Église Saint-Paul Romanesque (12th 13th century) Gothic (15th–16th century) church Joan of Arc led French army several important victories during Hundred Years' War which paved way final victoryanimated gif showing changes French borders. Louis XIV sun king was absolute monarch of France made France leading European powerThe monarchy reached its peak during 17th century reign of Louis XIV turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers Palace of Versailles Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged Remembered his numerous wars he made France leading European power France became most populous country Europe had tremendous influence over European politics economy culture French became most-used language diplomacy science literature international affairs remained so until 20th century France obtained many overseas possessions Americas Africa Asia Louis XIV also revoked Edict of Nantes forcing thousands of Huguenots into exileUnder Louis XV Louis XIV's great-grandson France lost New France most of its Indian possessions after its defeat Seven Years' War which ended 1763 Its European territory kept growing however with notable acquisitions such Lorraine (1766) Corsica (1770) unpopular king Louis XV's weak rule his ill-advised financial political military decisions – well debauchery of his court– discredited monarchy which arguably paved way French Revolution 15 years after his deathLouis XVI Louis XV's grandson actively supported Americans who were seeking their independence from Great Britain (realised Treaty of Paris (1783)) financial crisis that followed France's involvement American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors French Revolution Much of Enlightenment occurred French intellectual circles major scientific breakthroughs inventions such discovery of oxygen (1778) first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783) were achieved French scientists French explorers such Bougainville Lapérouse took part voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around globe Enlightenment philosophy which reason advocated primary source legitimacy authority undermined power of support monarchy helped pave way French RevolutionRevolutionary France (1789–1799)! Main article Parks Lyon, Main article Education France, Panorama of Paris seen from Eiffel Tower full 360-degree view (river flowing from north-east south-west right left). Place Bellecour one of largest town squares Europe The main French research bodies including CNRS INSERM INRA all well represented Marseille Scientific research concentrated several sites across city including Luminy where there institutes developmental biology (the IBDML) immunology (CIML) marine sciences neurobiology (INMED) CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus (a world-renowned institute of molecular environmental microbiology) Timone hospital site (known work medical microbiology) Marseille also home headquarters of IRD which promotes research into questions affecting developing countriesTransport. African Museum of Lyon Main article Foreign relations of France. The west of France has strictly oceanic climate (Cfb) – extends from Flanders Basque Country coastal strip several tens of kilometres wide narrower north south but wider Brittany which almost entirely this climate zoneThe climate of Southwest also oceanic but warmerThe climate of Northwest oceanic but cooler windierAway from coast climate oceanic throughout but its characteristics change somewhat Paris sedimentary basin and more so basins protected mountain chains show stronger seasonal temperature variability less rainfall during autumn winter Therefore most of territory has semi-oceanic climate forms transition zone between strictly oceanic climate near coasts other climate zonesThe semi-continental climate (Dfa) of north centre-east (Alsace plains of Saône middle part of Rhône Dauphiné Auvergne Savoy)The Mediterranean lower Rhône valley experience Mediterranean climate (Csa Csb) due effect of mountain chains isolating them from rest of country resulting Mistral Tramontane windsThe mountain (or alpine) climates (Dfc ET) confined Alps Pyrenees summits of Massif Central Jura VosgesIn overseas regions there three broad types of climate. Most of low-lying areas of metropolitan France located oceanic climate zone Cfb Cfc Köppen classification Corsica small part of territory bordering mediterranean basin lies Csa Csb zones French metropolitan territory relatively large climate not uniform giving rise following climate nuances, The European Parliament Strasbourg near border with Germany France founding member of all EU institutionsFrance member of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) but under President de Gaulle excluded itself from joint military command protest special relationship between United States Britain preserve independence of French foreign security policies However result of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American politics (much criticised France leftists part of right) France rejoined NATO joint military command 4 April 2009In early 1990s country drew considerable criticism from other nations its underground nuclear tests French Polynesia France vigorously opposed 2003 invasion of Iraq, straining bilateral relations with United States United KingdomFrance retains strong political economic influence its former African colonies (Françafrique) has supplied economic aid troops peace-keeping missions Ivory Coast Chad Recently after unilateral declaration of independence of northern Mali Tuareg MNLA subsequent regional Northern Mali conflict with several Islamist groups including Ansar Dine MOJWA France other African states intervened help Malian Army retake controlIn 2013 France was fourth-largest (in absolute terms) donor of development aid world behind United States United Kingdom Germany This represents 0.36% of its GDP this regard rating France twelfth largest donor listorganisation managing French help French Development Agency which finances primarily humanitarian projects sub-Saharan Africamain goals of this support developing infrastructure access health care education implementation of appropriate economic policies consolidation of rule of law democracyMilitary! Animated map of growth decline of French colonial empireFrance had colonial possessions various forms since beginning of 17th century but 19th 20th centuries its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly became second largest world behind British Empire Including metropolitan France total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres 1920s 1930s 8.6% of world's land Known Belle Époque turn of century was period characterised optimism regional peace economic prosperity technological scientific cultural innovations 1905 state secularism was officially establishedThe French conquest of Morocco was one of longest toughest annals of European colonialism French historian Daniel Rivet puts casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted French occupation 100,000Contemporary period (1914–present).
Palais du Pharo, Maison Carrée temple Nemausus Corinthian columns portico, Like Paris Marseille city of Lyon divided into number of municipal arrondissements each of which identified number has its own council town hall Five arrondissements were originally created 1852 when three neighbouring communes (La Croix-Rousse La Guillotière Vaise) were annexed Lyon Between 1867 1959 third arrondissement (which originally covered whole of Left Bank of Rhône) was split three times creating new arrondissement each case Then 1963 commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe was annexed Lyon's fifth arrondissement year later 1964 fifth was split create Lyon's 9th – and date final – arrondissement Within each arrondissement recognisable quartiers or neighbourhoods are. Main article List of museums Paris, Most French rulers since Middle Ages made point of leaving their mark city that contrary many other of world's capitals has never been destroyed catastrophe or war modernising its infrastructure through centuries Paris has preserved even its earliest history its street mapits origin before Middle Ages city was composed around several islands sandbanks bend of Seine of those two remain today île Saint-Louis île de la Cité third one 1827 artificially created île aux CygnesModern Paris owes much of its downtown plan architectural harmony Napoleon III his Prefect of Seine Baron Haussmann Between 1853 1870 they rebuilt city centre created wide downtown boulevards squares where boulevards intersected imposed standard facades along boulevards required that facades be built of distinctive cream-grey Paris stone They also built major parks around city centrehigh residential population of its city centre also makes much different from most other western major citiesParis's urbanism laws have been under strict control since early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment building height building distribution concerned recent developments 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised 50 m (160 ft) central areas 180 metres (590 ft) some of Paris's peripheral quarters yet some of city's more central quarters even older building-height laws still remain effect210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held La Défense quarter Tour First tower Courbevoie since its 2011 constructionParisian examples of European architecture date back more than millennium including Romanesque church of Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163) early Gothic Architecture of Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144) Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345) Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248) Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) Les Invalides (1670–1708) 19th century produced neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842) Palais Garnier Opera House (1875) neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919) exuberant Belle Époque modernism of Eiffel Tower (1889) Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include Centre Georges Pompidou Richard Rogers Renzo Piano (1977) Louvre Pyramid I M Pei (1989) Contemporary architecture includes Musée du quad Branly Jean Nouvel (2006) contemporary art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation Frank Gehry (2014)., new Tribunal de Justice Renzo Piano (2018)Housing, The Roman ruins hillside near Fourvière Basilica with Ancient Theatre of Fourvière Odeon of Lyon accompanying Gallo-Roman Museum. The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris oldest hospital city, Bastille Day celebration of storming of Bastille 1789 biggest festival city military parade taking place every year 14 July Champs-Élysées from Arc de Triomphe Place de la Concorde includes flypast over Champs Élysées Patrouille de France parade of military units equipment display of fireworks evening most spectacular being one Eiffel TowerSome other yearly festivals Paris-Plages festive event that lasts from mid-July mid-August when Right Bank of Seine converted into temporary beach with sand deck chairs palm trees Journées du Patrimoine Fête de la Musique Techno Parade Nuit Blanche Cinéma au clair de lune Printemps des rues Festival d'automne Fête des jardins Carnaval de Paris one of oldest festivals Paris dates back Middle AgesEducation, The first book printed France Epistolae (Letters) Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza) was published Paris 1470 press established Johann Heynlin Since then Paris has been centre of French publishing industry home of some of world's best-known writers poets setting many classic works of French literature Almost all books published Paris Middle Ages were Latin rather than French Paris did not become acknowledged capital of French literature until 17th century with authors such Boileau Corneille La Fontaine Molière Racine several coming from provinces foundation of Académie française 18th century literary life of Paris revolved around cafés salons was dominated Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau Pierre de Marivaux BeaumarchaisDuring 19th century Paris was home subject some of France's greatest writers including Charles Baudelaire Stéphane Mallarmé Mérimée Alfred de Musset Marcel Proust Émile Zola Alexandre Dumas Gustave Flaubert Guy de Maupassant Honoré de Balzac Victor Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired renovation of its setting Notre-Dame de Paris Another of Victor Hugo's works Les Misérables written while he was exile outside France during Second Empire described social change political turmoil Paris early 1830s One of most popular of all French writers Jules Verne worked Theatre Lyrique Paris stock exchange while he did research his stories National Library.[citation not found]. Italy Rome Italy 1956 There some international private schools Lyon area including Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire Strasbourg stone building with portico park. Since 9 April 1956 Paris exclusively reciprocally twinned only with Main articles Demographics of France French people, Marseille Provence Airport fifth busiest FranceThe city served international airport Marseille Provence Airport located Marignane airport fifth busiest French airport known 4th most important European traffic growth 2012extensive network of motorways connects Marseille north west (A7) Aix-en-Provence north (A51) Toulon (A50) French Riviera (A8) eastGare de Marseille Saint-Charles Marseille's main railway station operates direct regional services Aix-en-Provence Briançon Toulon Avignon Nice Montpellier Toulouse Bordeaux Nantes etc Gare Saint-Charles also one of main terminal stations TGV south of France making Marseille reachable three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) just over one half hours from Lyon There also direct TGV lines Lille Brussels Nantes Geneva Strasbourg Frankfurt well Eurostar services London addition night train (Intercités de Nuit) from Luxembourg Strasbourg stops here its way Nice whereas night train from Paris Nice serves Gare de Marseille-Blancarde (fr)There new long distance bus station adjacent new modern extension Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly other Bouches-du-Rhône towns including buses Aix-en-Provence Cassis La Ciotat Aubagne city also served with 11 other regional trains stations east north of cityMarseille has large ferry terminal Gare Maritime with services Corsica Sardinia Algeria TunisiaPublic transport. The former main building of University of Paris now used classes from Paris-Sorbonne University other autonomous campusesParis département with highest proportion of highly educated people 2009 around 40 percent of Parisians held licence-level diploma or higher highest proportion France, while 13 percent have no diploma third-lowest percentage France Education Paris Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people 170,000 of whom teachers professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children students around 9,000 primary secondary higher education schools institutionsThe University of Paris founded 12th century often called Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities 1970 following student demonstrations 1968 Most of campuses today Latin Quarter where old university was located while others scattered around city suburbs.[citation not found]. The Region of Île de France including Paris its surrounding communities governed Regional Council which has its headquarters 7th arrondissement of Paris composed of 209 members representing different communes within region 15 December 2015 list of candidates of Union of Right coalition of centrist right-wing parties led Valérie Pécresse narrowly won regional election defeating coalition of Socialists ecologists Socialists had governed region seventeen years regional council has 121 members from Union of Right 66 from Union of Left 22 from extreme right National FrontNational government.