Marseille has hot Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with mild humid winters warm hot mostly dry summers December January February coldest months averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during day 4 °C (39 °F) night July August hottest months averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during day 19 °C (66 °F) night Marignane airport (35 km (22 mi) from Marseille) but city near sea average high temperature 27 °C (81 °F) JulyMarseille officially sunniest major city France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while average sunshine France around 1,950 hours also driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually especially thanks Mistral cold dry wind originating Rhône Valley that occurs mostly winter spring which generally brings clear skies sunny weather region Less frequent Sirocco hot sand-bearing wind coming from Sahara Desert Snowfalls infrequent over 50% of years do not experience single snowfallThe hottest temperature was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) 26 July 1983 during great heat wave lowest temperature was −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) 13 February 1929 during strong cold waveClimate data Marseille (Longchamp observatory) 43°18'21.2N 5°23'37.1E (1981–2003 averages record highs lows 1868–2003), The Region of Île de France including Paris its surrounding communities governed Regional Council which has its headquarters 7th arrondissement of Paris composed of 209 members representing different communes within region 15 December 2015 list of candidates of Union of Right coalition of centrist right-wing parties led Valérie Pécresse narrowly won regional election defeating coalition of Socialists ecologists Socialists had governed region seventeen years regional council has 121 members from Union of Right 66 from Union of Left 22 from extreme right National FrontNational government. Mont Blanc highest summit Western Europe marks border with ItalyThe vast majority of France's territory population situated Western Europe called Metropolitan France distinguish from country's various overseas polities bordered North Sea north English Channel northwest Atlantic Ocean west Mediterranean sea southeast land borders consist of Belgium Luxembourg northeast Germany Switzerland east Italy Monaco southeast Andorra Spain south southwest With exception of northeast most of France's land borders roughly delineated natural boundaries geographic features south southeast Pyrenees Alps Jura respectively east Rhine river Due its shape France often referred l'Hexagone (The Hexagon) Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands of which largest Corsica Metropolitan France situated mostly between latitudes 41° 51° N longitudes 6° W 10° E western edge of Europe thus lies within northern temperate zone Its continental part covers about 1000 km from north south from east westFrance has several overseas regions across world which organised along different, The Roman ruins hillside near Fourvière Basilica with Ancient Theatre of Fourvière Odeon of Lyon accompanying Gallo-Roman Museum, Main articles History of Marseille Timeline of Marseille; Saint Louis' Sainte Chapelle represents French impact religious architectureDuring Middle Ages many fortified castles were built feudal nobles mark their powers Some French castles that survived Chinon Château d'Angers massive Château de Vincennes so-called Cathar castles During this era France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe Some of greatest examples of Romanesque churches France Saint Sernin Basilica Toulouse largest romanesque church Europe, remains of Cluniac AbbeyThe Gothic architecture originally named Opus Francigenum meaning French work, was born Île-de-France was first French style of architecture be copied all Europe Northern France home of some of most important Gothic cathedrals basilicas first of these being Saint Denis Basilica (used royal necropolis) other important French Gothic cathedrals Notre-Dame de Chartres Notre-Dame d'Amiens kings were crowned another important Gothic church Notre-Dame de Reims Aside from churches Gothic Architecture had been used many religious palaces most important one being Palais des Papes AvignonThe final victory Hundred Years' War marked important stage evolution of French architecture was time of French Renaissance several artists from Italy were invited French court many residential palaces were built Loire Valley from 1450 with first reference Château de Montsoreau Such residential castles were Château de Chambord Château de Chenonceau or Château d'AmboisePlace de la Bourse Bordeaux example of French baroque architectureFollowing renaissance end of Middle Ages Baroque architecture replaced traditional Gothic style However France baroque architecture found greater success secular domain than religious one secular domain Palace of Versailles has many baroque features Jules Hardouin Mansart who designed extensions Versailles was one of most influential French architect of baroque era he famous his dome Les Invalides Some of most impressive provincial baroque architecture found places that were not yet French such Place Stanislas Nancy military architectural side Vauban designed some of most efficient fortresses Europe became influential military architect result imitations of his works can be found all over Europe Americas Russia TurkeyOpéra Garnier interior showing chandeliers gilded decoration. The lawns of Parc des Buttes-Chaumont sunny day See also Architecture of Paris Haussmann's renovation of Paris Religious buildings Paris List of tallest buildings structures Paris region. The Eiffel Tower world's most visited paid monument icon of both Paris FranceThe Château de Marqueyssac featuring French formal garden one of Remarkable Gardens of FranceWith 83 million foreign tourists 2012, France ranked first tourist destination world ahead of United States (67 million) China (58 million) This 83 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours such North Europeans crossing France their way Spain or Italy third income from tourism due shorter duration of visitsmost popular tourist sites include (annual visitors) Eiffel Tower (6.2 million) Château de Versailles (2.8 million) Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million) Pont du Gard (1.5 million) Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million) Mont Saint-Michel (1 million) Sainte-Chapelle (683,000) Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000) Puy de Dôme (500,000) Musée Picasso (441,000) Carcassonne (362,000)Paris; Main article List of French inventions discoveries This section needs be updated Please update this article reflect recent events or newly available information (June 2017)! There several popular festivals different neighborhoods with concerts animations outdoor bars like Fête du Panier June 21 June there dozens of free concerts city part of France's Fête de la Musique featuring music from all over world Being free events many Marseille residents attendMarseille hosts Gay Pride event early July 2013 Marseille hosted Europride international LGBT event 10 July–20 beginning of July there International Documentary Festival end of September electronic music festival Marsatac takes place October Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world musicHip hop music, Buddhist (3,000)Culture Lyon background with Fourvière left City government Starting 1903 Tour de France oldest most prestigious of Grands Tours world's most famous cycling racePopular sports played France include football judo tennis, rugby pétanque France has hosted events such 1938 1998 FIFA World Cups, 2007 Rugby World Cup, will host 2023 Rugby World Cup country also hosted 1960 European Nations' Cup UEFA Euro 1984 UEFA Euro 2016 Stade de France Saint-Denis France's largest stadium was venue 1998 FIFA World Cup 2007 Rugby World Cup finals Since 1903 France hosts annual Tour de France most famous road bicycle race world France famous its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race Several major tennis tournaments take place France including Paris Masters French Open one of four Grand Slam tournaments French martial arts include Savate FencingPierre de Coubertin father of modern Olympic Games. Châteaux The sectors arrondissements of Marseille Dining room of Vagenende Prehistory (before 6th century BC) In 1572 Lyon was scene of mass violence Catholics against Protestant Huguenots St Bartholomew's Day Massacre Two centuries later Lyon was again convulsed violence when during French Revolution citizenry rose up against National Convention supported Girondins city was besieged Revolutionary armies over two months before surrendering October 1793 Many buildings were destroyed especially around Place Bellecour while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Joseph Fouché administered execution of more than 2,000 people Convention ordered that its name be changed Liberated City plaque was erected that proclaimed Lyons made war Liberty Lyons no longer existsdecade later Napoleon ordered reconstruction of all buildings demolished during this periodThe city became important industrial town during 19th century 1831 1834 canuts (silk workers) of Lyon staged two major uprisings better working conditions pay 1862 first of Lyon's extensive network of funicular railways began operationDuring World War II Lyon was centre occupying Nazi forces including Klaus Barbie infamous Butcher of Lyon But city was also stronghold of French Resistance – many secret passages known traboules enabled people escape Gestapo raids 3 September 1944 Lyon was liberated 1st Free French Division Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur city now home resistance museumGeography.
From left right La Joliette neighbourhood (old docks) ferry ship docks new port Euroméditerranée business district (CMA CGM Tower) surrounding areas, See also Religious buildings Paris Undecided (0.4%). Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3), Panorama of inner city of Lyon taken from basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière's roof, Église Saint-Polycarpe (1665–1670) Classical church Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière large 19th-century basilica top of Fourvière Hill. The European Parliament Strasbourg near border with Germany France founding member of all EU institutionsFrance member of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) but under President de Gaulle excluded itself from joint military command protest special relationship between United States Britain preserve independence of French foreign security policies However result of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American politics (much criticised France leftists part of right) France rejoined NATO joint military command 4 April 2009In early 1990s country drew considerable criticism from other nations its underground nuclear tests French Polynesia France vigorously opposed 2003 invasion of Iraq, straining bilateral relations with United States United KingdomFrance retains strong political economic influence its former African colonies (Françafrique) has supplied economic aid troops peace-keeping missions Ivory Coast Chad Recently after unilateral declaration of independence of northern Mali Tuareg MNLA subsequent regional Northern Mali conflict with several Islamist groups including Ansar Dine MOJWA France other African states intervened help Malian Army retake controlIn 2013 France was fourth-largest (in absolute terms) donor of development aid world behind United States United Kingdom Germany This represents 0.36% of its GDP this regard rating France twelfth largest donor listorganisation managing French help French Development Agency which finances primarily humanitarian projects sub-Saharan Africamain goals of this support developing infrastructure access health care education implementation of appropriate economic policies consolidation of rule of law democracyMilitary. The French Republic unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditionsConstitution of Fifth Republic was approved referendum 28 September 1958greatly strengthened authority of executive relation parliament executive branch itself has two leaders President of Republic currently Emmanuel Macron who head of state elected directly universal adult suffrage 5-year term (formerly 7 years), Government led president-appointed Prime MinisterThe National Assembly lower house of French ParliamentThe French Parliament bicameral legislature comprising National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) SenateNational Assembly deputies represent local constituencies directly elected 5-year termsAssembly has power dismiss government thus majority Assembly determines choice of government Senators chosen electoral college 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms) one half of seats submitted election every 3 years starting September 2008The Senate's legislative powers limited event of disagreement between two chambers National Assembly has final sayGovernment has strong influence shaping agenda of ParliamentUntil World War II Radicals were strong political force France embodied Republican Radical Radical-Socialist Party which was most important party of Third Republic Since World War II they were marginalized while French politics became characterised two politically opposed groupings one left-wing centred French Section of Workers' International its successor Socialist Party (since 1969) other right-wing centred Gaullist Party whose name changed over time Rally of French People (1947) Union of Democrats Republic (1958) Rally Republic (1976) Union Popular Movement (2007) Republicans (since 2015) 2017 presidential legislative elections radical centrist party En Marche! became dominant force overtaking both Socialists RepublicansLaw. Paris its close suburbs home numerous newspapers magazines publications including Le Monde Le Figaro Libération Le Nouvel Observateur Le Canard enchaîné La Croix Pariscope Le Parisien (in Saint-Ouen) Les Échos Paris Match (Neuilly-sur-Seine) Réseaux & Télécoms Reuters France L'Officiel des Spectacles France's two most prestigious newspapers Le Monde Le Figaro centrepieces of Parisian publishing industry Agence France-Presse France's oldest one of world's oldest continually operating news agencies AFP colloquially abbreviated maintains its headquarters Paris has since 1835 France 24 television news channel owned operated French government based Paris Another news agency France Diplomatie owned operated Ministry of Foreign European Affairs pertains solely diplomatic news occurrencesThe most-viewed network France TF1 nearby Boulogne-Billancourt France 2 France 3 Canal+ France 5 M6 (Neuilly-sur-Seine) Arte D8 W9 NT1 NRJ 12 La Chaîne parlementaire France 4 BFM TV Gulli other stations located around capital Radio France France's public radio broadcaster its various channels headquartered Paris's 16th arrondissement Radio France Internationale another public broadcaster also based city Paris also holds headquarters of La Poste France's national postal carrierInternational relations, Marseille city that has its own unique culture proud of its differences from rest of France Today regional centre culture entertainment with important opera house historical maritime museums five art galleries numerous cinemas clubs bars restaurantsMarseille has large number of theatres including La Criée Le Gymnase Théâtre Toursky There also extensive arts centre La Friche former match factory behind Sainst-Charles station Alcazar until 1960s well known music hall variety theatre has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade now houses central municipal library Other music venues Marseille include Le Silo (also theatre) GRIMMarseille has also been important arts has been birthplace home of many French writers poets including Victor Gélu (fr) Valère Bernard (fr) Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand André Roussin small port of l'Estaque far end of Bay of Marseille became favourite haunt artists including Auguste Renoir Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home Aix) Georges Braque Raoul DufyEuropean Capital of Culture. The Château d'If For almost all of its long history except few brief periods Paris was governed directly representatives of king emperor or president of France city was not granted municipal autonomy National Assembly until 1974first modern elected mayor of Paris was Jacques Chirac elected 20 March 1977 becoming city's first mayor since 1793 current mayor Anne Hidalgo socialist elected 5 April 2014The mayor of Paris elected indirectly Paris voters voters of each arrondissement elect Conseil de Paris (Council of Paris) composed of 163 members Each arrondissement has number of members depending upon its population from 10 members each of least-populated arrondissements (1st through 9th) 36 members most populated (the 15th) elected council members select mayor Sometimes candidate who receives most votes citywide not selected if other candidate has won support of majority of council members Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (2001–2014) was elected only minority of city voters but majority of council membersThe Hôtel de Ville or city hall has been same site since 1357Once elected council plays largely passive role city government primarily because meets only once month current council divided between coalition of left of 91 members including socialists communists greens extreme left 71 members centre right plus few members from smaller partiesEach of Paris' 20 arrondissements has its own town hall directly elected council (conseil d'arrondissement) which turn elects arrondissement mayorcouncil of each arrondissement composed of members of Conseil de Paris also members who serve only council of arrondissement number of deputy mayors each arrondissement varies depending upon its population There total of 20 arrondissement mayors 120 deputy mayorsThe budget of city 2018 9.5 billion Euros with expected deficit of 5.5 billion Euros 7.9 billion Euros designated city administration 1.7 billion Euros investment number of city employees increased from 40,000 2001 55,000 2018 largest part of investment budget earmarked public housing (262 million Euros) real estate (142 million Euros)Métropole du Grand Paris, Marseille second-largest city of France main city of historical province of Provence today capital of department of Bouches-du-Rhône region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur located France's south coast covering area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi) had population of 852,516 2012 Its metropolitan area which covers 3,173 km2 (1,225 sq mi) third-largest France after Paris Lyon with population of 1,831,500 of 2010Known ancient Greeks Romans Massalia (Greek Μασσαλία Massalía), Marseille was important European trading centre remains main commercial port of French Republic Marseille now France's largest city Mediterranean coast largest port commerce freight cruise ships city was European Capital of Culture 2013 European Capital of Sport 2017 hosted matches 1998 World Cup Euro 2016 home Aix-Marseille UniversityGeography.