École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Main article Education France [email protected], Musée des Confluences new museum of sciences anthropology which opened its doors 20 December 2014La Sucrière contemporary art centre! Anti-terrorism demonstration Place de la République after Charlie Hebdo shooting 11 January 2015, Column dedicated Paris near Baths of Diocletian Rome, Provence- Political majority each sector since 2014; French literary figures Clockwise from top left Molière most played author Comédie-Française Victor Hugo one of most important French novelists poets 19th-century poet writer translator Charles Baudelaire 20th-century philosopher novelist Jean-Paul SartreJean Racine whose incredible mastery of alexandrine of French language has been praised centuries created plays such Phèdre or Britannicus He is along with Pierre Corneille (Le Cid) Molière considered one of three great dramatists of France's golden age Molière who deemed be one of greatest masters of comedy of Western literature, wrote dozens of plays including Le Misanthrope L'Avare Le Malade imaginaire Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme His plays have been so popular around world that French language sometimes dubbed the language of Molière (la langue de Molière), just like English considered the language of ShakespeareFrench literature poetry flourished even more 18th 19th centuries Denis Diderot's best-known works Jacques Fatalist Rameau's Nephew He however best known being main redactor of Encyclopédie whose aim was sum up all knowledge of his century (in fields such arts sciences languages philosophy) present them people order fight ignorance obscurantism During that same century Charles Perrault was prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss Boots Cinderella Sleeping Beauty Bluebeard start of 19th century symbolist poetry was important movement French literature with poets such Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine Stéphane MallarméThe 19th century saw writings of many renowned French authors Victor Hugo sometimes seen the greatest French writer of all times excelling all literary genres preface of his play Cromwell considered be manifesto of Romantic movement Les Contemplations La Légende des siècles considered poetic masterpieces, Hugo's verse having been compared that of Shakespeare Dante Homer His novel Les Misérables widely seen one of greatest novel ever written Hunchback of Notre Dame has remained immensely popularOther major authors of that century include Alexandre Dumas (The Three Musketeers Count of Monte-Cristo) Jules Verne (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under Sea) Émile Zola (Les Rougon-Macquart) Honoré de Balzac (La Comédie humaine) Guy de Maupassant Théophile Gautier Stendhal (The Red Black Charterhouse of Parma) whose works among most well known France world Prix Goncourt French literary prize first awarded 1903 Important writers of 20th century include Marcel Proust Louis-Ferdinand Céline Albert Camus Jean-Paul Sartre Antoine de Saint Exupéry wrote Little Prince which has remained popular decades with children adults around worldof 2014 French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nationfirst Nobel Prize Literature was French author while France's latest Nobel prize literature Patrick Modiano who was awarded prize 2014 Jean-Paul Sartre was also first nominee committee's history refuse prize 1964Philosophy, Main article Religion Marseille, Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3) The many Renaissance hôtels particuliers of Old Lyon quarter such Hôtel de Bullioud were also built Philibert Delorme17th 18th centuries. The city boasts wide variety of sports facilities teams most popular team city's football club Olympique de Marseille which was finalist of UEFA Champions League 1991 before winning competition 1993 club also became finalists of UEFA Europa League 1999 2004 2018 club had history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie club's home Stade Vélodrome which can seat around 67,000 people also functions other local sports well national rugby team Stade Velodrome hosted number of games during 1998 FIFA World Cup 2007 Rugby World Cup UEFA Euro 2016 local rugby teams Marseille XIII Marseille Vitrolles Rugby. Marseille famous its important pétanque activity even renowned pétanque capitale2012 Marseille hosted Pétanque World Championship city hosts every year Mondial la Marseillaise de pétanque main pétanque competitionMatch Race France 2008. Musée d'Orsay Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs decorative arts textile museum holds one of world's largest textile collections with 2,500,000 works. Main article Name of France Tour Oxygène Hector Berlioz 1863 9th arrondissement Vaise Duchère Rochecardon St-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe Gorge de Loup Observance Champvert (north) Other Japanese supplementary schools! Palme d'Or award presentation case map of population France; The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism, See also List of French monarchs France Middle Ages.
École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Marseille has hot Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with mild humid winters warm hot mostly dry summers December January February coldest months averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during day 4 °C (39 °F) night July August hottest months averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during day 19 °C (66 °F) night Marignane airport (35 km (22 mi) from Marseille) but city near sea average high temperature 27 °C (81 °F) JulyMarseille officially sunniest major city France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while average sunshine France around 1,950 hours also driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually especially thanks Mistral cold dry wind originating Rhône Valley that occurs mostly winter spring which generally brings clear skies sunny weather region Less frequent Sirocco hot sand-bearing wind coming from Sahara Desert Snowfalls infrequent over 50% of years do not experience single snowfallThe hottest temperature was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) 26 July 1983 during great heat wave lowest temperature was −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) 13 February 1929 during strong cold waveClimate data Marseille (Longchamp observatory) 43°18'21.2N 5°23'37.1E (1981–2003 averages record highs lows 1868–2003), Main article Foreign relations of France. Political majority each sector since 2014, A map of arrondissements of Paris, The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital teaching hospital Paris one of Europe's largest hospitalsThe French health care system one of universal health care largely financed government national health insurance its 2000 assessment of world health care systems World Health Organization found that France provided close best overall health care worldFrench healthcare system was ranked first worldwide World Health Organization 19972011 France spent 11.6% of GDP health care or US$4,086 per capita, figure much higher than average spent countries Europe but less than United States Approximately 77% of health expenditures covered government funded agenciesCare generally free people affected chronic diseases (affections de longues durées) such cancer AIDS or cystic fibrosis Average life expectancy birth 78 years men 85 years women one of highest of European Union World There 3.22 physicians every 1000 inhabitants France, average health care spending per capita was US$4,719 2008of 2007 approximately 140,000 inhabitants (0.4%) of France living with HIV/AIDSEven if French have reputation of being one of thinnest people developed countries, France—like other rich countries—faces increasing recent epidemic of obesity due mostly replacement French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine junk foodFrench obesity rate still far below that of United States (the obesity rate France same United States had 1970s), still lowest of Europe Authorities now regard obesity one of main public health issues fight fiercely Rates of childhood obesity slowing France while continuing grow other countriesEducation. École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies The official population of city of Paris was 2,206,488 of January 1 2018 according INSEE official French statistical agency This decline of 37,345 (- 1,66 %) from 2014 This drop was attributed partly lower birth rate partly possible loss of housing city due short-term rentals tourismParis fifth largest municipality European Union following London Berlin Madrid Rome Eurostat statistical agency of EU places Paris (6.5 million people) second behind London (8 million) ahead of Berlin (3.5 million) based 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls urban audit core citiesParis Urban Area or unité urbaine statistical area created French statistical agency INSEE measure population of built-up areas around city slightly smaller than Paris Region According INSEE Paris Urban Area had population of 10,550,350 January 2012 census,[not citation given] most populous European Union third most populous Europe behind Istanbul MoscowParis Metropolitan Area second most populous European Union after London with population of 12,341,418 Jan 2012 censusCity proper urban area metropolitan area population from 1800 2010. French poilus sustained highest number of casualties among Allies World War IThe Cabanes du Breuil Dordogne built between 1880 1920 show that some rural parts of France remained traditional areas until recentlyFrance was member of Triple Entente when World War I broke out small part of Northern France was occupied but France its allies emerged victorious against Central Powers tremendous human material cost World War I left 1.4 million French soldiers dead 4% of its population Between 27 30% of soldiers conscripted from 1912–1915 were killedinterbellum years were marked intense international tensions variety of social reforms introduced Popular Front government (annual leave eight-hour workdays women government)In 1940 France was invaded occupied Nazi Germany Metropolitan France was divided into German occupation zone north Vichy France newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany south while Free France government-in-exile led Charles de Gaulle was set up London From 1942 1944 about 160,000 French citizens including around 75,000 Jews, were deported death camps concentration camps Germany occupied Poland6 June 1944 Allies invaded Normandy August they invaded Provence Over following year Allies French Resistance emerged victorious over Axis powers French sovereignty was restored with establishment of Provisional Government of French Republic (GPRF) This interim government established de Gaulle aimed continue wage war against Germany purge collaborators from office also made several important reforms (suffrage extended women creation of social security system) GPRF laid groundwork new constitutional order that resulted Fourth Republic which saw spectacular economic growth (les Trente Glorieuses) France was one of founding members of NATO (1949)Charles de Gaulle seated uniform looking left with folded arms, FranceNormandy Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading People (1830) portrays July Revolution using stylistic views of Romanticism Since Liberty part of motto Liberté égalité fraternité French put it this painting has become primary symbol of French Republic. Map of Metropolis of Lyon (the city of Lyon red) La Défense largest dedicated business district Europe The city's top tourist attraction was Notre Dame Cathedral which welcomed estimated 12,000,000 visitors 2017 Second was Basilique du Sacré-Cœur Montmartre with estimated 11 million visitors This was followed Louvre Museum (8.02 million visitors) Eiffel Tower (6.2 million) Centre Pompidou (3.3 million visitors) Musée d'Orsay (3.2 million) City of Science Industry (2.4 million visitors) Chapel of Our Lady of Miraculous Medal (2 million visitors) Museum of Natural History (1.7 million visitors) Arc de Triomphe (1.3 million visitors)The centre of Paris contains most visited monuments city including Notre Dame Cathedral Louvre well Sainte-Chapelle Les Invalides where tomb of Napoleon located Eiffel Tower located Left Bank south-west of centre Panthéon Catacombs of Paris also located Left Bank of Seine banks of Seine from Pont de Sully Pont d'Iéna have been listed UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991The Axe historique pictured here from Concorde Grande Arche of La Défense. Bastille Day celebration of storming of Bastille 1789 biggest festival city military parade taking place every year 14 July Champs-Élysées from Arc de Triomphe Place de la Concorde includes flypast over Champs Élysées Patrouille de France parade of military units equipment display of fireworks evening most spectacular being one Eiffel TowerSome other yearly festivals Paris-Plages festive event that lasts from mid-July mid-August when Right Bank of Seine converted into temporary beach with sand deck chairs palm trees Journées du Patrimoine Fête de la Musique Techno Parade Nuit Blanche Cinéma au clair de lune Printemps des rues Festival d'automne Fête des jardins Carnaval de Paris one of oldest festivals Paris dates back Middle AgesEducation.