Main articles History of Marseille Timeline of Marseille Place Bellecour one of largest town squares Europe There several popular festivals different neighborhoods with concerts animations outdoor bars like Fête du Panier June 21 June there dozens of free concerts city part of France's Fête de la Musique featuring music from all over world Being free events many Marseille residents attendMarseille hosts Gay Pride event early July 2013 Marseille hosted Europride international LGBT event 10 July–20 beginning of July there International Documentary Festival end of September electronic music festival Marsatac takes place October Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world musicHip hop music. Main article French literature Hauts-de-France The Opéra de Marseille City Hall towering over Place des Terreaux. One of Lascaux paintings horse – approximately 18,000 BC. Bastille Day military parade Marseille 2012 Since 9 April 1956 Paris exclusively reciprocally twinned only with. Muslim (200,000) French composers played important role during music of 19th early 20th century which considered be Romantic music era Romantic music emphasised surrender nature fascination with past supernatural exploration of unusual strange surprising sounds focus national identity This period was also golden age operas French composers from Romantic era included Hector Berlioz (best known his Symphonie fantastique) Georges Bizet (best known Carmen which has become one of most popular frequently performed operas) Gabriel Fauré (best known his Pavane Requiem nocturnes) Charles Gounod (best known his Ave Maria his opera Faust) Jacques Offenbach (best known his 100 operettas of 1850s–1870s his uncompleted opera Tales of Hoffmann) Édouard Lalo (best known his Symphonie espagnole violin orchestra his Cello Concerto D minor) Jules Massenet (best known his operas of which he wrote more than thirty most frequently staged Manon (1884) Werther (1892)) Camille Saint-Saëns (he has many frequently-performed works including Carnival of Animals Danse macabre Samson Delilah (Opera) Introduction Rondo Capriccioso his Symphony No 3)Claude Debussy 1900; EPITA Since late 18th century Paris has been famous its restaurants haute cuisine food meticulously prepared artfully presented luxury restaurant La Taverne Anglaise opened 1786 arcades of Palais-Royal Antoine Beauvilliers featured elegant dining room extensive menu linen tablecloths large wine list well-trained waiters became model future Paris restaurants restaurant Le Grand Véfour Palais-Royal dates from same periodfamous Paris restaurants of 19th century including Café de Paris Rocher de Cancale Café Anglais Maison Dorée Café Riche were mostly located near theatres Boulevard des Italiens they were immortalised novels of Balzac Émile Zola Several of best-known restaurants Paris today appeared during Belle Epoque including Maxim's Rue Royale Ledoyen gardens of Champs-Élysées Tour d'Argent Quai de la TournelleToday due Paris's cosmopolitan population every French regional cuisine almost every national cuisine world can be found there city has more than 9,000 restaurantsMichelin Guide has been standard guide French restaurants since 1900 awarding its highest award three stars best restaurants France 2018 of 27 Michelin three-star restaurants France ten located Paris These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine such L'Ambroisie Place des Vosges those which serve non-traditional menus such L'Astrance which combines French Asian cuisines Several of France's most famous chefs including Pierre Gagnaire Alain Ducasse Yannick Alléno Alain Passard have three-star restaurants ParisLes Deux Magots café Boulevard Saint-Germain, The main French research bodies including CNRS INSERM INRA all well represented Marseille Scientific research concentrated several sites across city including Luminy where there institutes developmental biology (the IBDML) immunology (CIML) marine sciences neurobiology (INMED) CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus (a world-renowned institute of molecular environmental microbiology) Timone hospital site (known work medical microbiology) Marseille also home headquarters of IRD which promotes research into questions affecting developing countriesTransport.
No religion (39.6%) CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie) Main articles Gaul Celts Roman Gaul! La Vieille Charité Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs decorative arts textile museum holds one of world's largest textile collections with 2,500,000 works; French territorial evolution from 985 1947The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987 when Hugh Capet Duke of France Count of Paris was crowned King of Franks His descendants—the Capetians House of Valois House of Bourbon—progressively unified country through wars dynastic inheritance into Kingdom of France which was fully declared 1190 Philip II Augustus French nobility played prominent role most Crusades order restore Christian access Holy Land French knights made up bulk of steady flow of reinforcements throughout two-hundred-year span of Crusades such fashion that Arabs uniformly referred crusaders Franj caring little whether they really came from FranceFrench Crusaders also imported French language into Levant making French base of lingua franca (litt Frankish language) of Crusader states French knights also made up majority both Hospital Temple orders latter particular held numerous properties throughout France 13th century were principal bankers French crown until Philip IV annihilated order 1307 Albigensian Crusade was launched 1209 eliminate heretical Cathars southwestern area of modern-day France end Cathars were exterminated autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into crown lands of France Later kings expanded their domain cover over half of modern continental France including most of north centre west of France Meanwhile royal authority became more more assertive centred hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility clergy commonersCharles IV Fair died without heir 1328 Under rules of Salic law crown of France could not pass woman nor could line of kingship pass through female line Accordingly crown passed Philip of Valois cousin of Charles rather than through female line Charles' nephew Edward who would soon become Edward III of England During reign of Philip of Valois French monarchy reached height of its medieval power Philip's seat throne was contested Edward III of England 1337 eve of first wave of Black Death, England France went war what would become known Hundred Years' Warexact boundaries changed greatly with time but French landholdings of English Kings remained extensive decades With charismatic leaders such Joan of Arc La Hire strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories Like rest of Europe France was struck Black Death half of 17 million population of France diedEarly modern period (15th century–1789), École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France part of monetary union Eurozone (dark blue) of European Single MarketA member of Group of Seven (formerly Group of Eight) leading industrialised countries of 2014 ranked world's ninth largest EU's second largest economy purchasing power parity With 31 of 500 biggest companies world 2015 France ranks fourth Fortune Global 500 ahead of Germany UK France joined 11 other EU members launch euro 1999 with euro coins banknotes completely replacing French franc (₣) 2002France has mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise with substantial state enterprise government intervention government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors with majority ownership of railway electricity aircraft nuclear power telecommunications.[not citation given] has been relaxing its control over these sectors since early 1990s.[not citation given] government slowly corporatising state sector selling off holdings France Télécom Air France well insurance banking defence industries.[not citation given] France has important aerospace industry led European consortium Airbus has its own national spaceport Centre Spatial GuyanaisComposition of French economy (GDP) 2016 expenditure type.