Autochrome of 114 Infantery regiment París 14 July 1917 with French flag unfurled laying stacked arms, France's highest courts located Paris Court of Cassation highest court judicial order which reviews criminal civil cases located Palais de Justice Île de la Cité, while Conseil d'État which provides legal advice executive acts highest court administrative order judging litigation against public bodies located Palais-Royal 1st arrondissementConstitutional Council advisory body with ultimate authority constitutionality of laws government decrees also meets Montpensier wing of Palais RoyalParis its region host headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO Organisation Economic Co-operation Development International Chamber of Commerce Paris Club European Space Agency International Energy Agency Organisation internationale de la Francophonie European Union Institute Security Studies International Bureau of Weights Measures International Exhibition Bureau International Federation Human RightsFollowing motto Only Paris worthy of Rome only Rome worthy of Paris only sister city of Paris Rome although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around worldPolice force. The Old Port or Vieux-Port main harbour marina of city guarded two massive forts (Fort Saint-Nicolas Fort Saint-Jean) one of main places eat city Dozens of cafés line waterfront Quai des Belges end of harbour site of daily fish market Much of northern quayside area was rebuilt architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction Nazis 1943The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) baroque building dating from 17th centuryThe Centre Bourse adjacent Rue St Ferreol district (including Rue de Rome Rue Paradis) main shopping area central MarseilleThe Porte d'Aix triumphal arch commemorating French victories Spanish ExpeditionThe Hôtel-Dieu former hospital Le Panier transformed into InterContinental hotel 2013La Vieille Charité Le Panier architecturally significant building designed Puget brothers central baroque chapel situated courtyard lined with arcaded galleries Originally built alms house now home archeological museum gallery of African Asian art well bookshops café also houses Marseille International Poetry CentreThe Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure or La Major founded 4th century enlarged 11th century completely rebuilt second half of 19th century architects Léon Vaudoyer Henri-Jacques Espérandieu present day cathedral gigantic edifice Romano-Byzantine style romanesque transept choir altar survive from older medieval cathedral spared from complete destruction only result of public protests timeThe 12th-century parish church of Saint-Laurent adjoining 17th-century chapel of Sainte-Catherine quayside near CathedralThe Abbey of Saint-Victor one of oldest places of Christian worship Europe Its 5th-century crypt catacombs occupy site of Hellenic burial ground later used Christian martyrs venerated ever since Continuing medieval tradition, every year Candlemas Black Madonna from crypt carried procession along Rue Sainte blessing from archbishop followed mass distribution of navettes green votive candlesMuseums.
The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called Canebière) stretches eastward from Old Port Réformés quarter Two large forts flank entrance Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas south side Fort Saint-Jean north Farther out Bay of Marseille Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands one of which If location of Château d'If made famous Dumas novel Count of Monte Cristo main commercial centre of city intersects with Canebière Rue St Ferréol Centre Bourse (one of city's main shopping malls) centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones most notably Rue St Ferréol Cours Julien near Music Conservatory Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off Old Port area around Hôtel de Ville south east of central Marseille 6th arrondissement Prefecture monumental fountain of Place Castellane important bus metro interchange south west hills of 7th 8th arrondissements dominated basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of Centre Bourse 1st arrondissement linked Boulevard d'Athènes CanebièreClimate, see description Paris has typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) which affected North Atlantic Current overall climate throughout year mild moderately wet Summer days usually warm pleasant with average temperatures between 15 25 °C (59 77 °F) fair amount of sunshine Each year however there few days when temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F) Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur such heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) weeks reached 40 °C (104 °F) some days seldom cooled down night Spring autumn have average mild days fresh nights but changing unstable Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently both seasonswinter sunshine scarce days cool nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F) Light night frosts however quite common but temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) only few days year Snow falls every year but rarely stays ground city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulationParis has average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in) experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout year However city known intermittent abrupt heavy showers highest recorded temperature 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) 28 July 1947 lowest −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) 10 December 1879Climate data Paris (Parc Montsouris) 1981–2010 averages extremes 1872–present, The earliest French literature dates from Middle Ages when what now known modern France did not have single uniform language There were several languages dialects writers used their own spelling grammar Some authors of French mediaeval texts unknown such Tristan Iseult Lancelot-Grail Other authors known example Chrétien de Troyes Duke William IX of Aquitaine who wrote OccitanMuch medieval French poetry literature were inspired legends of Matter of France such Song of Roland various chansons de geste Roman de Renart written 1175 Perrout de Saint Cloude tells story of mediaeval character Reynard ('the Fox') another example of early French writing important 16th-century writer was François Rabelais whose novel Gargantua Pantagruel has remained famous appreciated until now Michel de Montaigne was other major figure of French literature during that century His most famous work Essais created literary genre of essay French poetry during that century was embodied Pierre de Ronsard Joachim du Bellay Both writers founded La Pléiade literary movementDuring 17th century Madame de La Fayette published anonymously La Princesse de Clèves novel that considered be one of very first psychological novels of all times Jean de La Fontaine one of most famous fabulists of that time he wrote hundreds of fables some being far more famous than others such Ant Grasshopper Generations of French pupils had learn his fables that were seen helping teaching wisdom common sense young people Some of his verses have entered popular language become proverbs such À l'œuvre connaît l'artisan.[A workman known his chips]see description. Government France highly urbanized country with its largest cities (in terms of metropolitan area population 2013) being Paris (12,405,426 inh.) Lyon (2,237,676) Marseille (1,734,277) Toulouse (1,291,517) Bordeaux (1,178,335) Lille (1,175,828) Nice (1,004,826) Nantes (908,815) Strasbourg (773,447) Rennes (700,675) (Note There significant differences between metropolitan population figures just cited those following table which only include core population) Rural flight was perennial political issue throughout most of 20th centuryFunctional urban areas, International regional transport The National University Library campus of University of StrasbourgIn 1802 Napoleon created lycée Nevertheless Jules Ferry who considered be father of French modern school which free secular compulsory until age of 13 since 1882 (school attendance France now compulsory until age of 16)Nowadays schooling system France centralised composed of three stages primary education secondary education higher education Programme International Student Assessment coordinated OECD ranked France's education about OECD average 2015 Primary secondary education predominantly public run Ministry of National Education France education compulsory from six sixteen years old public school secular free While training remuneration of teachers curriculum responsibility of state centrally management of primary secondary schools overseen local authorities Primary education comprises two phases nursery school (école maternelle) elementary school (école élémentaire) Nursery school aims stimulate minds of very young children promote their socialisation development of basic grasp of language number Around age of six children transfer elementary school whose primary objectives learning about writing arithmetic citizenship Secondary education also consists of two phases first delivered through colleges (collège) leads national certificate (Diplôme national du brevet) second offered high schools (lycée) finishes national exams leading baccalaureate (baccalauréat available professional technical or general flavours) or certificate of professional competence (certificat d'aptitude professionelle)Higher education divided between public universities prestigious selective Grandes écoles such Sciences Po Paris Political studies HEC Paris Economics Polytechnique École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris that produce high-profile engineers or École nationale d'administration careers Grands Corps of state Grandes écoles have been criticised alleged elitism they have produced many if not most of France's high-ranking civil servants CEOs politiciansSince higher education funded state fees very low tuition fees vary from €150 €700 depending university different levels of education (licence master doctorate) One can therefore get master's degree (in 5 years) about €750–3,500 tuition fees public engineering schools comparable universities albeit little higher (around €700) However they can reach €7000 year private engineering schools while business schools which all private or partially private charge up €15000 year Health insurance students free until age of 20Culture, They take place three main sites Palais du Pharo Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot) World Trade Center2012 Marseille hosted World Water Forum Several urban projects have been developed make Marseille attractive Thus new parks museums public spaces real estate projects aim improve city's quality of life (Parc du 26e Centenaire Old Port of Marseille, numerous places Euroméditerranée) attract firms people Marseille municipality acts develop Marseille regional nexus entertainment south of France with high concentration of museums cinemas theatres clubs bars restaurants fashion shops hotels art galleriesEmployment! The official population of city of Paris was 2,206,488 of January 1 2018 according INSEE official French statistical agency This decline of 37,345 (- 1,66 %) from 2014 This drop was attributed partly lower birth rate partly possible loss of housing city due short-term rentals tourismParis fifth largest municipality European Union following London Berlin Madrid Rome Eurostat statistical agency of EU places Paris (6.5 million people) second behind London (8 million) ahead of Berlin (3.5 million) based 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls urban audit core citiesParis Urban Area or unité urbaine statistical area created French statistical agency INSEE measure population of built-up areas around city slightly smaller than Paris Region According INSEE Paris Urban Area had population of 10,550,350 January 2012 census,[not citation given] most populous European Union third most populous Europe behind Istanbul MoscowParis Metropolitan Area second most populous European Union after London with population of 12,341,418 Jan 2012 censusCity proper urban area metropolitan area population from 1800 2010.