Tour Eiffel sunrise from trocadero Main articles Landmarks Paris Historical quarters of Paris List of tourist attractions Paris Buddhist (3,000)Culture The sectors arrondissements of Marseille. Main article Geography of France National Gendarmerie SeaMediterranean Ring roads of Paris Tourists from around world make Louvre most-visited art museum worldGreater Paris comprising Paris its three surrounding departments received 23.6 million visitors 2017 measured hotel arrivals These included 12 million foreign visitors 11.5 million French visitors Of foreign visitors greatest number came from United States (2 million) Great Britain (1.1 million) Germany (802.6 thousand) China (774.4 thousand)In 2016 measured MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index Paris was third-busiest airline destination world with 18.03 million visitors behind Bangkok (21.47 million) London (19.88 million) According Paris Convention Visitors Bureau 393,008 workers Greater Paris or 12.4% of total workforce engaged tourism-related sectors such hotels catering transport leisureMonuments attractions; The Government of France has run budget deficit each year since early 1970s of 2016 French government debt levels reached 2.2 trillion euros equivalent of 96.4% of French GDPlate 2012 credit rating agencies warned that growing French Government debt levels risked France's AAA credit rating raising possibility of future downgrade subsequent higher borrowing costs French authoritiesEconomy, See also List of twin towns sister cities of Paris, According historian Dio Cassius 43 BC Roman Senate ordered creation of settlement Roman refugees of war with Allobroges These refugees had been expelled from Vienne were now encamped confluence of Saône Rhône rivers foundation was built Fourvière hill officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia name invoking prosperity blessing of gods city became increasingly referred Lugdunum (and occasionally Lugudunum)earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name Desired Mountain offered 9th-century Endlicher Glossarycontrast some modern scholars have proposed Gaulish hill-fort named Lug[o]dunon after Celtic god Lugus ('Light' cognate with Old Irish Lugh Modern Irish Lú) dúnon (hill-fort)The Roman-era Theatre Fourvière Hill; Louis XIV sun king was absolute monarch of France made France leading European powerThe monarchy reached its peak during 17th century reign of Louis XIV turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers Palace of Versailles Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged Remembered his numerous wars he made France leading European power France became most populous country Europe had tremendous influence over European politics economy culture French became most-used language diplomacy science literature international affairs remained so until 20th century France obtained many overseas possessions Americas Africa Asia Louis XIV also revoked Edict of Nantes forcing thousands of Huguenots into exileUnder Louis XV Louis XIV's great-grandson France lost New France most of its Indian possessions after its defeat Seven Years' War which ended 1763 Its European territory kept growing however with notable acquisitions such Lorraine (1766) Corsica (1770) unpopular king Louis XV's weak rule his ill-advised financial political military decisions – well debauchery of his court– discredited monarchy which arguably paved way French Revolution 15 years after his deathLouis XVI Louis XV's grandson actively supported Americans who were seeking their independence from Great Britain (realised Treaty of Paris (1783)) financial crisis that followed France's involvement American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors French Revolution Much of Enlightenment occurred French intellectual circles major scientific breakthroughs inventions such discovery of oxygen (1778) first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783) were achieved French scientists French explorers such Bougainville Lapérouse took part voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around globe Enlightenment philosophy which reason advocated primary source legitimacy authority undermined power of support monarchy helped pave way French RevolutionRevolutionary France (1789–1799), The Musée des Civilisations de l'Europe et de la Méditerranée (MuCEM) Villa Méditerranée were inaugurated 2013 MuCEM devoted history culture of European Mediterranean civilisations adjacent Villa Méditerranée international centre cultural artistic interchange partially constructed underwater site linked footbridges Fort Saint-Jean PanierThe Musée Regards de Provence opened 2013 located between Cathedral of Notre Dame de la Majeur Fort Saint-Jean occupies converted port building constructed 1945 monitor control potential sea-borne health hazards particular epidemics now houses permanent collection of historical artworks from Provence well temporary exhibitionsThe Musée du Vieux Marseille housed 16th-century Maison Diamantée describing everyday life Marseille from 18th century onwardsThe Musée des Docks Romains preserves situ remains of Roman commercial warehouses has small collection of objects dating from Greek period Middle Ages that were uncovered site or retrieved from shipwrecksThe Marseille History Museum (Musée d'Histoire de Marseille) devoted history of town located Centre Bourse contains remains of Greek Roman history of Marseille well best preserved hull of 6th-century boat world Ancient remains from Hellenic port displayed adjacent archeological gardens Jardin des VestigesThe Musée Cantini museum of modern art near Palais de Justice houses artworks associated with Marseille well several works PicassoThe Musée Grobet-Labadié opposite Palais Longchamp houses exceptional collection of European objets d'art old musical instrumentsThe 19th-century Palais Longchamp designed Esperandieu located Parc Longchamp Built grand scale this italianate colonnaded building rises up behind vast monumental fountain with cascading waterfalls jeux d'eau marks masks entry point of Canal de Provence into Marseille Its two wings house Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille (a fine arts museum) Natural History Museum (Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille)The Château Borély located Parc Borély park off Bay of Marseille with Jardin botanique E.M Heckel botanical garden Museum of Decorative Arts Fashion Ceramics (fr) opened renovated château June 2013The Musée d'Art Contemporain de Marseille (fr) (MAC) museum of contemporary art opened 1994 devoted American European art from 1960s present dayThe Musée du Terroir Marseillais (fr) Château-Gombert devoted Provençal crafts traditionsThe MuCEM Musée Regards de Provence Villa Mediterannée with Notre Dame de la Majeur right. French cuisine renowned being one of finest world According regions traditional recipes different North of country prefers use butter preferred fat cooking whereas olive oil more commonly used South Moreover each region of France has iconic traditional specialities Cassoulet Southwest Choucroute Alsace Quiche Lorraine region Beef bourguignon Bourgogne provençal Tapenade etc France's most renowned products wines, including Champagne Bordeaux Bourgogne Beaujolais well large variety of different cheeses such Camembert Roquefort Brie There more than 400 different varietiesA meal often consists of three courses hors d'œuvre or entrée (introductory course sometimes soup) plat principal (main course) fromage (cheese course) and/or dessert sometimes with salad offered before cheese or dessert Hors d'œuvres include terrine de saumon au basilic lobster bisque foie gras French onion soup or croque monsieur plat principal could include pot au feu or steak frites dessert could be mille-feuille pastry macaron éclair crème brûlée mousse au chocolat crêpes or Café liégeoisSome French cheeses with fruits. Le Lycée du Parc, la LoireBrittany See also Transportation Marseille, Universities tertiary education Champagne wine flute Traditional Marseille bouillabaisse; Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics, secondary or non-official language A number of faculties of three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University located Marseille. Ancient Lyon Paris grew population from about 400,000 1640 650,000 1780new boulevard Champs-Élysées extended city west Étoile, while working-class neighbourhood of Faubourg Saint-Antoine eastern site of city grew more more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of FranceParis was centre of explosion of philosophic scientific activity known Age of Enlightenment Diderot d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie 1751 Montgolfier Brothers launched first manned flight hot-air balloon 21 November 1783 from gardens of Château de la Muette Paris was financial capital of continental Europe primary European centre of book publishing fashion manufacture of fine furniture luxury goodsThe storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 Jean-Baptiste Lallemand (Musée de la Révolution française).
Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière large 19th-century basilica top of Fourvière Hill. Originally applied whole Frankish Empire name France comes from Latin Francia or country of Franks Modern France still named today Francia Italian Spanish Frankreich (Frankish Empire) German Frankrijk Dutch all of which have more or less same historical meaningThere various theories origin of name Frank Following precedents of Edward Gibbon Jacob Grimm, name of Franks has been linked with word frank (free) Englishhas been suggested that meaning of free was adopted because after conquest of Gaul only Franks were free of taxation Another theory that derived from Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates javelin or lance throwing axe of Franks was known francisca However has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use Franks not other way aroundHistory, The Château de Chenonceau nowadays part of UNESCO World Heritage Site was built early 16th centuryThe French Renaissance saw spectacular cultural development first standardisation of French language which would become official language of France language of Europe's aristocracy also saw long set of wars known Italian Wars between France Spain Holy Roman Empire Refusing accept Spanish-Portuguese claims of supremacy New World King Francis I ordered his privateers sail against his Spanish rival King Charles V who ruled Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 until 1556 Emperor's realm extended from Spain parts of what now Italy Austria Germany Belgium Netherlands French explorers such Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain claimed lands Americas France paving way expansion of First French colonial empire rise of Protestantism Europe led France civil war known French Wars of Religion where most notorious incident thousands of Huguenots were murdered St Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572Wars of Religion were ended Henry IV's Edict of Nantes which granted some freedom of religion HuguenotsUnder Louis XIII energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted centralisation of state reinforced royal power disarming domestic power holders 1620s He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords denounced use of private violence (dueling carrying weapons maintaining private army) end of 1620s Richelieu established the royal monopoly of force doctrine France Spain fought 24-year war (the Franco-Spanish War) until signing of Treaty of Pyrenees 1659 war cost France 300,000 casualties During Louis XIV's minority regency of Queen Anne Cardinal Mazarin period of trouble known Fronde occurred France This rebellion was driven great feudal lords sovereign courts reaction rise of royal absolute power FranceLouis XIV of France standing plate armor blue sash facing left holding baton, 9th arrondissement Vaise Duchère Rochecardon St-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe Gorge de Loup Observance Champvert (north)! See also List of railway stations Paris. Centre d'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation, Hôtel national des Invalides, Église Saint-Bonaventure 14th- 15th-century Gothic church Administration. A map of Greater Paris Metropolis (Métropole du Grand Paris) its 131 communes Chanel's headquarters Place Vendôme ParisFashion has been important industry cultural export of France since 17th century modern haute couture originated Paris 1860s Today Paris along with London Milan New York City considered one of world's fashion capitals city home or headquarters many of premier fashion houses expression Haute couture is France legally protected name guaranteeing certain quality standardsThe association of France with fashion style (French la mode) dates largely reign of Louis XIV when luxury goods industries France came increasingly under royal control French royal court became arguably arbiter of taste style Europe But France renewed its dominance of high fashion (French couture or haute couture) industry years 1860–1960 through establishing of great couturier houses such Chanel Dior Givenchy French perfume industry world leader its sector centered town of GrasseIn 1960s elitist Haute couture came under criticism from France's youth culture 1966 designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms launching prêt-à-porter (ready wear) line expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing With greater focus marketing manufacturing new trends were established Sonia Rykiel Thierry Mugler Claude Montana Jean-Paul Gaultier Christian Lacroix 1970s 1980s 1990s saw conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants multinationals such LVMHMedia; Main article Tourism France Magdalena Frackowiak Paris Fashion Week (Fall 2011) Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon (17th 18th century) historical hospital with baroque chapel.