Main articles History of Marseille Timeline of Marseille, See also Architecture of Paris Haussmann's renovation of Paris Religious buildings Paris List of tallest buildings structures Paris region, École Centrale de Lyon Aside from 20th-century addition of Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Paris heliport Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860 Seine département had been governing Paris its suburbs since its creation 1790 but rising suburban population had made difficult govern unique entity This problem was 'resolved' when its parent District de la région parisienne ('district of Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968 Paris became department itself administration of its suburbs was divided between three new departments surrounding it district of Paris region was renamed Île-de-France 1977 but this abbreviated Paris region name still commonly used today describe Île-de-France vague reference entire Paris agglomeration Long-intended measures unite Paris with its suburbs began 1 January 2016 when Métropole du Grand Paris came into existenceParis's disconnect with its suburbs its lack of suburban transportation particular became all too apparent with Paris agglomeration's growth Paul Delouvrier promised resolve Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of Paris region 1961 two of his most ambitious projects Region were construction of five suburban villes nouvelles (new cities) RER commuter train network Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between 1960s 1970s provide low-cost solution rapidly expanding population these districts were socially mixed first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible middle classes only from 1970s) Their poor construction quality their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed their desertion those able move elsewhere their repopulation those with more limited possibilitiesThese areas quartiers sensibles (sensitive quarters) northern eastern Paris namely around its Goutte d'Or Belleville neighbourhoods north of city they grouped mainly Seine-Saint-Denis department lesser extreme east Val-d'Oise department Other difficult areas located Seine valley Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne) Mureaux Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines) scattered among social housing districts created Delouvrier's 1961 ville nouvelle political initiativeThe Paris agglomeration's urban sociology basically that of 19th-century Paris its fortuned classes situated its west southwest its middle-to-lower classes its north east remaining areas mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due reasons of historical importance namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés east Enghien-les-Bains north of ParisDemographics. Jean Moulin University, Paris grew population from about 400,000 1640 650,000 1780new boulevard Champs-Élysées extended city west Étoile, while working-class neighbourhood of Faubourg Saint-Antoine eastern site of city grew more more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of FranceParis was centre of explosion of philosophic scientific activity known Age of Enlightenment Diderot d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie 1751 Montgolfier Brothers launched first manned flight hot-air balloon 21 November 1783 from gardens of Château de la Muette Paris was financial capital of continental Europe primary European centre of book publishing fashion manufacture of fine furniture luxury goodsThe storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 Jean-Baptiste Lallemand (Musée de la Révolution française), The Eiffel Tower world's most visited paid monument icon of both Paris FranceThe Château de Marqueyssac featuring French formal garden one of Remarkable Gardens of FranceWith 83 million foreign tourists 2012, France ranked first tourist destination world ahead of United States (67 million) China (58 million) This 83 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours such North Europeans crossing France their way Spain or Italy third income from tourism due shorter duration of visitsmost popular tourist sites include (annual visitors) Eiffel Tower (6.2 million) Château de Versailles (2.8 million) Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million) Pont du Gard (1.5 million) Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million) Mont Saint-Michel (1 million) Sainte-Chapelle (683,000) Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000) Puy de Dôme (500,000) Musée Picasso (441,000) Carcassonne (362,000)Paris. France uses civil legal system that is law arises primarily from written statutes judges not make law but merely interpret (though amount of judicial interpretation certain areas makes equivalent case law) Basic principles of rule of law were laid Napoleonic Code (which was turn largely based royal law codified under Louis XIV) agreement with principles of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental society Guy Canivet first president of Court of Cassation wrote about management of prisons Freedom rule its restriction exception any restriction of Freedom must be provided Law must follow principles of necessity proportionality That is Law should lay out prohibitions only if they needed if inconveniences caused this restriction do not exceed inconveniences that prohibition supposed remedycolor drawing of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen from 1789. The official population of city of Paris was 2,206,488 of January 1 2018 according INSEE official French statistical agency This decline of 37,345 (- 1,66 %) from 2014 This drop was attributed partly lower birth rate partly possible loss of housing city due short-term rentals tourismParis fifth largest municipality European Union following London Berlin Madrid Rome Eurostat statistical agency of EU places Paris (6.5 million people) second behind London (8 million) ahead of Berlin (3.5 million) based 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls urban audit core citiesParis Urban Area or unité urbaine statistical area created French statistical agency INSEE measure population of built-up areas around city slightly smaller than Paris Region According INSEE Paris Urban Area had population of 10,550,350 January 2012 census,[not citation given] most populous European Union third most populous Europe behind Istanbul MoscowParis Metropolitan Area second most populous European Union after London with population of 12,341,418 Jan 2012 censusCity proper urban area metropolitan area population from 1800 2010.
Sainte Chapelle interior showing painted stonework vaulting stained glass This section may be need of reorganization comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines Please help editing article make improvements overall structure (June 2017) (Learn how when remove this template message). During Restoration bridges squares of Paris were returned their pre-Revolution names but July Revolution of 1830 Paris (commemorated July Column Place de la Bastille) brought constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I power first railway line Paris opened 1837 beginning new period of massive migration from provinces city Louis-Philippe was overthrown popular uprising streets of Paris 1848 His successor Napoleon III newly appointed prefect of Seine Georges-Eugène Haussmann launched gigantic public works project build wide new boulevards new opera house central market new aqueducts sewers parks including Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes1860 Napoleon III also annexed surrounding towns created eight new arrondissements expanding Paris its current limitsIn 1860s Paris streets monuments were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps giving name The City of LightDuring Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) Paris was besieged Prussian army After months of blockade hunger then bombardment Prussians city was forced surrender 28 January 1871 28 March revolutionary government called Paris Commune seized power Paris Commune held power two months until was harshly suppressed French army during Bloody Week end of May 1871The Eiffel Tower under construction November 1888 startled Parisians – world – with its modernityLate 19th century Paris hosted two major international expositions 1889 Universal Exposition was held mark centennial of French Revolution featured new Eiffel Tower 1900 Universal Exposition which gave Paris Pont Alexandre III Grand Palais Petit Palais first Paris Métro line Paris became laboratory of Naturalism (Émile Zola) Symbolism (Charles Baudelaire Paul Verlaine) of Impressionism art (Courbet Manet Monet Renoir)20th 21st centuries.