Châteaux Musée des Automates museum of automated puppets Vieux Lyon open since 1991Parks gardens, ENTPE (École Nationale des Travaux Publiques de l'État), Transport The Lycée Louis-le-Grand Culture History administrative language. Sculpture of Marianne common national personification of French RepublicAccording BBC poll 2010 based 29,977 responses 28 countries France globally seen positive influence world's affairs 49% have positive view of country's influence whereas 19% have negative viewNation Brand Index of 2008 suggested that France has second best international reputation only behind Germanyglobal opinion poll BBC saw France ranked fourth most positively viewed nation world (behind Germany Canada United Kingdom) 2014According poll 2011 French were found have highest level of religious tolerance be country where highest proportion of population defines its identity primarily term of nationality not religionof 2011 75% of French had favourable view of United States making France one of most pro-American countries worldof 2017 favourable view of United States had dropped 46%January 2010 magazine International Living ranked France best country live in ahead of 193 other countries fifth year runningThe French Revolution continues permeate country's collective memory tricolour flag of France, anthem La Marseillaise motto Liberté égalité fraternité defined Title 1 of Constitution national symbols all emerged during cultural ferment of early revolution along with Marianne common national personification addition Bastille Day national holiday commemorates storming of Bastille 14 July 1789A common traditional symbol of French people Gallic rooster Its origins date back Antiquity since Latin word Gallus meant both rooster inhabitant of Gaul Then this figure gradually became most widely shared representation of French used French monarchs then Revolution under successive republican regimes representation of national identity used some stamps coinsCuisine. See also Marseille-Provence 2013, Most French rulers since Middle Ages made point of leaving their mark city that contrary many other of world's capitals has never been destroyed catastrophe or war modernising its infrastructure through centuries Paris has preserved even its earliest history its street mapits origin before Middle Ages city was composed around several islands sandbanks bend of Seine of those two remain today île Saint-Louis île de la Cité third one 1827 artificially created île aux CygnesModern Paris owes much of its downtown plan architectural harmony Napoleon III his Prefect of Seine Baron Haussmann Between 1853 1870 they rebuilt city centre created wide downtown boulevards squares where boulevards intersected imposed standard facades along boulevards required that facades be built of distinctive cream-grey Paris stone They also built major parks around city centrehigh residential population of its city centre also makes much different from most other western major citiesParis's urbanism laws have been under strict control since early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment building height building distribution concerned recent developments 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised 50 m (160 ft) central areas 180 metres (590 ft) some of Paris's peripheral quarters yet some of city's more central quarters even older building-height laws still remain effect210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held La Défense quarter Tour First tower Courbevoie since its 2011 constructionParisian examples of European architecture date back more than millennium including Romanesque church of Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163) early Gothic Architecture of Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144) Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345) Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248) Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) Les Invalides (1670–1708) 19th century produced neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842) Palais Garnier Opera House (1875) neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919) exuberant Belle Époque modernism of Eiffel Tower (1889) Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include Centre Georges Pompidou Richard Rogers Renzo Piano (1977) Louvre Pyramid I M Pei (1989) Contemporary architecture includes Musée du quad Branly Jean Nouvel (2006) contemporary art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation Frank Gehry (2014)., new Tribunal de Justice Renzo Piano (2018)Housing, Main articles Arrondissements of Marseille Cantons of Marseille. World map of French speaking countries, Main article List of French inventions discoveries, By 1901 population of Paris had grown 2,715,000 beginning of century artists from around world including Pablo Picasso Modigliani Henri Matisse made Paris their home was birthplace of Fauvism Cubism abstract art, authors such Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches literatureDuring First World War Paris sometimes found itself front line 600 1,000 Paris taxis played small but highly important symbolic role transporting 6,000 soldiers front line First Battle of Marne city was also bombed Zeppelins shelled German long-range guns years after war known Les Années Folles Paris continued be mecca writers musicians artists from around world including Ernest Hemingway Igor Stravinsky James Joyce Josephine Baker Sidney Bechet surrealist Salvador DalíIn years after peace conference city was also home growing numbers of students activists from French colonies other Asian African countries who later became leaders of their countries such Ho Chi Minh Zhou Enlai Léopold Sédar SenghorGeneral Charles de Gaulle Champs-Élysées celebrating liberation of Paris (26 August 1944).
Cathedral of St John medieval church with architectural elements of 13th 14th 15th centuries also principal religious structure city seat of Archbishop of Lyon La Mouche Cattle Market Abbatoir (1914 1928) designed Tony Garnier. Main article Lutetia Parc des hauteurs Fourvières. Chanel's headquarters storefront window Place Vendôme Paris with awning Minaret of Grand Mosque of Paris. FranceGrand Est Judaism (0.8%) The Lycée Louis-le-Grand, See also List of French monarchs France Middle Ages Main articles History of Paris Timeline of Paris. Montessori School of LyonSupplementary education Université Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille III A central hub of national rail network Paris's six major railway stations (Gare du Nord Gare de l'Est Gare de Lyon Gare d'Austerlitz Gare Montparnasse Gare Saint-Lazare) minor one (Gare de Bercy) connected three networks TGV serving four high-speed rail lines normal speed Corail trains suburban rails (Transilien)Métro RER tramway. Paris skyline 2014 See also Architecture of Paris Haussmann's renovation of Paris Religious buildings Paris List of tallest buildings structures Paris region, Map of 25 largest urban units population, Tourists from around world make Louvre most-visited art museum worldGreater Paris comprising Paris its three surrounding departments received 23.6 million visitors 2017 measured hotel arrivals These included 12 million foreign visitors 11.5 million French visitors Of foreign visitors greatest number came from United States (2 million) Great Britain (1.1 million) Germany (802.6 thousand) China (774.4 thousand)In 2016 measured MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index Paris was third-busiest airline destination world with 18.03 million visitors behind Bangkok (21.47 million) London (19.88 million) According Paris Convention Visitors Bureau 393,008 workers Greater Paris or 12.4% of total workforce engaged tourism-related sectors such hotels catering transport leisureMonuments attractions. The Stade de France was built 1998 FIFA World Cup listed UEFA category four stadiumThe French Open also called Roland-Garros major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May early June Stade Roland-Garros Paris premier clay court tennis championship event world second of four annual Grand Slam tournamentsRugby union popular particularly Paris southwest of Francenational rugby union team has competed every Rugby World Cup takes part annual Six Nations Championship Stemming from strong domestic league French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships including 8 grand slams has reached semi-final of Rugby World Cup 6 times going final 3 timesRugby league France mostly played followed South of France cities such Perpignan Toulouse Catalans Dragons Toulouse Olympique most notable clubs currently playing Super League RFL Championship top-tier rugby league competitions Europe Elite One Championship professional competition rugby league clubs FranceIn recent decades France has produced world-elite basketball players most notably Tony Parker French National Basketball Team won gold FIBA EuroBasket 2013 national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals 2000 1948Paris (French pronunciation [paʁi] (About this sound listen)) capital most populous city of France with area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) population of 2,206,488 With 200,000 inhabitants 1328 Paris then already capital of France was most populous city of Europe comparison London 1300 had 80,000 inhabitants Since 17th century Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance commerce fashion science music painting Paris Region had GDP of €681 billion (US$850 billion) 2016 accounting 31 per cent of GDP of France2013–2014 Paris Region had third-highest GDP world largest regional GDP EU According Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey 2018 Paris was second-most expensive city world behind Singapore ahead of Zurich Hong Kong Oslo GenevaThe City of Paris's administrative limits form East-West oval centred island its historical heart Île de la Cité this island near top of arc of river Seine that divides city into southern Rive Gauche (Left Bank) northern Rive Droite regions Paris core of built-up area that extends well beyond its limits commonly referred agglomération Parisienne statistically unité urbaine (a measure of urban area) Paris agglomeration's 2013 population of 10,601,122 made largest urban area European Union.[not citation given] City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this statistical aire urbaine de Paris (a measure of metropolitan area) that had 2013 population of 12,405,426, number one-fifth population of France, largest metropolitan area EurozoneThe city major rail highway air-transport hub served two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle (the second busiest airport Europe after London Heathrow Airport with 69.5 million passengers 2017) Paris-Orly Opened 1900 city's subway system Paris Métro serves 5.23 million passengers daily, second busiest metro system Europe after Moscow Metro Paris's Gare du Nord one of ten busiest railway stations world with 262 million passengers 2015Paris especially known its museums architectural landmarks Louvre was most visited art museum world 2017 with 8.1 million visitorsMusée d'Orsay Musée de l'Orangerie noted their collections of French Impressionist art Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has largest collection of modern contemporary art Europe historical district along Seine city centre classified UNESCO Heritage Site Popular landmarks centre of city include Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle both Île de la Cité Eiffel Tower constructed Paris Universal Exposition of 1889 Grand Palais Petit Palais built Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 Arc de Triomphe Champs-Élysées Basilica of Sacré-Coeur hill of Montmartre Paris received 23 million visitors 2017 measured hotel stays with largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from United States UK Germany Chinawas ranked third most visited travel destination world 2017 after Bangkok LondonThe football club Paris Saint-Germain rugby union club Stade Français based Paris 80,000-seat Stade de France built 1998 FIFA World Cup located just north of Paris neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis Paris hosts annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament red clay of Roland Garros Paris hosted Olympic Games 1900 1924 will host 2024 Summer Olympics 1938 1998 FIFA World Cups 2007 Rugby World Cup 1960 1984 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held city and every July Tour de France bicycle race finishes thereEtymology, OccitanieProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur This section needs be updated Please update this article reflect recent events or newly available information (June 2017), France one of biggest contributors European Space Agency which conceived Ariane rocket family launched from French GuianaSince Middle Ages France has been major contributor scientific technological achievement Around beginning of 11th century Pope Sylvester II born Gerbert d'Aurillac reintroduced abacus armillary sphere introduced Arabic numerals clocks Northern Western EuropeUniversity of Paris founded mid-12th century still one of most important universities Western world 17th century mathematician René Descartes defined method acquisition of scientific knowledge while Blaise Pascal became famous his work probability fluid mechanics They were both key figures of Scientific revolution which blossomed Europe during this period Academy of Sciences was founded Louis XIV encourage protect spirit of French scientific research was forefront of scientific developments Europe 17th 18th centuries one of earliest academies of sciencesThe Age of Enlightenment was marked work of biologist Buffon chemist Lavoisier who discovered role of oxygen combustion while Diderot D'Alembert published Encyclopédie which aimed give access useful knowledge people knowledge that they can apply their everyday life With Industrial Revolution 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments France with scientists such Augustin Fresnel founder of modern optics Sadi Carnot who laid foundations of thermodynamics Louis Pasteur pioneer of microbiology Other eminent French scientists of 19th century have their names inscribed Eiffel TowerFamous French scientists of 20th century include mathematician physicist Henri Poincaré physicists Henri Becquerel Pierre Marie Curie remained famous their work radioactivity physicist Paul Langevin virologist Luc Montagnier co-discoverer of HIV AIDS Hand transplantation was developed 23 September 1998 Lyon team assembled from different countries around world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who shortly thereafter performed first successful double hand transplant Telesurgery was developed Jacques Marescaux his team 7 September 2001 across Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg Lindbergh Operation)face transplant was first done 27 November 2005 Dr Bernard DevauchelleTop view of ring of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.