Basilica of St-Martin-d'Ainay one of rare surviving Romanesque basilica-style churches Lyon Emmanuel Macron AquitaineAuvergne-Rhône-Alpes Parc de Parilly (178 hectares)Education The French Republic unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditionsConstitution of Fifth Republic was approved referendum 28 September 1958greatly strengthened authority of executive relation parliament executive branch itself has two leaders President of Republic currently Emmanuel Macron who head of state elected directly universal adult suffrage 5-year term (formerly 7 years), Government led president-appointed Prime MinisterThe National Assembly lower house of French ParliamentThe French Parliament bicameral legislature comprising National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) SenateNational Assembly deputies represent local constituencies directly elected 5-year termsAssembly has power dismiss government thus majority Assembly determines choice of government Senators chosen electoral college 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms) one half of seats submitted election every 3 years starting September 2008The Senate's legislative powers limited event of disagreement between two chambers National Assembly has final sayGovernment has strong influence shaping agenda of ParliamentUntil World War II Radicals were strong political force France embodied Republican Radical Radical-Socialist Party which was most important party of Third Republic Since World War II they were marginalized while French politics became characterised two politically opposed groupings one left-wing centred French Section of Workers' International its successor Socialist Party (since 1969) other right-wing centred Gaullist Party whose name changed over time Rally of French People (1947) Union of Democrats Republic (1958) Rally Republic (1976) Union Popular Movement (2007) Republicans (since 2015) 2017 presidential legislative elections radical centrist party En Marche! became dominant force overtaking both Socialists RepublicansLaw. Main article Transport France, Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port, The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries Paris among them François Mitterrand Library Richelieu Library Louvois Opéra Library Arsenal Library There three public libraries 4th arrondissement Forney Library Marais district dedicated decorative arts Arsenal Library occupies former military building has large collection French literature Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris also Le Marais contains Paris historical research service Sainte-Geneviève Library 5th arrondissement designed Henri Labrouste built mid-1800s contains rare book manuscript division Bibliothèque Mazarine 6th arrondissement oldest public library France Médiathèque Musicale Mahler 8th arrondissement opened 1986 contains collections related music François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) 13th arrondissement was completed 1994 design of Dominique Perrault contains four glass towersThere several academic libraries archives Paris Sorbonne Library 5th arrondissement largest university library Paris addition Sorbonne location there branches Malesherbes Clignancourt-Championnet Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie Serpente-Maison de la Recherche Institut des Etudes Ibériques Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library Leonardo da Vinci University Library Paris School of Mines Library René Descartes University LibrarySports. CPE Lyon Centre- CorsicaFrench GuianaGuadeloupeMartiniqueMayotteRéunionBelgiumLuxembourgGermanySwitzerlandItalyUnited KingdomAndorraBrazilSurinameSpainChannelBay of French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation According 2011 survey IFOP French public opinion research organisation 61 percent of residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves Roman Catholic though just 15 percent said they were practising Catholics while 46 percent were non-practicing same survey 7 percent of residents identified themselves Muslims 4 percent Protestants 2 percent Jewish 25 percent without religionAccording INSEE French government statistical office between 4 5 million French residents were born or had least one parent born predominantly Muslim country particularly Algeria Morocco Tunisia IFOP survey 2008 reported that of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries 25 percent went mosque regularly 41 percent practised religion 34 percent were believers but did not practice religion2012 2013 was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims City of Paris 1.5 million Muslims Île-de-France region 4 5 million Muslims FranceThe Jewish population of Paris Region was estimated 2014 be 282,000 largest concentration of Jews world outside of Israel United StatesEconomy; Minaret of Grand Mosque of Paris In addition classical restaurants Paris has several other kinds of traditional eating places café arrived Paris 17th century when beverage was first brought from Turkey 18th century Parisian cafés were centres of city's political cultural life Café Procope Left Bank dates from this period 20th century cafés of Left Bank especially Café de la Rotonde Le Dôme Café Montparnasse Café de Flore Les Deux Magots Boulevard Saint Germain all still business were important meeting places painters writers philosophersbistro type of eating place loosely defined neighbourhood restaurant with modest decor prices regular clientele congenial atmosphere Its name said have come 1814 from Russian soldiers who occupied city bistro means quickly Russian they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment Real bistros increasingly rare Paris due rising costs competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants different eating habits of Parisian dinersbrasserie originally was tavern located next brewery which served beer food any hour Beginning with Paris Exposition of 1867 became popular kind of restaurant which featured beer other beverages served young women national costume associated with beverage particular German costumes beer Now brasseries like cafés serve food drinks throughout dayFashion. Other Japanese supplementary schools La Martiniere Lyon Roman Catholic (400,000) EPITECH The Élysée Palace residence of French President Main articles Gaul Celts Roman Gaul; Église Saint-Nizier Gothic church from 15th century having doorway carved 16th century Philibert Delorme With 6 millions tourists year castles of Loire Valley (French châteaux) Loire Valley itself third leading tourist destination France this World Heritage Site noteworthy its architectural heritage its historic towns but particular its castles such Châteaux d'Amboise de Chambord d'Ussé de Villandry Chenonceau Montsoreau Château de Chantilly Versailles Vaux-le-Vicomte all three located near Paris also visitor attractionsUNESCO World Heritage Sites protected areas. This section needs expansion You can help adding it (June 2017). The Romans conquered Paris Basin 52 BC began their settlement Paris's Left BankRoman town was originally called Lutetia (more fully Lutetia Parisiorum Lutetia of Parisii) became prosperous city with forum baths temples theatres amphitheatreBy end of Western Roman Empire town was known Parisius Latin name that would later become Paris French Christianity was introduced middle of 3rd century AD Saint Denis first Bishop of Paris according legend when he refused renounce his faith before Roman occupiers he was beheaded hill which became known Mons Martyrum (Latin Hill of Martyrs) later Montmartre from where he walked headless north of city place where he fell was buried became important religious shrine Basilica of Saint-Denis many French kings buried thereClovis Frank first king of Merovingian dynasty made city his capital from 508 Frankish domination of Gaul began there was gradual immigration Franks Paris Parisian Francien dialects were born Fortification of Île-de-la-Citie failed avert sacking Vikings 845 but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established successful defence Siege of Paris (885–86) 987 Hugh Capet Count of Paris (comte de Paris) Duke of Franks (duc des Francs) was elected King of Franks (roi des Francs) Under rule of Capetian kings Paris gradually became largest most prosperous city FranceMiddle Ages Louis XIV!
The main French research bodies including CNRS INSERM INRA all well represented Marseille Scientific research concentrated several sites across city including Luminy where there institutes developmental biology (the IBDML) immunology (CIML) marine sciences neurobiology (INMED) CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus (a world-renowned institute of molecular environmental microbiology) Timone hospital site (known work medical microbiology) Marseille also home headquarters of IRD which promotes research into questions affecting developing countriesTransport. French music then followed rapid emergence of pop rock music middle of 20th century Although English-speaking creations achieved popularity country French pop music known chanson française has also remained very popular Among most important French artists of century Édith Piaf Georges Brassens Léo Ferré Charles Aznavour Serge Gainsbourg Although there very few rock bands France compared English-speaking countries, bands such Noir Désir Mano Negra Niagara Les Rita Mitsouko more recently Superbus Phoenix Gojira, or Shaka Ponk have reached worldwide popularityOther French artists with international careers have been popular several countries example female singers Dalida Mireille Mathieu Mylène Farmer, Alizée Nolwenn Leroy,[verification needed] electronic music pioneers Jean-Michel Jarre Laurent Garnier Bob Sinclar later Martin Solveig David Guetta 1990s 2000s (decade) electronic duos Daft Punk Justice Air also reached worldwide popularity contributed reputation of modern electronic music worldAmong current musical events institutions France many dedicated classical music operas most prestigious institutions state-owned Paris National Opera (with its two sites Palais Garnier Opéra Bastille) Opéra National de Lyon Théâtre du Châtelet Paris Théâtre du Capitole Toulouse Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux music festivals there several events organised most popular being Eurockéennes (a word play which sounds French European) Solidays Rock en Seine Fête de la Musique imitated many foreign cities was first launched French Government 1982 Major music halls venues France include Le Zénith sites present many cities other places Paris (Paris Olympia Théâtre Mogador Élysée Montmartre)Cinema; Main article List of French inventions discoveries. Hauts-de- See also List of French monarchs France Middle Ages, Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon fine arts museum housed former convent of 17th century including Baroque chapelle Saint-Pierre, CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie). Basilica of St-Martin-d'Ainay one of rare surviving Romanesque basilica-style churches Lyon, Lyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programFrance (French [fʁɑ̃s]) officially French Republic (French République française French pronunciation [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]) country whose territory consists of metropolitan France Western Europe several overseas regions territories.[XIII] metropolitan area of France extends from Mediterranean Sea English Channel North Sea from Rhine Atlantic Ocean overseas territories include French Guiana South America several islands Atlantic Pacific Indian oceans country's 18 integral regions (five of which situated overseas) span combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) total population of 67.3 million (as of October 2018) France sovereign state unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital Paris country's largest city main cultural commercial centre Other major urban areas include Lyon Marseille Toulouse Bordeaux Lille NiceDuring Iron Age what now metropolitan France was inhabited Gauls Celtic people Rome annexed area 51 BC holding until arrival of Germanic Franks 476 who formed Kingdom of France France emerged major European power Late Middle Ages following its victory Hundred Years' War (1337 1453) During Renaissance French culture flourished global colonial empire was established which 20th century would become second largest world16th century was dominated religious civil wars between Catholics Protestants (Huguenots) France became Europe's dominant cultural political military power 17th century under Louis XIV late 18th century French Revolution overthrew absolute monarchy established one of modern history's earliest republics saw drafting of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen which expresses nation's ideals this dayIn 19th century Napoleon took power established First French Empire His subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped course of continental Europe Following collapse of Empire France endured tumultuous succession of governments culminating with establishment of French Third Republic 1870 France was major participant World War I from which emerged victorious was one of Allies World War II but came under occupation Axis powers 1940 Following liberation 1944 Fourth Republic was established later dissolved course of Algerian War Fifth Republic led Charles de Gaulle was formed 1958 remains today Algeria nearly all other colonies became independent 1960s typically retained close economic military connections with FranceFrance has long been global centre of art science philosophy hosts world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites leading tourist destination receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually France developed country with world's seventh-largest economy nominal GDP, tenth-largest purchasing power parityterms of aggregate household wealth ranks fourth world France performs well international rankings of education health care life expectancy human development France considered great power global affairs, being one of five permanent members of United Nations Security Council with power veto official nuclear-weapon state leading member state of European Union Eurozone, member of Group of 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organisation Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) World Trade Organization (WTO) La FrancophonieEtymology, René Descartes founder of modern philosophyFrench philosophers produced some of most important political works of Age of Enlightenment Spirit of Laws Baron de Montesquieu theorised principle of separation of powers which has been implemented all liberal democracies since was first applied United States Voltaire came embody Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties such right free trial freedom of religion19th-century French thought was targeted responding social malaise following French Revolution Rationalist philosophers such Victor Cousin Auguste Comte who called new social doctrine were opposed reactionary thinkers such Joseph de Maistre Louis de Bonald Félicité Robert de Lamennais who blamed rationalist rejection of traditional order De Maistre considered together with Englishman Edmund Burke one of founders of European conservatism while Comte regarded founder of positivism which Émile Durkheim reformulated basis social researchIn 20th century partly reaction perceived excesses of positivism French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such Henri Bergson influenced American pragmatism Whitehead's version of process philosophy Meanwhile French epistemology became prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré Gaston Bachelard Jean Cavaillès Jules Vuillemin Influenced German phenomenology existentialism philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre gained strong influence after World War II late-20th-century-France became craddle of postmodern philosophy with Jean-François Lyotard Jean Baudrillard Jacques Derrida Michel FoucaultMusic. Catholic University of Lyon Main article Law of France, Main articles Landmarks Paris Historical quarters of Paris List of tourist attractions Paris. Châteaux See also List of French monarchs France Middle Ages, Paris's most popular sport clubs association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C rugby union clubs Stade Français Racing 92 last of which based just outside city proper 80,000-seat Stade de France built 1998 FIFA World Cup located just north of Paris commune of Saint-Denis used football rugby union track field athletics hosts French national football team friendlies major tournaments qualifiers annually hosts French national rugby team's home matches of Six Nations Championship hosts several important matches of Stade Français rugby teamaddition Paris Saint-Germain FC city has number of other professional amateur football clubs Paris FC Red Star RCF Paris Stade Français Paris2010 Tour de France Champs Élysées.