Main article French architecture Marseille television Institut supérieur européen de gestion group French music then followed rapid emergence of pop rock music middle of 20th century Although English-speaking creations achieved popularity country French pop music known chanson française has also remained very popular Among most important French artists of century Édith Piaf Georges Brassens Léo Ferré Charles Aznavour Serge Gainsbourg Although there very few rock bands France compared English-speaking countries, bands such Noir Désir Mano Negra Niagara Les Rita Mitsouko more recently Superbus Phoenix Gojira, or Shaka Ponk have reached worldwide popularityOther French artists with international careers have been popular several countries example female singers Dalida Mireille Mathieu Mylène Farmer, Alizée Nolwenn Leroy,[verification needed] electronic music pioneers Jean-Michel Jarre Laurent Garnier Bob Sinclar later Martin Solveig David Guetta 1990s 2000s (decade) electronic duos Daft Punk Justice Air also reached worldwide popularity contributed reputation of modern electronic music worldAmong current musical events institutions France many dedicated classical music operas most prestigious institutions state-owned Paris National Opera (with its two sites Palais Garnier Opéra Bastille) Opéra National de Lyon Théâtre du Châtelet Paris Théâtre du Capitole Toulouse Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux music festivals there several events organised most popular being Eurockéennes (a word play which sounds French European) Solidays Rock en Seine Fête de la Musique imitated many foreign cities was first launched French Government 1982 Major music halls venues France include Le Zénith sites present many cities other places Paris (Paris Olympia Théâtre Mogador Élysée Montmartre)Cinema. In 2017 Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport was second-busiest airport Europe tenth-busiest airport worldParis major international air transport hub with 5th busiest airport system world city served three commercial international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle Paris-Orly Beauvais-Tillé Together these three airports recorded traffic of 96.5 million passengers 2014 There also one general aviation airport Paris-Le Bourget historically oldest Parisian airport closest city centre which now used only private business flights air showsOrly Airport located southern suburbs of Paris replaced Le Bourget principal airport of Paris from 1950s 1980s Charles de Gaulle Airport located edge of northern suburbs of Paris opened commercial traffic 1974 became busiest Parisian airport 1993 year 2017 was 5th busiest airport world international traffic hub nation's flag carrier Air France Beauvais-Tillé Airport located 69 kilometres (43 miles) north of Paris's city centre used charter airlines low-cost carriers such RyanairDomestically air travel between Paris some of France's largest cities such Lyon Marseille or Strasbourg has been large measure replaced high-speed rail due opening of several high-speed TGV rail lines from 1980s example after LGV Méditerranée opened 2001 air traffic between Paris Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers 2000 1,502,196 passengers 2014 After LGV Est opened 2007 air traffic between Paris Strasbourg declined from 1,006,327 passengers 2006 157,207 passengers 2014Internationally air traffic has increased markedly recent years between Paris Gulf airports emerging nations of Africa Russia Turkey Portugal Italy mainland China whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris British Isles Egypt Tunisia JapanMotorways, Metro tramway network Judaism (0.8%). The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries Paris among them François Mitterrand Library Richelieu Library Louvois Opéra Library Arsenal Library There three public libraries 4th arrondissement Forney Library Marais district dedicated decorative arts Arsenal Library occupies former military building has large collection French literature Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris also Le Marais contains Paris historical research service Sainte-Geneviève Library 5th arrondissement designed Henri Labrouste built mid-1800s contains rare book manuscript division Bibliothèque Mazarine 6th arrondissement oldest public library France Médiathèque Musicale Mahler 8th arrondissement opened 1986 contains collections related music François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) 13th arrondissement was completed 1994 design of Dominique Perrault contains four glass towersThere several academic libraries archives Paris Sorbonne Library 5th arrondissement largest university library Paris addition Sorbonne location there branches Malesherbes Clignancourt-Championnet Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie Serpente-Maison de la Recherche Institut des Etudes Ibériques Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library Leonardo da Vinci University Library Paris School of Mines Library René Descartes University LibrarySports, EPITECH France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power highest percentage world Photo of Cattenom Nuclear Power PlantÉlectricité de France (EDF) main electricity generation distribution company France also one of world's largest producers of electricity 2003 produced 22% of European Union's electricity, primarily from nuclear power France smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among G8 due its heavy investment nuclear powerof 2016 72% of electricity produced France generated 58 nuclear power plantsthis context renewable energies having difficulty taking off France also uses hydroelectric dams produce electricity such Eguzon dam Étang de Soulcem Lac de VouglansTransport. Stade de France Bourgogne- Lyon has humid subtropical climate (Cfa) albeit having some characteristics of oceanic climate (Cfb) mean temperature Lyon coldest month 3.2 °C (37.8 °F) January warmest month July 22 °C (71.6 °F) hence maintaining its subtropical classification Precipitation adequate year-round average of 830 mm (32.7 in) but winter months driest highest recorded temperature 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) 13 August 2003 while lowest recorded temperature −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) 22 December 1938Administration, Sea Rue de Rivoli Catholic University of Lyon. Hollywood-style Marseille sign The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called Canebière) stretches eastward from Old Port Réformés quarter Two large forts flank entrance Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas south side Fort Saint-Jean north Farther out Bay of Marseille Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands one of which If location of Château d'If made famous Dumas novel Count of Monte Cristo main commercial centre of city intersects with Canebière Rue St Ferréol Centre Bourse (one of city's main shopping malls) centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones most notably Rue St Ferréol Cours Julien near Music Conservatory Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off Old Port area around Hôtel de Ville south east of central Marseille 6th arrondissement Prefecture monumental fountain of Place Castellane important bus metro interchange south west hills of 7th 8th arrondissements dominated basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of Centre Bourse 1st arrondissement linked Boulevard d'Athènes CanebièreClimate. Economic conditions political unrest Europe rest of world brought several other waves of immigrants during 20th century Greeks Italians started arriving end of 19th century first half of 20th century up 40% of city's population was of Italian origin Russians 1917 Armenians 1915 1923 Vietnamese 1920s 1954 after 1975 Corsicans during 1920s 1930s Spanish after 1936 North Africans (both Arab Berber) inter-war period Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945 pieds-noirs from former French Algeria 1962 then from Comoros 2006 was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered be of Maghrebi origin mostly from Algeria second largest group Marseille terms of single nationalities were from Comoros amounting some 45,000 peopleCurrently over one third of population of Marseille can trace their roots back Italy Marseille also has second-largest Corsican Armenian populations of France Other significant communities include Maghrebis Turks Comorians Chinese VietnameseIn 1999 several arrondissements about 40% of young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent)Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel work city of Marseille attracted better job opportunities good climate of this Mediterranean city main nationalities Romanians PolesReligion, Because of its pre-eminence Mediterranean port Marseille has always been one of main gateways into France This has attracted many immigrants made Marseille cosmopolitan melting pot end of 18th century about half population originated from elsewhere Provence mostly also from southern France.[page needed], François Mitterrand Chancellor Helmut Kohl 24 September 1987 press conference with microphones. Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon contemporary art museum, Institution des Chartreux The lake Parc de la Tête d'or. In Antarctic Adélie LandFrance has land borders with Brazil Suriname via French Guiana with Kingdom of Netherlands through French portion of Saint MartinMetropolitan France covers 551,500 square kilometres (212,935 sq mi), largest among European Union members France's total land area with its overseas departments territories (excluding Adélie Land) 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) 0.45% of total land area Earth France possesses wide variety of landscapes from coastal plains north west mountain ranges of Alps southeast Massif Central south central Pyrenees southwestDue its numerous overseas departments territories scattered across planet France possesses second-largest Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) world covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 mi2) just behind EEZ of United States (11,351,000 km2 or 4,383,000 mi2) but ahead of EEZ of Australia (8,148,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2) Its EEZ covers approximately 8% of total surface of all EEZs of worldGeology topography hydrography, The many Renaissance hôtels particuliers of Old Lyon quarter such Hôtel de Bullioud were also built Philibert Delorme17th 18th centuries, BrittanyNouvelle-Aquitaine See also List of films set Paris.
Main articles French language Languages of France Organisation internationale de la Francophonie Institution des Chartreux Paris skyline 2014 Place des Vosges Sainte Chapelle interior showing painted stonework vaulting stained glass! Main article List of films set Marseille, Palais des congrès de Lyon (1998) designed Renzo Piano group of buildings various functions. Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon (Fine Arts Museum) main museum of city one of largest art galleries France Housed Palais Saint Pierre former 17th-century convent displays major collection of paintings artists (including Tintoretto Paolo Veronese Nicolas Poussin Rubens Rembrandt Zurbaran Canaletto Delacroix Monet Gauguin Van Gogh Cézanne Matisse Picasso Francis Bacon...) collections of sculptures drawings printings decorative arts Roman Greek antiquities second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities France after that of Louvre medal cabinet of 50.000 medals coinsThe Gallo-Roman Museum displaying many valuable objects artworks found site of Roman Lyon (Lugdunum) such Circus Games Mosaic Coligny calendar Taurobolic Altar, color map showing Regional natural parks of France 7th arrondissement Guillotière (south) Jean Macé Gerland. École Centrale de Lyon Marseille second-largest city of France main city of historical province of Provence today capital of department of Bouches-du-Rhône region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur located France's south coast covering area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi) had population of 852,516 2012 Its metropolitan area which covers 3,173 km2 (1,225 sq mi) third-largest France after Paris Lyon with population of 1,831,500 of 2010Known ancient Greeks Romans Massalia (Greek Μασσαλία Massalía), Marseille was important European trading centre remains main commercial port of French Republic Marseille now France's largest city Mediterranean coast largest port commerce freight cruise ships city was European Capital of Culture 2013 European Capital of Sport 2017 hosted matches 1998 World Cup Euro 2016 home Aix-Marseille UniversityGeography. Transport On 14 June 1940 German army marched into Paris which had been declared open city16–17 July 1942 following German orders French police gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews including 4,115 children confined them during five days Vel d'Hiv (Vélodrome d'Hiver) from which they were transported train extermination camp Auschwitz None of children came back25 August 1944 city was liberated French 2nd Armoured Division 4th Infantry Division of United States Army General Charles de Gaulle led huge emotional crowd down Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris made rousing speech from Hôtel de VilleIn 1950s 1960s Paris became one front of Algerian War independence August 1961 pro-independence FLN targeted killed 11 Paris policemen leading imposition of curfew Muslims of Algeria (who that time were French citizens) 17 October 1961 unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against curfew led violent confrontations between police demonstrators which least 40 people were killed including some thrown into Seine anti-independence Organisation armée secrète (OAS) their part carried out series of bombings Paris throughout 1961 1962In May 1968 protesting students occupied Sorbonne put up barricades Latin Quarter Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined students movement grew into two-week general strike Supporters of government won June elections large majority May 1968 events France resulted break-up of University of Paris into 13 independent campuses1975 National Assembly changed status of Paris that of other French cities and 25 March 1977 Jacques Chirac became first elected mayor of Paris since 1793Tour Maine-Montparnasse tallest building city 57 storeys 210 metres (689 feet) high was built between 1969 1973 was highly controversial remains only building centre of city over 32 storeys highpopulation of Paris dropped from 2,850,000 1954 2,152,000 1990 middle-class families moved suburbssuburban railway network RER (Réseau Express Régional) was built complement Métro Périphérique expressway encircling city was completed 1973Most of postwar's Presidents of Fifth Republic wanted leave their own monuments Paris President Georges Pompidou started Centre Georges Pompidou (1977) Valéry Giscard d'Estaing began Musée d'Orsay (1986) President François Mitterrand power 14 years built Opéra Bastille (1985–1989) new site of Bibliothèque nationale de France (1996) Arche de la Défense (1985–1989) Louvre Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989) Jacques Chirac (2006) Musée du quai BranlyIn early 21st century population of Paris began increase slowly again more young people moved into city reached 2.25 million 2011 March 2001 Bertrand Delanoë became first Socialist Mayor of Paris 2007 effort reduce car traffic city he introduced Vélib' system which rents bicycles use of local residents visitors Bertrand Delanoë also transformed section of highway along Left Bank of Seine into urban promenade park Promenade des Berges de la Seine which he inaugurated June 2013In 2007 President Nicolas Sarkozy launched Grand Paris project integrate Paris more closely with towns region around it After many modifications new area named Metropolis of Grand Paris with population of 6.7 million was created 1 January 20162011 City of Paris national government approved plans Grand Paris Express totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines connect Paris innermost three departments around Paris airports high-speed rail (TGV) stations estimated cost of €35 billionsystem scheduled be completed 2030On 5 April 2014 Anne Hidalgo Socialist was elected first female Mayor of ParisTerrorist attacks. Catholic University of Lyon See also Ministry of Ecology Sustainable Development Energy National parks of France Regional natural parks of France. Le Panier quarter with Hotel de Ville church of Notre-Dame des Accoules, ESME-Sudria Paris hosts one of largest science museums Europe Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie La Villette attracted 2.4 million visitors 2017National Museum of Natural History Left Bank attracted 1.76 million visitors 2016 famous its dinosaur artefacts mineral collections its Gallery of Evolution military history of France from Middle Ages World War II vividly presented displays Musée de l'Armée Les Invalides near tomb of Napoleon addition national museums run French Ministry of Culture City of Paris operates 14 museums including Carnavalet Museum history of Paris Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Palais de Tokyo House of Victor Hugo House of Balzac Catacombs of Paris There also notable private museums Contemporary Art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation designed architect Frank Gehry opened October 2014 Bois de Boulogne received 1.4 million visitors 2017Theatre, See also Paris 18th century Paris during Second Empire Haussmann's renovation of Paris.