French cuisine also regarded key element of quality of life attractiveness of FranceFrench publication Michelin guide awards Michelin stars excellence select few establishmentsacquisition or loss of star can have dramatic effects success of restaurant 2006 Michelin Guide had awarded 620 stars French restaurants that time more than any other country although guide also inspects more restaurants France than any other country (by 2010 Japan was awarded many Michelin stars France despite having half number of Michelin inspectors working there)In addition its wine tradition France also major producer of beer rum three main French brewing regions Alsace (60% of national production) Nord-Pas-de-Calais Lorraine meal often consists of three courses hors d'œuvre or entrée (introductory course sometimes soup) plat principal (main course) fromage (cheese course) or dessert sometimes with salad offered before cheese or dessert France produces rum via distilleries located islands such Reunion Island southern Indian OceanSports, Swordfish olive oil with ratatouille saffron rice, French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation According 2011 survey IFOP French public opinion research organisation 61 percent of residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves Roman Catholic though just 15 percent said they were practising Catholics while 46 percent were non-practicing same survey 7 percent of residents identified themselves Muslims 4 percent Protestants 2 percent Jewish 25 percent without religionAccording INSEE French government statistical office between 4 5 million French residents were born or had least one parent born predominantly Muslim country particularly Algeria Morocco Tunisia IFOP survey 2008 reported that of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries 25 percent went mosque regularly 41 percent practised religion 34 percent were believers but did not practice religion2012 2013 was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims City of Paris 1.5 million Muslims Île-de-France region 4 5 million Muslims FranceThe Jewish population of Paris Region was estimated 2014 be 282,000 largest concentration of Jews world outside of Israel United StatesEconomy. The Storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 was most emblematic event of French RevolutionFacing financial troubles King Louis XVI summoned Estates-General (gathering three Estates of realm) May 1789 propose solutions his government came impasse representatives of Third Estate formed into National Assembly signalling outbreak of French Revolution Fearing that king would suppress newly created National Assembly insurgents stormed Bastille 14 July 1789 date which would become France's National DayIn early August 1789 National Constituent Assembly abolished privileges of nobility such personal serfdom exclusive hunting rights Through Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen (27 August 1789) France established fundamental rights men Declaration affirms the natural imprescriptible rights of man liberty property security resistance oppression Freedom of speech press were declared arbitrary arrests outlawed called destruction of aristocratic privileges proclaimed freedom equal rights all men well access public office based talent rather than birthIn November 1789 Assembly decided nationalize sell all property of Roman Catholic Church which had been largest landowner country July 1790 Civil Constitution of Clergy reorganised French Catholic Church cancelling authority of Church levy taxes et cetera This fueled much discontent parts of France which would contribute civil war breaking out some years later While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among population his disastrous flight Varennes (June 1791) seemed justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation prospects of foreign invasion His credibility was so deeply undermined that abolition of monarchy establishment of republic became increasing possibilityIn August 1791 Emperor of Austria King of Prussia Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France intervene force of arms restore French absolute monarchy September 1791 National Constituent Assembly forced King Louis XVI accept French Constitution of 1791 thus turning French absolute monarchy into constitutional monarchy newly established Legislative Assembly (October 1791) enmity developed deepened between group later called 'Girondins' who favored war with Austria Prussia group later called 'Montagnards' or 'Jacobins' who opposed such war majority Assembly 1792 however saw war with Austria Prussia chance boost popularity of revolutionary government thought that France would win war against those gathered monarchies 20 April 1792 therefore they declared war Austria.[XIV], Caves Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil part of UNESCO Prehistoric Sites Decorated Caves of Vézère ValleyGeological formations near Roussillon Vaucluse dating back Post-classical historyMetropolitan France has wide variety of topographical sets natural landscapes Large parts of current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like Hercynian uplift Paleozoic Era during which Armorican Massif Massif Central Morvan Vosges Ardennes ranges island of Corsica were formed These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such Aquitaine basin southwest Paris basin north latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such silt beds of Beauce Brie Various routes of natural passage such Rhône valley allow easy communications Alpine Pyrenean Jura mountains much younger have less eroded forms 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft) above sea level Mont Blanc located Alps French Italian border highest point Western EuropeAlthough 60% of municipalities classified having seismic risks these risks remain moderate coastlines offer contrasting landscapes mountain ranges along French Riviera coastal cliffs such Côte d'Albâtre wide sandy plains Languedoc Corsica lies off Mediterranean coast France has extensive river system consisting of four major rivers Seine Loire Garonne Rhône their tributaries whose combined catchment includes over 62% of metropolitan territory Rhône divides Massif Central from Alps flows into Mediterranean Sea Camargue Other water courses drain towards Meuse Rhine along north-eastern borders France has 11 million square kilometres (4.2×106 sq mi) of marine waters within three oceans under its jurisdiction of which 97% overseasClimate, City Hall towering over Place des Terreaux! Main article Religion France Other Japanese supplementary schools, René Descartes founder of modern philosophyFrench philosophers produced some of most important political works of Age of Enlightenment Spirit of Laws Baron de Montesquieu theorised principle of separation of powers which has been implemented all liberal democracies since was first applied United States Voltaire came embody Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties such right free trial freedom of religion19th-century French thought was targeted responding social malaise following French Revolution Rationalist philosophers such Victor Cousin Auguste Comte who called new social doctrine were opposed reactionary thinkers such Joseph de Maistre Louis de Bonald Félicité Robert de Lamennais who blamed rationalist rejection of traditional order De Maistre considered together with Englishman Edmund Burke one of founders of European conservatism while Comte regarded founder of positivism which Émile Durkheim reformulated basis social researchIn 20th century partly reaction perceived excesses of positivism French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such Henri Bergson influenced American pragmatism Whitehead's version of process philosophy Meanwhile French epistemology became prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré Gaston Bachelard Jean Cavaillès Jules Vuillemin Influenced German phenomenology existentialism philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre gained strong influence after World War II late-20th-century-France became craddle of postmodern philosophy with Jean-François Lyotard Jean Baudrillard Jacques Derrida Michel FoucaultMusic. Geographically Lyon's two main rivers Saône Rhône divide arrondissements into three groups, Amphitheatre of Three Gauls Roman ruins of amphitheatreMiddle Ages Renaissance Lyon background with Fourvière left.
Overview Lyon during Fête des Lumières Main article Law of France. The Opéra de Marseille Parc de la Tête d'or (literally Golden Head Park) central Lyon largest urban park France 117 hectares Located 6th arrondissement features large lake which boating takes place during summer monthsJardin botanique de Lyon (8 hectares) included Parc de la Tête d'Or municipal botanical garden open weekdays without charge garden was established 1857 successor earlier botanical gardens dating 1796 now describes itself France's largest municipal botanical gardenParc de Gerland south of city (80 hectares); ENTPE (École Nationale des Travaux Publiques de l'État), The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called Canebière) stretches eastward from Old Port Réformés quarter Two large forts flank entrance Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas south side Fort Saint-Jean north Farther out Bay of Marseille Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands one of which If location of Château d'If made famous Dumas novel Count of Monte Cristo main commercial centre of city intersects with Canebière Rue St Ferréol Centre Bourse (one of city's main shopping malls) centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones most notably Rue St Ferréol Cours Julien near Music Conservatory Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off Old Port area around Hôtel de Ville south east of central Marseille 6th arrondissement Prefecture monumental fountain of Place Castellane important bus metro interchange south west hills of 7th 8th arrondissements dominated basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of Centre Bourse 1st arrondissement linked Boulevard d'Athènes CanebièreClimate, An extensive bus network serves city suburbs of Marseille with 104 lines 633 buses three lines of tramway, opened 2007 go from CMA CGM Tower towards Les CaillolsAs many other French cities bike-sharing service nicknamed Le vélo free trips of less than half hour was introduced city council 2007A free ferry service operates between two opposite quays of Old Port From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between Old Port Pointe Rouge spring 2013 will also run l'Estaque There also ferry services boat trips available from Old Port Frioul Calanques CassisSport. Palme d'Or award presentation case Ariane four rocket taking off past tower, Paris its early history had only rivers Seine Bièvre water From 1809 Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers north-east of capital From 1857 civil engineer Eugène Belgrand under Napoleon III oversaw construction of series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around city several reservoirs built atop Capital's highest points of elevation From then on new reservoir system became Paris's principal source of drinking water remains of old system pumped into lower levels of same reservoirs were from then used cleaning of Paris's streets This system still major part of Paris's modern water-supply network Today Paris has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways dedicated evacuation of Paris's liquid wastesIn 1982 Mayor Chirac introduced motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte remove dog faeces from Paris streetsproject was abandoned 2002 new better enforced local law under terms of which dog owners can be fined up €500 not removing their dog faecesair pollution Paris from point of view of particulate matter (PM10) highest France with 38 µg/m³Parks gardens. EM Lyon (École de Management de Lyon) Paul Cézanne's Bay of Marseille Seen from L'Estaque. See also List of most visited museums Bal-musette style of French music dance that first became popular Paris 1870s 1880s 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls working-class neighbourhoods of city Patrons danced bourrée accompaniment of cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called musette) often vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) cafés bars of city Parisian Italian musicians who played accordion adopted style established themselves Auvergnat bars especially 19th arrondissement, romantic sounds of accordion has since become one of musical icons of city Paris became major centre jazz still attracts jazz musicians from all around world its clubs cafésParis spiritual home of gypsy jazz particular many of Parisian jazzmen who developed first half of 20th century began playing Bal-musette city Django Reinhardt rose fame Paris having moved 18th arrondissement caravan young boy performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli their Quintette du Hot Club de France 1930s 1940sImmediately after War Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home many small jazz clubs mostly found cellars because of lack of space these included Caveau des Lorientais Club Saint-Germain Rose Rouge Vieux-Colombier most famous Le Tabou They introduced Parisians music of Claude Luter Boris Vian Sydney Bechet Mezz Mezzrow Henri Salvador Most of clubs closed early 1960s musical tastes shifted toward rock rollSome of finest manouche musicians world found here playing cafés of city night Some of more notable jazz venues include New Morning Le Sunset La Chope des Puces Bouquet du Nord Several yearly festivals take place Paris including Paris Jazz Festival(fr) rock festival Rock en SeineOrchestre de Paris was established 1967On 19 December 2015 Paris other worldwide fans commemorated 100th anniversary of birth of Edith Piaf—a French cabaret singer songwriter actress who became widely regarded France's national chanteuse well being one of France's greatest international stars Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier Charles Aznavour Yves Montand Charles TrenetParis has big hip hop scene This music became popular during 1980spresence of large African Caribbean community helped its development gave voice political social status many minoritiesCinema; In 1572 Lyon was scene of mass violence Catholics against Protestant Huguenots St Bartholomew's Day Massacre Two centuries later Lyon was again convulsed violence when during French Revolution citizenry rose up against National Convention supported Girondins city was besieged Revolutionary armies over two months before surrendering October 1793 Many buildings were destroyed especially around Place Bellecour while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Joseph Fouché administered execution of more than 2,000 people Convention ordered that its name be changed Liberated City plaque was erected that proclaimed Lyons made war Liberty Lyons no longer existsdecade later Napoleon ordered reconstruction of all buildings demolished during this periodThe city became important industrial town during 19th century 1831 1834 canuts (silk workers) of Lyon staged two major uprisings better working conditions pay 1862 first of Lyon's extensive network of funicular railways began operationDuring World War II Lyon was centre occupying Nazi forces including Klaus Barbie infamous Butcher of Lyon But city was also stronghold of French Resistance – many secret passages known traboules enabled people escape Gestapo raids 3 September 1944 Lyon was liberated 1st Free French Division Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur city now home resistance museumGeography, Twin towns partner cities, Tour IncityMuseums OccitanieProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Further information Energy France Medieval philosophy was dominated Scholasticism until emergence of Humanism Renaissance Modern philosophy began France 17th century with philosophy of René Descartes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Descartes revitalised Western philosophy which had been declined after Greek Roman eras His Meditations First Philosophy changed primary object of philosophical thought raised some of most fundamental problems foreigners such Spinoza Leibniz Hume Berkeley KantFrans Hals painting of René Descartes facing right black coat white collar.