Université Lumière (Lyon 2), Buddhist (3,000)Culture Frankish expansion from 481 843/870At end of Antiquity period ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms remaining Gallo-Roman territory known Kingdom of Syagrius Simultaneously Celtic Britons fleeing Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain settled western part of Armorica result Armorican peninsula was renamed Brittany Celtic culture was revived independent petty kingdoms arose this regionThe pagan Franks from whom ancient name of Francie was derived originally settled north part of Gaul but under Clovis I conquered most of other kingdoms northern central Gaul 498 Clovis I was first Germanic conqueror after fall of Roman Empire convert Catholic Christianity rather than Arianism thus France was given title Eldest daughter of Church (French La fille aînée de l'Église) papacy, French kings would be called the Most Christian Kings of France (Rex Christianissimus)painting of Clovis I conversion Catholicism 498 king being baptized tub cathedral surrounded bishop monks. ISARA (Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture Rhône Alpes), Tour Eiffel sunrise from trocadero La Vieille Charité. Parc des hauteurs Fourvières Religion France (2016) Since 9 April 1956 Paris exclusively reciprocally twinned only with Le Panier quarter with Hotel de Ville church of Notre-Dame des Accoules. Pointe Rouge Beach The lawns of Parc des Buttes-Chaumont sunny day The official population of city of Paris was 2,206,488 of January 1 2018 according INSEE official French statistical agency This decline of 37,345 (- 1,66 %) from 2014 This drop was attributed partly lower birth rate partly possible loss of housing city due short-term rentals tourismParis fifth largest municipality European Union following London Berlin Madrid Rome Eurostat statistical agency of EU places Paris (6.5 million people) second behind London (8 million) ahead of Berlin (3.5 million) based 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls urban audit core citiesParis Urban Area or unité urbaine statistical area created French statistical agency INSEE measure population of built-up areas around city slightly smaller than Paris Region According INSEE Paris Urban Area had population of 10,550,350 January 2012 census,[not citation given] most populous European Union third most populous Europe behind Istanbul MoscowParis Metropolitan Area second most populous European Union after London with population of 12,341,418 Jan 2012 censusCity proper urban area metropolitan area population from 1800 2010. France has 37 sites inscribed UNESCO's World Heritage List features cities of high cultural interest beaches seaside resorts ski resorts rural regions that many enjoy their beauty tranquillity (green tourism) Small picturesque French villages promoted through association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (literally The Most Beautiful Villages of France) Remarkable Gardens label list of over 200 gardens classified French Ministry of Culture This label intended protect promote remarkable gardens parks France attracts many religious pilgrims their way St James or Lourdes town Hautes-Pyrénées that hosts several million visitors yearEnergy.
Vélib' Place de la Bastille, Main articles Francia Merovingian dynasty Carolingian dynasty Musée Gadagne museum of history of Lyon housed historic building Vieux Lyon Also includes large collection of marionnettes. See also Arrondissements of Paris List of mayors of Paris, Climate The first book printed France Epistolae (Letters) Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza) was published Paris 1470 press established Johann Heynlin Since then Paris has been centre of French publishing industry home of some of world's best-known writers poets setting many classic works of French literature Almost all books published Paris Middle Ages were Latin rather than French Paris did not become acknowledged capital of French literature until 17th century with authors such Boileau Corneille La Fontaine Molière Racine several coming from provinces foundation of Académie française 18th century literary life of Paris revolved around cafés salons was dominated Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau Pierre de Marivaux BeaumarchaisDuring 19th century Paris was home subject some of France's greatest writers including Charles Baudelaire Stéphane Mallarmé Mérimée Alfred de Musset Marcel Proust Émile Zola Alexandre Dumas Gustave Flaubert Guy de Maupassant Honoré de Balzac Victor Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired renovation of its setting Notre-Dame de Paris Another of Victor Hugo's works Les Misérables written while he was exile outside France during Second Empire described social change political turmoil Paris early 1830s One of most popular of all French writers Jules Verne worked Theatre Lyrique Paris stock exchange while he did research his stories National Library.[citation not found]. Sainte-Geneviève Library Église Saint-Nizier Gothic church from 15th century having doorway carved 16th century Philibert Delorme, Republican marches were organised across France after January 2015 Île-de-France attacks perpetrated Islamic terrorists they largest public rallies French historySince 19th century France has received many immigrants These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed During 1970s France faced economic crisis allowed new immigrants (mostly from Maghreb) permanently settle France with their families acquire French citizenship resulted hundreds of thousands of Muslims (especially larger cities) living subsidised public housing suffering from very high unemployment rates Simultaneously France renounced assimilation of immigrants where they were expected adhere French traditional values cultural norms They were encouraged retain their distinctive cultures traditions required merely integrateSince 1995 Paris Métro RER bombings France has been sporadically targeted Islamist organisations notably Charlie Hebdo attack January 2015 which provoked largest public rallies French history gathering 4.4 million people, November 2015 Paris attacks which resulted 130 deaths deadliest attack French soil since World War II, deadliest European Union since Madrid train bombings 2004 2016 Nice attack which caused 87 deaths during Bastille Day celebrationsGeography. Paris has typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) which affected North Atlantic Current overall climate throughout year mild moderately wet Summer days usually warm pleasant with average temperatures between 15 25 °C (59 77 °F) fair amount of sunshine Each year however there few days when temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F) Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur such heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) weeks reached 40 °C (104 °F) some days seldom cooled down night Spring autumn have average mild days fresh nights but changing unstable Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently both seasonswinter sunshine scarce days cool nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F) Light night frosts however quite common but temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) only few days year Snow falls every year but rarely stays ground city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulationParis has average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in) experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout year However city known intermittent abrupt heavy showers highest recorded temperature 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) 28 July 1947 lowest −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) 10 December 1879Climate data Paris (Parc Montsouris) 1981–2010 averages extremes 1872–present. Tour IncityMuseums According 2012 French census 586,163 residents of City of Paris or 26.2 percent 2,782,834 residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) or 23.4 percent were born outside of Metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% 2007 census)26,700 of these City of Paris 210,159 Paris Region were people born Overseas France (more than two-thirds of whom French West Indies) therefore not counted immigrants since they were legally French citizens birthA further 103,648 City of Paris 412,114 Paris Region were born foreign countries with French citizenship birth This concerns particular many Christians Jews from North Africa who moved France Paris after times of independence not counted immigrants due their being born French citizensThe remaining group people born foreign countries with no French citizenship birth those defined immigrants under French law According 2012 census 135,853 residents of city of Paris were immigrants from Europe 112,369 were immigrants from Maghreb 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 5,059 from Turkey 91,297 from Asia (outside Turkey) 38,858 from Americas 1,365 from South Pacific Note that immigrants from Americas South Pacific Paris vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located these regions of worldIn Paris Region 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe 627,078 were immigrants from Maghreb 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa Egypt 69,338 from Turkey 322,330 from Asia (outside Turkey) 113,363 from Americas 2,261 from South Pacific These last two groups of immigrants again vastly outnumbered migrants from French overseas regions territories located Americas South PacificIn 2012 there were 8,810 British citizens 10,019 US citizens living City of Paris (Ville de Paris) 20,466 British citizens 16,408 US citizens living entire Paris Region (Île-de-France)Religion. France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power highest percentage world Photo of Cattenom Nuclear Power PlantÉlectricité de France (EDF) main electricity generation distribution company France also one of world's largest producers of electricity 2003 produced 22% of European Union's electricity, primarily from nuclear power France smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among G8 due its heavy investment nuclear powerof 2016 72% of electricity produced France generated 58 nuclear power plantsthis context renewable energies having difficulty taking off France also uses hydroelectric dams produce electricity such Eguzon dam Étang de Soulcem Lac de VouglansTransport! Location borders Serge Gainsbourg one of world's most influential popular musicians, An extensive bus network serves city suburbs of Marseille with 104 lines 633 buses three lines of tramway, opened 2007 go from CMA CGM Tower towards Les CaillolsAs many other French cities bike-sharing service nicknamed Le vélo free trips of less than half hour was introduced city council 2007A free ferry service operates between two opposite quays of Old Port From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between Old Port Pointe Rouge spring 2013 will also run l'Estaque There also ferry services boat trips available from Old Port Frioul Calanques CassisSport, The Storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 was most emblematic event of French RevolutionFacing financial troubles King Louis XVI summoned Estates-General (gathering three Estates of realm) May 1789 propose solutions his government came impasse representatives of Third Estate formed into National Assembly signalling outbreak of French Revolution Fearing that king would suppress newly created National Assembly insurgents stormed Bastille 14 July 1789 date which would become France's National DayIn early August 1789 National Constituent Assembly abolished privileges of nobility such personal serfdom exclusive hunting rights Through Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen (27 August 1789) France established fundamental rights men Declaration affirms the natural imprescriptible rights of man liberty property security resistance oppression Freedom of speech press were declared arbitrary arrests outlawed called destruction of aristocratic privileges proclaimed freedom equal rights all men well access public office based talent rather than birthIn November 1789 Assembly decided nationalize sell all property of Roman Catholic Church which had been largest landowner country July 1790 Civil Constitution of Clergy reorganised French Catholic Church cancelling authority of Church levy taxes et cetera This fueled much discontent parts of France which would contribute civil war breaking out some years later While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among population his disastrous flight Varennes (June 1791) seemed justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation prospects of foreign invasion His credibility was so deeply undermined that abolition of monarchy establishment of republic became increasing possibilityIn August 1791 Emperor of Austria King of Prussia Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France intervene force of arms restore French absolute monarchy September 1791 National Constituent Assembly forced King Louis XVI accept French Constitution of 1791 thus turning French absolute monarchy into constitutional monarchy newly established Legislative Assembly (October 1791) enmity developed deepened between group later called 'Girondins' who favored war with Austria Prussia group later called 'Montagnards' or 'Jacobins' who opposed such war majority Assembly 1792 however saw war with Austria Prussia chance boost popularity of revolutionary government thought that France would win war against those gathered monarchies 20 April 1792 therefore they declared war Austria.[XIV].