Bergère Its stars 1920s included American singer dancer Josephine Baker Later Olympia Paris presented Dalida Edith Piaf Marlene Dietrich Miles Davis Judy Garland Grateful Dead Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers including Mistinguett Maurice Chevalier Tino Rossi Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido Champs-Élysées opened 1946 Crazy Horse Saloon featuring strip-tease dance magic opened 1951 half dozen music halls exist today Paris attended mostly visitors cityLiterature. President Édouard Philippe Most of attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) located 1st 2nd 6th 7th arrondissements These include, Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3), Main article List of museums Paris! Lyon background with Fourvière left, During Restoration bridges squares of Paris were returned their pre-Revolution names but July Revolution of 1830 Paris (commemorated July Column Place de la Bastille) brought constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I power first railway line Paris opened 1837 beginning new period of massive migration from provinces city Louis-Philippe was overthrown popular uprising streets of Paris 1848 His successor Napoleon III newly appointed prefect of Seine Georges-Eugène Haussmann launched gigantic public works project build wide new boulevards new opera house central market new aqueducts sewers parks including Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes1860 Napoleon III also annexed surrounding towns created eight new arrondissements expanding Paris its current limitsIn 1860s Paris streets monuments were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps giving name The City of LightDuring Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) Paris was besieged Prussian army After months of blockade hunger then bombardment Prussians city was forced surrender 28 January 1871 28 March revolutionary government called Paris Commune seized power Paris Commune held power two months until was harshly suppressed French army during Bloody Week end of May 1871The Eiffel Tower under construction November 1888 startled Parisians – world – with its modernityLate 19th century Paris hosted two major international expositions 1889 Universal Exposition was held mark centennial of French Revolution featured new Eiffel Tower 1900 Universal Exposition which gave Paris Pont Alexandre III Grand Palais Petit Palais first Paris Métro line Paris became laboratory of Naturalism (Émile Zola) Symbolism (Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine) of Impressionism art (Courbet Manet Monet Renoir)20th 21st centuries, Autochrome of 114 Infantery regiment París 14 July 1917 with French flag unfurled laying stacked arms. The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from city has been called Tarot de Marseille since 1930s—a name coined commercial use French cardmaker cartomancer Paul Marteau owner of B–P Grimaud Previously this deck was called Tarot italien (Italian Tarot) even earlier was simply called Tarot Before being de Marseille was used play local variant of tarocchi before became used cartomancy end of 18th century following trend set Antoine Court de Gébelin name Tarot de Marseille (Marteau used name ancien Tarot de Marseille) was used contrast other types of Tarots such Tarot de Besançon those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers 18th century (previously several cities France were involved cardmaking)Another local tradition making of santons small hand-crafted figurines traditional Provençal Christmas creche Since 1803 starting last Sunday of November there has been Santon Fair Marseille currently held Cours d'Estienne d'Orves large square off Vieux-PortOpera, The port also important arrival base millions of people each year with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships With its beaches history architecture culture (24 museums 42 theatres) Marseille one of most visited cities France with 4.1 million visitors 2012 Marseille ranked 86th world business tourism events advancing from 150th spot one year before. number of congress days hosted its territory increased from 109,000 1996 almost 300,000 2011., Religion France (2016) Ambox rewrite.svg. Lyon background with Fourvière left 7th arrondissement Guillotière (south) Jean Macé Gerland Stade de France. Nuclear power plant Cattenom France four large cooling towers expelling white water vapor against blue sky! Main article Tourism France, Marseille has been setting many films mostly produced France or Hollywood Taxi 4 was filmed Marseille (2007), Chanel's headquarters storefront window Place Vendôme Paris with awning.
A relief map of Metropolitan France showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitantsPanorama of Mont Blanc mountain range above gray clouds under blue sky, There 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths routes Paris These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic physical barriers such kerb) bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted painted path road) Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes free be used cyclists with protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles Cyclists have also been given right ride both directions certain one-way streets Paris offers bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented short medium distances including one way tripsElectricity, French territorial evolution from 985 1947The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987 when Hugh Capet Duke of France Count of Paris was crowned King of Franks His descendants—the Capetians House of Valois House of Bourbon—progressively unified country through wars dynastic inheritance into Kingdom of France which was fully declared 1190 Philip II Augustus French nobility played prominent role most Crusades order restore Christian access Holy Land French knights made up bulk of steady flow of reinforcements throughout two-hundred-year span of Crusades such fashion that Arabs uniformly referred crusaders Franj caring little whether they really came from FranceFrench Crusaders also imported French language into Levant making French base of lingua franca (litt Frankish language) of Crusader states French knights also made up majority both Hospital Temple orders latter particular held numerous properties throughout France 13th century were principal bankers French crown until Philip IV annihilated order 1307 Albigensian Crusade was launched 1209 eliminate heretical Cathars southwestern area of modern-day France end Cathars were exterminated autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into crown lands of France Later kings expanded their domain cover over half of modern continental France including most of north centre west of France Meanwhile royal authority became more more assertive centred hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility clergy commonersCharles IV Fair died without heir 1328 Under rules of Salic law crown of France could not pass woman nor could line of kingship pass through female line Accordingly crown passed Philip of Valois cousin of Charles rather than through female line Charles' nephew Edward who would soon become Edward III of England During reign of Philip of Valois French monarchy reached height of its medieval power Philip's seat throne was contested Edward III of England 1337 eve of first wave of Black Death, England France went war what would become known Hundred Years' Warexact boundaries changed greatly with time but French landholdings of English Kings remained extensive decades With charismatic leaders such Joan of Arc La Hire strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories Like rest of Europe France was struck Black Death half of 17 million population of France diedEarly modern period (15th century–1789). Later came precursors of modern classical music Érik Satie was key member of early-20th-century Parisian avant-garde best known his Gymnopédies Francis Poulenc's best known works his piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919) ballet Les biches (1923) Concert champêtre (1928) harpsichord orchestra opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957) Gloria (1959) soprano choir orchestra Maurice Ravel Claude Debussy most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music Debussy was among most influential composers of late 19th early 20th centuries his use of non-traditional scales chromaticism influenced many composers who followed Debussy's music noted its sensory content frequent usage of atonality two composers invented new musical forms new sounds Ravel's piano compositions such Jeux d'eau Miroirs Le tombeau de Couperin Gaspard de la nuit demand considerable virtuosity His mastery of orchestration evident Rapsodie espagnole Daphnis et Chloé his arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures Exhibition his orchestral work Boléro (1928) More recently middle of 20th century Maurice Ohana Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Boulez contributed evolutions of contemporary classical musichead shot of Serge Gainsbourg, Main article Libraries Paris The former main building of University of Paris now used classes from Paris-Sorbonne University other autonomous campusesParis département with highest proportion of highly educated people 2009 around 40 percent of Parisians held licence-level diploma or higher highest proportion France, while 13 percent have no diploma third-lowest percentage France Education Paris Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people 170,000 of whom teachers professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children students around 9,000 primary secondary higher education schools institutionsThe University of Paris founded 12th century often called Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities 1970 following student demonstrations 1968 Most of campuses today Latin Quarter where old university was located while others scattered around city suburbs.[citation not found]!