Franche- Main article Administrative divisions of France, NormandyÎle-de-France The sectors arrondissements of Marseille, Lyon third-largest city second-largest urban area of France located country's east-central part confluence of rivers Rhône Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne Inhabitants of city called LyonnaisLyon had population of 513,275 2015capital of Metropolis of Lyon region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Lyon metropolitan area had population of 2,265,375 2014 second-largest urban area Francecity known its cuisine gastronomy historical architectural landmarks part of registered UNESCO World Heritage site Lyon was historically important area production weaving of silk Lyon played significant role history of cinema where Auguste Louis Lumière invented cinematograph also known its light festival Fête des Lumières which begins every 8 December lasts four days earning Lyon title of Capital of LightsEconomically Lyon major centre banking well chemical pharmaceutical biotech industries city contains significant software industry with particular focus video games recent years has fostered growing local start-up sector Lyon hosts international headquarters of Interpol International Agency Research Cancer Euronews was ranked 19th globally second France innovation 2014ranked second France 39th globally Mercer's 2015 liveability rankingsHistory. Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry (1994) Santiago Calatrava, Jean Moulin University Main article Politics of France! Theatre traditionally has occupied large place Parisian culture many of its most popular actors today also stars of French television oldest most famous Paris theatre Comédie-Française founded 1680 Run French government performs mostly French classics Salle Richelieu Palais-Royal 2 rue de Richelieu next Louvre of Other famous theatres include Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe next Luxembourg Gardens also state institution theatrical landmark Théâtre Mogador Théâtre de la Gaîté-MontparnasseThe music hall cabaret famous Paris institutions Moulin Rouge was opened 1889 was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill its roof became birthplace of dance known French Cancan helped make famous singers Mistinguett Édith Piaf painter Toulouse-Lautrec who made posters venue 1911 dance hall Olympia Paris invented grand staircase settling its shows competing with its great rival Folies Bergère Its stars 1920s included American singer dancer Josephine Baker Later Olympia Paris presented Dalida Edith Piaf Marlene Dietrich Miles Davis Judy Garland Grateful Dead Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers including Mistinguett Maurice Chevalier Tino Rossi Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido Champs-Élysées opened 1946 Crazy Horse Saloon featuring strip-tease dance magic opened 1951 half dozen music halls exist today Paris attended mostly visitors cityLiterature, Bal-musette style of French music dance that first became popular Paris 1870s 1880s 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls working-class neighbourhoods of city Patrons danced bourrée accompaniment of cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called musette) often vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) cafés bars of city Parisian Italian musicians who played accordion adopted style established themselves Auvergnat bars especially 19th arrondissement, romantic sounds of accordion has since become one of musical icons of city Paris became major centre jazz still attracts jazz musicians from all around world its clubs cafésParis spiritual home of gypsy jazz particular many of Parisian jazzmen who developed first half of 20th century began playing Bal-musette city Django Reinhardt rose fame Paris having moved 18th arrondissement caravan young boy performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli their Quintette du Hot Club de France 1930s 1940sImmediately after War Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home many small jazz clubs mostly found cellars because of lack of space these included Caveau des Lorientais Club Saint-Germain Rose Rouge Vieux-Colombier most famous Le Tabou They introduced Parisians music of Claude Luter Boris Vian Sydney Bechet Mezz Mezzrow Henri Salvador Most of clubs closed early 1960s musical tastes shifted toward rock rollSome of finest manouche musicians world found here playing cafés of city night Some of more notable jazz venues include New Morning Le Sunset La Chope des Puces Bouquet du Nord Several yearly festivals take place Paris including Paris Jazz Festival(fr) rock festival Rock en SeineOrchestre de Paris was established 1967On 19 December 2015 Paris other worldwide fans commemorated 100th anniversary of birth of Edith Piaf—a French cabaret singer songwriter actress who became widely regarded France's national chanteuse well being one of France's greatest international stars Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier Charles Aznavour Yves Montand Charles TrenetParis has big hip hop scene This music became popular during 1980spresence of large African Caribbean community helped its development gave voice political social status many minoritiesCinema! According 2012 INSEE figures 68 percent of employees City of Paris work commerce transportation services 24.4 percent public administration health social services 4.4 percent industry 0.1 percent agricultureThe majority of Paris's salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs concentrated north-western 8th 16th 17th arrondissements Paris's financial service companies concentrated central-western 8th 9th arrondissement banking insurance district Paris's department store district 1st 6th 8th 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris workers with 100,000 of these registered retail trade Fourteen percent of Parisians work hotels restaurants other services individuals Nineteen percent of Paris employees work State either administration or education majority of Paris's healthcare social workers work hospitals social housing concentrated peripheral 13th 14th 18th 19th 20th arrondissements Outside Paris western Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense district specialising finance insurance scientific research district employs 144,600, north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms 10 major film studiosParis's manufacturing mostly focused its suburbs city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers most of which textile clothing leather goods shoe trades Paris region manufacturing specialises transportation mainly automobiles aircraft trains but this sharp decline Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped 64 percent between 1990 2010 Paris region lost 48 percent during same period Most of this due companies relocating outside Paris region Paris region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000 Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers many of these centred Yvelines department around Renault PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000), but industry whole suffered major loss with 2014 closing of major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plantThe southern Essonne department specialises science technology, south-eastern Val-de-Marne with its wholesale Rungis food market specialises food processing beveragesParis region's manufacturing decline quickly being replaced eco-industries these employ about 100,000 workers2011 while only 56,927 construction workers worked Paris itself, its metropolitan area employed 246,639, activity centred largely around Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378) Hauts-de-Seine (37,303) departments new business-park centres appearing thereUnemployment. Côte d'AzurCorsica See also List of railway stations Paris, Main article Music of France. Swordfish olive oil with ratatouille saffron rice Paris was its artistic prime 19th century early 20th century when had colony of artists established city art schools associated with some of finest painters of times Édouard Manet Claude Monet Berthe Morisot Paul Gauguin Pierre-Auguste Renoir others French Revolution political social change France had profound influence art capital Paris was central development of Romanticism art with painters such Gericault Impressionism Art Nouveau Symbolism Fauvism Cubism Art Deco movements all evolved Paris late 19th century many artists French provinces worldwide flocked Paris exhibit their works numerous salons expositions make name themselves Artists such Pablo Picasso Henri Matisse Vincent van Gogh Paul Cézanne Jean Metzinger Albert Gleizes Henri Rousseau Marc Chagall Amedeo Modigliani many others became associated with Paris Picasso living Le Bateau-Lavoir Montmartre painted his famous La Famille de Saltimbanques Les Demoiselles d'Avignon between 1905 1907 Montmartre Montparnasse became centres artistic productionThe most prestigious names of French foreign sculptors who made their reputation Paris modern era Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (Statue of Liberty - Liberty Enlightening World) Auguste Rodin Camille Claudel Antoine Bourdelle Paul Landowski (statue of Christ Redeemer Rio de Janeiro) Aristide Maillol Golden Age of School of Paris ended between two world warsPhotography.
Lascaux cave paintings horse from Dordogne facing right brown white background Stade de France This section may be need of reorganization comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines Please help editing article make improvements overall structure (June 2017) (Learn how when remove this template message). Buddhist (3,000)Culture Historically economy of Marseille was dominated its role port of French Empire linking North African colonies of Algeria Morocco Tunisia with Metropolitan France Old Port was replaced main port trade Port de la Joliette during Second Empire now contains restaurants offices bars hotels functions mostly private marina majority of port docks which experienced decline 1970s after oil crisis have been recently redeveloped with funds from European Union Fishing remains important Marseille food economy of Marseille fed local catch daily fish market still held Quai des Belges of Old PortThe economy of Marseille its region still linked its commercial port first French port fifth European port cargo tonnage which lies north of Old Port eastern Fos-sur-Mer Some 45,000 jobs linked port activities represents 4 billion euros added value regional economy 100 million tons of freight pass annually through port 60% of which petroleum making number one France Mediterranean number three Europe However early 2000s growth container traffic was being stifled constant strikes social upheavalport among 20th firsts Europe container traffic with 1,062,408 TEU new infrastructures have already raised capacity 2M TEU Petroleum refining shipbuilding principal industries but chemicals soap glass sugar building materials plastics textiles olive oil processed foods also important products. Marseille connected with Rhône via canal thus has access extensive waterway network of France Petroleum shipped northward Paris basin pipeline city also serves France's leading centre of oil refiningCompanies services high technologies, Main article French fashion With Clovis's conversion Catholicism 498 Frankish monarchy elective secular until then became hereditary of divine rightThe Franks embraced Christian Gallo-Roman culture ancient Gaul was eventually renamed Francia (Land of Franks) Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages except northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense where Germanic languages emerged Clovis made Paris his capital established Merovingian dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death Franks treated land purely private possession divided among their heirs so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's Paris Orléans Soissons Rheims last Merovingian kings lost power their mayors of palace (head of household) One mayor of palace Charles Martel defeated Islamic invasion of Gaul Battle of Tours (732) earned respect power within Frankish kingdoms His son Pepin Short seized crown of Francia from weakened Merovingians founded Carolingian dynasty Pepin's son Charlemagne reunited Frankish kingdoms built vast empire across Western Central EuropeProclaimed Holy Roman Emperor Pope Leo III thus establishing earnest French Government's longtime historical association with Catholic Church, Charlemagne tried revive Western Roman Empire its cultural grandeur Charlemagne's son Louis I (Emperor 814–840) kept empire united however this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death 843 under Treaty of Verdun empire was divided between Louis' three sons with East Francia going Louis German Middle Francia Lothair I West Francia Charles Bald West Francia approximated area occupied by was precursor modern FranceDuring 9th 10th centuries continually threatened Viking invasions France became very decentralised state nobility's titles lands became hereditary authority of king became more religious than secular thus was less effective constantly challenged powerful noblemen Thus was established feudalism France Over time some of king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed threat king example after Battle of Hastings 1066 William Conqueror added King of England his titles becoming both vassal (as Duke of Normandy) equal of (as king of England) king of France creating recurring tensionsLate Middle Ages (10th century–15th century). In 2017 Greater Paris had 2,020 hotels including 85 five-star hotels with total of 119,000 rooms Paris has long been famous its grand hotels Hotel Meurice opened British travellers 1817 was one of first luxury hotels Parisarrival of railways Paris Exposition of 1855 brought first flood of tourists first modern grand hotels Hôtel du Louvre (now antiques marketplace) 1855 Grand Hotel (now InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel) 1862 Hôtel Continental 1878 Hôtel Ritz Place Vendôme opened 1898 followed Hôtel Crillon 18th-century building Place de la Concorde 1909 Hotel Bristol Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré 1925 Hotel George V 1928In addition hotels 2017 Greater Paris had 84,000 homes registered with Airbnb which received 2.3 million visitors Under French law renters of these units must pay Paris tourism tax company paid city government 7.3 million Euros 2016Culture, An extensive bus network serves city suburbs of Marseille with 104 lines 633 buses three lines of tramway, opened 2007 go from CMA CGM Tower towards Les CaillolsAs many other French cities bike-sharing service nicknamed Le vélo free trips of less than half hour was introduced city council 2007A free ferry service operates between two opposite quays of Old Port From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between Old Port Pointe Rouge spring 2013 will also run l'Estaque There also ferry services boat trips available from Old Port Frioul Calanques CassisSport. The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from city has been called Tarot de Marseille since 1930s—a name coined commercial use French cardmaker cartomancer Paul Marteau owner of B–P Grimaud Previously this deck was called Tarot italien (Italian Tarot) even earlier was simply called Tarot Before being de Marseille was used play local variant of tarocchi before became used cartomancy end of 18th century following trend set Antoine Court de Gébelin name Tarot de Marseille (Marteau used name ancien Tarot de Marseille) was used contrast other types of Tarots such Tarot de Besançon those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers 18th century (previously several cities France were involved cardmaking)Another local tradition making of santons small hand-crafted figurines traditional Provençal Christmas creche Since 1803 starting last Sunday of November there has been Santon Fair Marseille currently held Cours d'Estienne d'Orves large square off Vieux-PortOpera. The movie industry was born Paris when Auguste Louis Lumière projected first motion picture paying audience Grand Café 28 December 1895 Many of Paris's concert/dance halls were transformed into cinemas when media became popular beginning 1930s Later most of largest cinemas were divided into multiple smaller rooms Paris's largest cinema room today Grand Rex theatre with 2,700 seatsBig multiplex cinemas have been built since 1990s UGC Ciné Cité Les Halles with 27 screens MK2 Bibliothèque with 20 screens UGC Ciné Cité Bercy with 18 screens among largestParisians tend share same movie-going trends many of world's global cities with cinemas primarily dominated Hollywood-generated film entertainment French cinema comes close second with major directors (réalisateurs) such Claude Lelouch Jean-Luc Godard Luc Besson more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi example European Asian films also widely shown appreciated2 February 2000 Philippe Binant realised first digital cinema projection Europe with DLP CINEMA technology developed Texas Instruments ParisRestaurants cuisine! According 2012 INSEE figures 68 percent of employees City of Paris work commerce transportation services 24.4 percent public administration health social services 4.4 percent industry 0.1 percent agricultureThe majority of Paris's salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs concentrated north-western 8th 16th 17th arrondissements Paris's financial service companies concentrated central-western 8th 9th arrondissement banking insurance district Paris's department store district 1st 6th 8th 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris workers with 100,000 of these registered retail trade Fourteen percent of Parisians work hotels restaurants other services individuals Nineteen percent of Paris employees work State either administration or education majority of Paris's healthcare social workers work hospitals social housing concentrated peripheral 13th 14th 18th 19th 20th arrondissements Outside Paris western Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense district specialising finance insurance scientific research district employs 144,600, north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms 10 major film studiosParis's manufacturing mostly focused its suburbs city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers most of which textile clothing leather goods shoe trades Paris region manufacturing specialises transportation mainly automobiles aircraft trains but this sharp decline Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped 64 percent between 1990 2010 Paris region lost 48 percent during same period Most of this due companies relocating outside Paris region Paris region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000 Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers many of these centred Yvelines department around Renault PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000), but industry whole suffered major loss with 2014 closing of major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plantThe southern Essonne department specialises science technology, south-eastern Val-de-Marne with its wholesale Rungis food market specialises food processing beveragesParis region's manufacturing decline quickly being replaced eco-industries these employ about 100,000 workers2011 while only 56,927 construction workers worked Paris itself, its metropolitan area employed 246,639, activity centred largely around Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378) Hauts-de-Seine (37,303) departments new business-park centres appearing thereUnemployment, The Eiffel Tower La Défense disctrictThe economy of City of Paris based largely services commerce of 390,480 enterprises city 80.6 percent engaged commerce transportation diverse services 6.5 percent construction just 3.8 percent industrystory similar Paris Region (Île-de-France) 76.7 percent of enterprises engaged commerce services 3.4 percent industryAt 2012 census 59.5% of jobs Paris Region were market services (12.0% wholesale retail trade 9.7% professional scientific technical services 6.5% information communication 6.5% transportation warehousing 5.9% finance insurance 5.8% administrative support services 4.6% accommodation food services 8.5% various other market services) 26.9% non-market services (10.4% human health social work activities 9.6% public administration defence 6.9% education) 8.2% manufacturing utilities (6.6% manufacturing 1.5% utilities) 5.2% construction 0.2% agricultureThe Paris Region had 5.4 million salaried employees 2010 of whom 2.2 million were concentrated 39 pôles d'emplois or business districts largest of these terms of number of employees known French QCA or quartier central des affaires western part of City of Paris 2nd 8th 9th 16th 18th arrondissements 2010 was workplace of 500,000 salaried employees about 30 percent of salaried employees Paris 10 percent of those Île-de-France largest sectors of activity central business district were finance insurance (16 percent of employees district) business services (15 percent) district also includes large concentration of department stores shopping areas hotels restaurants well government offices ministriesThe second-largest business district terms of employment La Défense just west of city where many companies installed their offices 1990s 2010 was workplace of 144,600 employees of whom 38 percent worked finance insurance 16 percent business support services Two other important districts Neuilly-sur-Seine Levallois-Perret extensions of Paris business district of La Défense Another district including Boulogne-Billancourt Issy-les-Moulineaux southern part of 15th arrondissement centre of activity media information technologyThe top ten French companies listed Fortune Global 500 2018 all have their headquarters Paris Region six central business district of City of Paris four close city Hauts-de-Seine Department three La Défense one Boulogne-Billancourt Some companies like Société Générale have offices both Paris La DéfenseThe Paris Region France's leading region economic activity with GDP of €681 billion (~US$850 billion) €56,000 (~US$70,000) per capita2011 its GDP ranked second among regions of Europe its per-capita GDP was 4th highest Europe While Paris region's population accounted 18.8 percent of metropolitan France 2011, Paris region's GDP accounted 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDPThe Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry high-value-added service industries (finance services) high-tech manufacturing (electronics optics aerospace etc.)Paris region's most intense economic activity through central Hauts-de-Seine department suburban La Défense business district places Paris's economic centre west of city triangle between Opéra Garnier La Défense Val de Seine While Paris economy dominated services employment manufacturing sector has declined sharply region remains important manufacturing centre particularly aeronautics automobiles eco industriesIn 2017 worldwide cost of living survey Economist Intelligence Unit based survey made September 2016 Paris ranked seventh most expensive city world second most expensive Europe after ZurichEmployment, The average net household income (after social pension health insurance contributions) Paris was €36,085 2011ranged from €22,095 19th arrondissement €82,449 7th arrondissementmedian taxable income 2011 was around €25,000 Paris €22,200 Île-de-France Generally speaking incomes higher Western part of city western suburbs than northern eastern parts of urban area Unemployment was estimated 8.2 percent city of Paris 8.8 percent Île-de-France region first trimester of 2015 ranged from 7.6 percent wealthy Essonne department 13.1 percent Seine-Saint-Denis department where many recent immigrants liveWhile Paris has some of richest neighbourhoods France also has some of poorest mostly eastern side of city 2012 14 percent of households city earned less than €977 per month official poverty line Twenty-five percent of residents 19th arrondissement lived below poverty line 24 percent 18th 22 percent 20th 18 percent 10th city's wealthiest neighbourhood 7th arrondissement 7 percent lived below poverty line 8 percent 6th arrondissement 9 percent 16th arrondissementTourism. Main article Paris Métro la LoireBrittany Serge Gainsbourg one of world's most influential popular musicians.