France has long varied musical history experienced golden age 17th century thanks Louis XIV who employed number of talented musicians composers royal court most renowned composers of this period include Marc-Antoine Charpentier François Couperin Michel-Richard Delalande Jean-Baptiste Lully Marin Marais all of them composers court After death of Roi Soleil French musical creation lost dynamism but next century music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige today he still one of most renowned French composers Rameau became dominant composer of French opera leading French composer harpsichord.[full citation needed]. Culture Most French people of Celtic (Gauls) origin with admixture of Italic (Romans) Germanic (Franks) groups Different regions reflect this diverse heritage with notable Breton elements western France Aquitanian southwest Scandinavian northwest Alemannic northeast Ligurian influence southeast Large-scale immigration over last century half has led more multicultural society 2004 Institut Montaigne estimated that within Metropolitan France 51 million people were White (85% of population) 6 million were Northwest African (10%) 2 million were Black (3.3%) 1 million were Asian (1.7%)A law originating from 1789 revolution reaffirmed 1958 French Constitution makes illegal French state collect data ethnicity ancestry 2008 TeO (Trajectories origins) poll conducted jointly INED French National Institute of Statistics estimated that 5 million people were of Italian ancestry (the largest immigrant community) followed 3 million 6 million people of Northwest African ancestry 2.5 million people of Sub-Saharan African origin 200,000 people of Turkish ancestry There over 500,000 ethnic Armenians France There also sizeable minorities of other European ethnic groups namely Spanish Portuguese Polish GreekFrance has significant Gypsy (Gitan) population numbering between 20,000 400,000 Many foreign Romani people expelled back Bulgaria Romania frequentlyIt currently estimated that 40% of French population descended least partially from different waves of immigration country has received since early 20th century between 1921 1935 alone about 1.1 million net immigrants came Francenext largest wave came 1960s when around 1.6 million pieds noirs returned France following independence of its Northwest African possessions Algeria Morocco They were joined numerous former colonial subjects from North West Africa well numerous European immigrants from Spain PortugalFrance remains major destination immigrants accepting about 200,000 legal immigrants annually also Western Europe's leading recipient of asylum seekers with estimated 50,000 applications 2005 (a 15% decrease from 2004)European Union allows free movement between member states although France established controls curb Eastern European migration immigration remains contentious political issueIn 2008 INSEE estimated that total number of foreign-born immigrants was around 5 million (8% of population) while their French-born descendants numbered 6.5 million or 11% of population Thus nearly fifth of country's population were either first or second-generation immigrants of which more than 5 million were of European origin 4 million of Maghrebi ancestry2008 France granted citizenship 137,000 persons mostly people from Morocco Algeria TurkeyIn 2014 National Institute of Statistics (INSEE its acronym French) published study which reported doubling of number of Spanish immigrants Portuguese Italians France between 2009 2012 According French Institute this increase resulting from financial crisis that hit several European countries that period has pushed up number of Europeans installed France Statistics Spanish immigrants France show growth of 107 percent between 2009 2012 i.e this period went from 5300 11,000 people Of total of 229,000 foreigners who were France 2012 nearly 8% were Portuguese 5% British 5% Spanish 4% Italians 4% Germans 3% Romanians 3% BelgiansMajor cities, Marseille second-largest city France after Paris centre of third-largest metropolitan area France after Paris Lyon east starting small fishing village of Callelongue outskirts of Marseille stretching far Cassis Calanques rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets Farther east still Sainte-Baume (a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from forest of deciduous trees) city of Toulon French Riviera north of Marseille beyond low Garlaban Etoile mountain ranges 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire west of Marseille former artists' colony of l'Estaque farther west Côte Bleue Gulf of Lion Camargue region Rhône delta airport lies north west of city Marignane Étang de BerreMarseille Calanques National Park from ISS February 2017.
African Museum of Lyon The Paris Catacombs hold remains of approximately 6 million peopleIn Paris's Roman era its main cemetery was located outskirts of Left Bank settlement but this changed with rise of Catholicism where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds use their parishes With Paris's growth many of these particularly city's largest cemetery les Innocents were filled overflowing creating quite unsanitary conditions capital When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786 contents of all Paris's parish cemeteries were transferred renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside Porte d'Enfer city gate today place Denfert-Rochereau 14th arrondissementprocess of moving bones from Cimetière des Innocents catacombs took place between 1786 1814 part of network of tunnels remains can be visited today official tour of catacombsAfter tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided more definitive solution creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside city limits Open from 1804 these were cemeteries of Père Lachaise Montmartre Montparnasse later Passy these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications 1860 New suburban cemeteries were created early 20th century largest of these Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny) Cimetière parisien d'Ivry Cimetière parisien de Bagneux Some of most famous people world buried Parisian cemeteriesHealthcare; Employment economic sector Paris area (petite couronne) with population unemployment figures (2012). French cuisine renowned being one of finest world According regions traditional recipes different North of country prefers use butter preferred fat cooking whereas olive oil more commonly used South Moreover each region of France has iconic traditional specialities Cassoulet Southwest Choucroute Alsace Quiche Lorraine region Beef bourguignon Bourgogne provençal Tapenade etc France's most renowned products wines, including Champagne Bordeaux Bourgogne Beaujolais well large variety of different cheeses such Camembert Roquefort Brie There more than 400 different varietiesA meal often consists of three courses hors d'œuvre or entrée (introductory course sometimes soup) plat principal (main course) fromage (cheese course) and/or dessert sometimes with salad offered before cheese or dessert Hors d'œuvres include terrine de saumon au basilic lobster bisque foie gras French onion soup or croque monsieur plat principal could include pot au feu or steak frites dessert could be mille-feuille pastry macaron éclair crème brûlée mousse au chocolat crêpes or Café liégeoisSome French cheeses with fruits! Emmanuel Macron (cropped).jpg Édouard Philippe (cropped).jpg Joan of Arc plate armor holding sword facing left with gilded background The Old Port or Vieux-Port main harbour marina of city guarded two massive forts (Fort Saint-Nicolas Fort Saint-Jean) one of main places eat city Dozens of cafés line waterfront Quai des Belges end of harbour site of daily fish market Much of northern quayside area was rebuilt architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction Nazis 1943The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) baroque building dating from 17th centuryThe Centre Bourse adjacent Rue St Ferreol district (including Rue de Rome Rue Paradis) main shopping area central MarseilleThe Porte d'Aix triumphal arch commemorating French victories Spanish ExpeditionThe Hôtel-Dieu former hospital Le Panier transformed into InterContinental hotel 2013La Vieille Charité Le Panier architecturally significant building designed Puget brothers central baroque chapel situated courtyard lined with arcaded galleries Originally built alms house now home archeological museum gallery of African Asian art well bookshops café also houses Marseille International Poetry CentreThe Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure or La Major founded 4th century enlarged 11th century completely rebuilt second half of 19th century architects Léon Vaudoyer Henri-Jacques Espérandieu present day cathedral gigantic edifice Romano-Byzantine style romanesque transept choir altar survive from older medieval cathedral spared from complete destruction only result of public protests timeThe 12th-century parish church of Saint-Laurent adjoining 17th-century chapel of Sainte-Catherine quayside near CathedralThe Abbey of Saint-Victor one of oldest places of Christian worship Europe Its 5th-century crypt catacombs occupy site of Hellenic burial ground later used Christian martyrs venerated ever since Continuing medieval tradition, every year Candlemas Black Madonna from crypt carried procession along Rue Sainte blessing from archbishop followed mass distribution of navettes green votive candlesMuseums. Like Paris Marseille city of Lyon divided into number of municipal arrondissements each of which identified number has its own council town hall Five arrondissements were originally created 1852 when three neighbouring communes (La Croix-Rousse La Guillotière Vaise) were annexed Lyon Between 1867 1959 third arrondissement (which originally covered whole of Left Bank of Rhône) was split three times creating new arrondissement each case Then 1963 commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe was annexed Lyon's fifth arrondissement year later 1964 fifth was split create Lyon's 9th – and date final – arrondissement Within each arrondissement recognisable quartiers or neighbourhoods are; See also List of railway stations Paris Paris its early history had only rivers Seine Bièvre water From 1809 Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers north-east of capital From 1857 civil engineer Eugène Belgrand under Napoleon III oversaw construction of series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around city several reservoirs built atop Capital's highest points of elevation From then on new reservoir system became Paris's principal source of drinking water remains of old system pumped into lower levels of same reservoirs were from then used cleaning of Paris's streets This system still major part of Paris's modern water-supply network Today Paris has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways dedicated evacuation of Paris's liquid wastesIn 1982 Mayor Chirac introduced motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte remove dog faeces from Paris streetsproject was abandoned 2002 new better enforced local law under terms of which dog owners can be fined up €500 not removing their dog faecesair pollution Paris from point of view of particulate matter (PM10) highest France with 38 µg/m³Parks gardens. Cité Scolaire Internationale de Lyon or Lycée de Gerland, Magdalena Frackowiak Paris Fashion Week (Fall 2011).