Main article Tourism France Parc de Parilly (178 hectares)Education Bastille Day celebration of storming of Bastille 1789 biggest festival city military parade taking place every year 14 July Champs-Élysées from Arc de Triomphe Place de la Concorde includes flypast over Champs Élysées Patrouille de France parade of military units equipment display of fireworks evening most spectacular being one Eiffel TowerSome other yearly festivals Paris-Plages festive event that lasts from mid-July mid-August when Right Bank of Seine converted into temporary beach with sand deck chairs palm trees Journées du Patrimoine Fête de la Musique Techno Parade Nuit Blanche Cinéma au clair de lune Printemps des rues Festival d'automne Fête des jardins Carnaval de Paris one of oldest festivals Paris dates back Middle AgesEducation. The security of Paris mainly responsibility of Prefecture of Police of Paris subdivision of Ministry of Interior of France supervises units of National Police who patrol city three neighbouring departments also responsible providing emergency services including Paris Fire Brigade Its headquarters Place Louis Lépine Île de la CitéThere 30,200 officers under prefecture fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles including police cars motorcycles fire trucks boats helicopters addition traditional police duties local police monitors number of discount sales held large stores (no more than two year allowed) verify that during summer holidays least one bakery open every neighbourhoodnational police has its own special unit riot control crowd control security of public buildings called Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS) unit formed 1944 right after liberation of France Vans of CRS agents frequently seen centre of city when there demonstrations public eventsThe police supported National Gendarmerie branch of French Armed Forces though their police operations now supervised Ministry of Interior traditional kepis of gendarmes were replaced 2002 with caps force modernised though they still wear kepis ceremonial occasionsCrime Paris similar that most large cities Violent crime relatively rare city centre Political violence uncommon though very large demonstrations may occur Paris other French cities simultaneously These demonstrations usually managed strong police presence can turn confrontational escalate into violenceCityscape, Caves Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil part of UNESCO Prehistoric Sites Decorated Caves of Vézère ValleyGeological formations near Roussillon Vaucluse dating back Post-classical historyMetropolitan France has wide variety of topographical sets natural landscapes Large parts of current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like Hercynian uplift Paleozoic Era during which Armorican Massif Massif Central Morvan Vosges Ardennes ranges island of Corsica were formed These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such Aquitaine basin southwest Paris basin north latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such silt beds of Beauce Brie Various routes of natural passage such Rhône valley allow easy communications Alpine Pyrenean Jura mountains much younger have less eroded forms 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft) above sea level Mont Blanc located Alps French Italian border highest point Western EuropeAlthough 60% of municipalities classified having seismic risks these risks remain moderate coastlines offer contrasting landscapes mountain ranges along French Riviera coastal cliffs such Côte d'Albâtre wide sandy plains Languedoc Corsica lies off Mediterranean coast France has extensive river system consisting of four major rivers Seine Loire Garonne Rhône their tributaries whose combined catchment includes over 62% of metropolitan territory Rhône divides Massif Central from Alps flows into Mediterranean Sea Camargue Other water courses drain towards Meuse Rhine along north-eastern borders France has 11 million square kilometres (4.2×106 sq mi) of marine waters within three oceans under its jurisdiction of which 97% overseasClimate. The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism, French composers played important role during music of 19th early 20th century which considered be Romantic music era Romantic music emphasised surrender nature fascination with past supernatural exploration of unusual strange surprising sounds focus national identity This period was also golden age operas French composers from Romantic era included Hector Berlioz (best known his Symphonie fantastique) Georges Bizet (best known Carmen which has become one of most popular frequently performed operas) Gabriel Fauré (best known his Pavane Requiem nocturnes) Charles Gounod (best known his Ave Maria his opera Faust) Jacques Offenbach (best known his 100 operettas of 1850s–1870s his uncompleted opera Tales of Hoffmann) Édouard Lalo (best known his Symphonie espagnole violin orchestra his Cello Concerto D minor) Jules Massenet (best known his operas of which he wrote more than thirty most frequently staged Manon (1884) Werther (1892)) Camille Saint-Saëns (he has many frequently-performed works including Carnival of Animals Danse macabre Samson Delilah (Opera) Introduction Rondo Capriccioso his Symphony No 3)Claude Debussy 1900, Ancient Lyon Most of low-lying areas of metropolitan France located oceanic climate zone Cfb Cfc Köppen classification Corsica small part of territory bordering mediterranean basin lies Csa Csb zones French metropolitan territory relatively large climate not uniform giving rise following climate nuances. Saint Louis' Sainte Chapelle represents French impact religious architectureDuring Middle Ages many fortified castles were built feudal nobles mark their powers Some French castles that survived Chinon Château d'Angers massive Château de Vincennes so-called Cathar castles During this era France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe Some of greatest examples of Romanesque churches France Saint Sernin Basilica Toulouse largest romanesque church Europe, remains of Cluniac AbbeyThe Gothic architecture originally named Opus Francigenum meaning French work, was born Île-de-France was first French style of architecture be copied all Europe Northern France home of some of most important Gothic cathedrals basilicas first of these being Saint Denis Basilica (used royal necropolis) other important French Gothic cathedrals Notre-Dame de Chartres Notre-Dame d'Amiens kings were crowned another important Gothic church Notre-Dame de Reims Aside from churches Gothic Architecture had been used many religious palaces most important one being Palais des Papes AvignonThe final victory Hundred Years' War marked important stage evolution of French architecture was time of French Renaissance several artists from Italy were invited French court many residential palaces were built Loire Valley from 1450 with first reference Château de Montsoreau Such residential castles were Château de Chambord Château de Chenonceau or Château d'AmboisePlace de la Bourse Bordeaux example of French baroque architectureFollowing renaissance end of Middle Ages Baroque architecture replaced traditional Gothic style However France baroque architecture found greater success secular domain than religious one secular domain Palace of Versailles has many baroque features Jules Hardouin Mansart who designed extensions Versailles was one of most influential French architect of baroque era he famous his dome Les Invalides Some of most impressive provincial baroque architecture found places that were not yet French such Place Stanislas Nancy military architectural side Vauban designed some of most efficient fortresses Europe became influential military architect result imitations of his works can be found all over Europe Americas Russia TurkeyOpéra Garnier interior showing chandeliers gilded decoration, Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon fine arts museum housed former convent of 17th century including Baroque chapelle Saint-Pierre. Further information Charlie Hebdo shooting November 2015 Paris attacks Louvre machete attack March 2017 Île-de-France attacks April 2017 Champs-Élysées attack, ISARA (Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture Rhône Alpes) Since 9 April 1956 Paris exclusively reciprocally twinned only with. Main article Telecommunications France Val de LoirePays de la Loire. Buddhist (3,000)Culture Marseille has hot Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with mild humid winters warm hot mostly dry summers December January February coldest months averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during day 4 °C (39 °F) night July August hottest months averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during day 19 °C (66 °F) night Marignane airport (35 km (22 mi) from Marseille) but city near sea average high temperature 27 °C (81 °F) JulyMarseille officially sunniest major city France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while average sunshine France around 1,950 hours also driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually especially thanks Mistral cold dry wind originating Rhône Valley that occurs mostly winter spring which generally brings clear skies sunny weather region Less frequent Sirocco hot sand-bearing wind coming from Sahara Desert Snowfalls infrequent over 50% of years do not experience single snowfallThe hottest temperature was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) 26 July 1983 during great heat wave lowest temperature was −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) 13 February 1929 during strong cold waveClimate data Marseille (Longchamp observatory) 43°18'21.2N 5°23'37.1E (1981–2003 averages record highs lows 1868–2003), color map showing Regional natural parks of France, The city's top tourist attraction was Notre Dame Cathedral which welcomed estimated 12,000,000 visitors 2017 Second was Basilique du Sacré-Cœur Montmartre with estimated 11 million visitors This was followed Louvre Museum (8.02 million visitors) Eiffel Tower (6.2 million) Centre Pompidou (3.3 million visitors) Musée d'Orsay (3.2 million) City of Science Industry (2.4 million visitors) Chapel of Our Lady of Miraculous Medal (2 million visitors) Museum of Natural History (1.7 million visitors) Arc de Triomphe (1.3 million visitors)The centre of Paris contains most visited monuments city including Notre Dame Cathedral Louvre well Sainte-Chapelle Les Invalides where tomb of Napoleon located Eiffel Tower located Left Bank south-west of centre Panthéon Catacombs of Paris also located Left Bank of Seine banks of Seine from Pont de Sully Pont d'Iéna have been listed UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991The Axe historique pictured here from Concorde Grande Arche of La Défense. French composers played important role during music of 19th early 20th century which considered be Romantic music era Romantic music emphasised surrender nature fascination with past supernatural exploration of unusual strange surprising sounds focus national identity This period was also golden age operas French composers from Romantic era included Hector Berlioz (best known his Symphonie fantastique) Georges Bizet (best known Carmen which has become one of most popular frequently performed operas) Gabriel Fauré (best known his Pavane Requiem nocturnes) Charles Gounod (best known his Ave Maria his opera Faust) Jacques Offenbach (best known his 100 operettas of 1850s–1870s his uncompleted opera Tales of Hoffmann) Édouard Lalo (best known his Symphonie espagnole violin orchestra his Cello Concerto D minor) Jules Massenet (best known his operas of which he wrote more than thirty most frequently staged Manon (1884) Werther (1892)) Camille Saint-Saëns (he has many frequently-performed works including Carnival of Animals Danse macabre Samson Delilah (Opera) Introduction Rondo Capriccioso his Symphony No 3)Claude Debussy 1900, The main attractions outside city centre include, Lyon background with Fourvière left City government Ambox current red.svg.
Marseille television Parc de la Tête d'or (literally Golden Head Park) central Lyon largest urban park France 117 hectares Located 6th arrondissement features large lake which boating takes place during summer monthsJardin botanique de Lyon (8 hectares) included Parc de la Tête d'Or municipal botanical garden open weekdays without charge garden was established 1857 successor earlier botanical gardens dating 1796 now describes itself France's largest municipal botanical gardenParc de Gerland south of city (80 hectares)! The Palais Longchamp with its monumental fountain. Muslim (200,000) The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries Paris among them François Mitterrand Library Richelieu Library Louvois Opéra Library Arsenal Library There three public libraries 4th arrondissement Forney Library Marais district dedicated decorative arts Arsenal Library occupies former military building has large collection French literature Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris also Le Marais contains Paris historical research service Sainte-Geneviève Library 5th arrondissement designed Henri Labrouste built mid-1800s contains rare book manuscript division Bibliothèque Mazarine 6th arrondissement oldest public library France Médiathèque Musicale Mahler 8th arrondissement opened 1986 contains collections related music François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) 13th arrondissement was completed 1994 design of Dominique Perrault contains four glass towersThere several academic libraries archives Paris Sorbonne Library 5th arrondissement largest university library Paris addition Sorbonne location there branches Malesherbes Clignancourt-Championnet Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie Serpente-Maison de la Recherche Institut des Etudes Ibériques Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library Leonardo da Vinci University Library Paris School of Mines Library René Descartes University LibrarySports; Marseille tarot card Since 9 April 1956 Paris exclusively reciprocally twinned only with, Stade de France By 1901 population of Paris had grown 2,715,000 beginning of century artists from around world including Pablo Picasso Modigliani Henri Matisse made Paris their home was birthplace of Fauvism Cubism abstract art, authors such Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches literatureDuring First World War Paris sometimes found itself front line 600 1,000 Paris taxis played small but highly important symbolic role transporting 6,000 soldiers front line First Battle of Marne city was also bombed Zeppelins shelled German long-range guns years after war known Les Années Folles Paris continued be mecca writers musicians artists from around world including Ernest Hemingway Igor Stravinsky James Joyce Josephine Baker Sidney Bechet surrealist Salvador DalíIn years after peace conference city was also home growing numbers of students activists from French colonies other Asian African countries who later became leaders of their countries such Ho Chi Minh Zhou Enlai Léopold Sédar SenghorGeneral Charles de Gaulle Champs-Élysées celebrating liberation of Paris (26 August 1944). [icon] On 7 January 2015 two French Muslim extremists attacked Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo killed thirteen people attack claimed Al-Qaeda Arabian Peninsula, 9 January third terrorist who claimed he was part of ISIL killed four hostages during attack Jewish grocery store Porte de Vincennes11 January estimated 1.5 million people marched Paris show of solidarity against terrorism support of freedom of speech13 November of same year series of coordinated bomb gunfire terrorist attacks Paris Saint-Denis claimed ISIL, killed 130 people injured more than 350On 3 February 2017 two-backpack-carrying machete-wielding attacker shouting Allahu Akbar attacked soldiers guarding Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags assailant was shot no explosives were found18 March of same year Vitry-sur-Seine bar man held patrons hostage then fled later hold gun head of Orly Airport French soldier shouting I am here die name of Allah was shot dead soldier's comrades20 April man shot dead French police officer Champs-Élysées was later shot dead himself19 June man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into police van Champs-Élysées but car only burst into flamesGeography; Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action color map showing Regional natural parks of France A map of arrondissements of Paris.