In addition 18 regions 101 departments French Republic has five overseas collectivities (French Polynesia Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre Miquelon Wallis Futuna) one sui generis collectivity (New Caledonia) one overseas territory (French Southern Antarctic Lands) one island possession Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island)Overseas collectivities territories form part of French Republic but do not form part of European Union or its fiscal area (with exception of St Bartelemy which seceded from Guadeloupe 2007) Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia Wallis Futuna New Caledonia continue use CFP franc whose value strictly linked that of euro contrast five overseas regions used French franc now use eurodiagram of overseas territories of France showing map shapes, Main articles History of France § Revolutionary France (1789–1799) French Revolution, The Stade de France was built 1998 FIFA World Cup listed UEFA category four stadiumThe French Open also called Roland-Garros major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May early June Stade Roland-Garros Paris premier clay court tennis championship event world second of four annual Grand Slam tournamentsRugby union popular particularly Paris southwest of Francenational rugby union team has competed every Rugby World Cup takes part annual Six Nations Championship Stemming from strong domestic league French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships including 8 grand slams has reached semi-final of Rugby World Cup 6 times going final 3 timesRugby league France mostly played followed South of France cities such Perpignan Toulouse Catalans Dragons Toulouse Olympique most notable clubs currently playing Super League RFL Championship top-tier rugby league competitions Europe Elite One Championship professional competition rugby league clubs FranceIn recent decades France has produced world-elite basketball players most notably Tony Parker French National Basketball Team won gold FIBA EuroBasket 2013 national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals 2000 1948Paris (French pronunciation [paʁi] (About this sound listen)) capital most populous city of France with area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) population of 2,206,488 With 200,000 inhabitants 1328 Paris then already capital of France was most populous city of Europe comparison London 1300 had 80,000 inhabitants Since 17th century Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance commerce fashion science music painting Paris Region had GDP of €681 billion (US$850 billion) 2016 accounting 31 per cent of GDP of France2013–2014 Paris Region had third-highest GDP world largest regional GDP EU According Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey 2018 Paris was second-most expensive city world behind Singapore ahead of Zurich Hong Kong Oslo GenevaThe City of Paris's administrative limits form East-West oval centred island its historical heart Île de la Cité this island near top of arc of river Seine that divides city into southern Rive Gauche (Left Bank) northern Rive Droite regions Paris core of built-up area that extends well beyond its limits commonly referred agglomération Parisienne statistically unité urbaine (a measure of urban area) Paris agglomeration's 2013 population of 10,601,122 made largest urban area European Union.[not citation given] City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this statistical aire urbaine de Paris (a measure of metropolitan area) that had 2013 population of 12,405,426, number one-fifth population of France, largest metropolitan area EurozoneThe city major rail highway air-transport hub served two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle (the second busiest airport Europe after London Heathrow Airport with 69.5 million passengers 2017) Paris-Orly Opened 1900 city's subway system Paris Métro serves 5.23 million passengers daily, second busiest metro system Europe after Moscow Metro Paris's Gare du Nord one of ten busiest railway stations world with 262 million passengers 2015Paris especially known its museums architectural landmarks Louvre was most visited art museum world 2017 with 8.1 million visitorsMusée d'Orsay Musée de l'Orangerie noted their collections of French Impressionist art Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has largest collection of modern contemporary art Europe historical district along Seine city centre classified UNESCO Heritage Site Popular landmarks centre of city include Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle both Île de la Cité Eiffel Tower constructed Paris Universal Exposition of 1889 Grand Palais Petit Palais built Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 Arc de Triomphe Champs-Élysées Basilica of Sacré-Coeur hill of Montmartre Paris received 23 million visitors 2017 measured hotel stays with largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from United States UK Germany Chinawas ranked third most visited travel destination world 2017 after Bangkok LondonThe football club Paris Saint-Germain rugby union club Stade Français based Paris 80,000-seat Stade de France built 1998 FIFA World Cup located just north of Paris neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis Paris hosts annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament red clay of Roland Garros Paris hosted Olympic Games 1900 1924 will host 2024 Summer Olympics 1938 1998 FIFA World Cups 2007 Rugby World Cup 1960 1984 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held city and every July Tour de France bicycle race finishes thereEtymology. Buddhist (3,000)Culture Police (Gendarmerie) motorcyclists Paris On 8 May 1945 while Liberation was celebrated France peaceful demonstrations Sétif eastern Algeria were violently repressed More than 40,000 Algerian fell victim shooting strafing from planes armed cars end of same month French bombarded Damascus killing hundredsbombardment of Haiphong 23 November 1946 killed about 6,000 Between March 1947 September 1948 electoral victory of proponents of independence Madagascar was followed savage repression French army (18,000 mostly Senegalese troops) resulting some 90,000 deaths Some 200 peaceful civilians demonstrating independence were killed (mostly Senegalese) French troops Casablanca Morocco April 7–8 1947Cameroon radical nationalist movement independence Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) was forced underground engaged guerrilla warfare against French administration ensuing repression of French army paramilitary forces (gendarmerie) took form during 1958–1960 of scorched-earth policy whereby entire villages of south-central western Cameroon Bassa Bamiléké areas were burned ground resulting between 60,000 100,000 deaths France attempted regain control of French Indochina but was defeated Viet Minh 1954 climactic Battle of Dien Bien Phu Estimates of number of Vietnamese military civilian casualties during war of independence from France range from 300,000 dead 300,000 wounded half million dead 1 million woundedOnly months later France faced another anti-colonialist conflict Algeria Torture illegal executions were perpetrated both sides debate over whether or not keep control of Algeria then home over one million European settlers, wracked country nearly led coup civil war1958 weak unstable Fourth Republic gave way Fifth Republic which included strengthened Presidency latter role Charles de Gaulle managed keep country together while taking steps end Algerian war Despite its military victory France granted independence Algerians war exacted heavy human toll among Algerian population resulted some 500,000 deaths 2,137,000 internally displaced Algeriansvestige of colonial empire French overseas departments territoriesIn context of Cold War de Gaulle pursued policy of national independence towards Western Eastern blocs this end he withdrew from NATO's military integrated command he launched nuclear development programme made France fourth nuclear power He restored cordial Franco-German relations order create European counterweight between American Soviet spheres of influence However he opposed any development of supranational Europe favouring Europe of sovereign nations wake of series of worldwide protests of 1968 revolt of May 1968 had enormous social impact France considered be watershed moment when conservative moral ideal (religion patriotism respect authority) shifted towards more liberal moral ideal (secularism individualism sexual revolution) Although revolt was political failure (as Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before) announced split between French people de Gaulle who resigned shortly afterIn post-Gaullist era France remained one of most developed economies world but faced several economic crises that resulted high unemployment rates increasing public debt late 20th early 21st centuries France has been forefront of development of supranational European Union notably signing Maastricht Treaty (which created European Union) 1992 establishing Eurozone 1999 signing Lisbon Treaty 2007 France has also gradually but fully reintegrated into NATO has since participated most NATO sponsored warsPlace de la République statue column with large French flag.
Main article Writers Paris Because of its pre-eminence Mediterranean port Marseille has always been one of main gateways into France This has attracted many immigrants made Marseille cosmopolitan melting pot end of 18th century about half population originated from elsewhere Provence mostly also from southern France.[page needed]! Most of low-lying areas of metropolitan France located oceanic climate zone Cfb Cfc Köppen classification Corsica small part of territory bordering mediterranean basin lies Csa Csb zones French metropolitan territory relatively large climate not uniform giving rise following climate nuances, African Museum of Lyon, France has 37 sites inscribed UNESCO's World Heritage List features cities of high cultural interest beaches seaside resorts ski resorts rural regions that many enjoy their beauty tranquillity (green tourism) Small picturesque French villages promoted through association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (literally The Most Beautiful Villages of France) Remarkable Gardens label list of over 200 gardens classified French Ministry of Culture This label intended protect promote remarkable gardens parks France attracts many religious pilgrims their way St James or Lourdes town Hautes-Pyrénées that hosts several million visitors yearEnergy.
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