Eastern Orthodox (10,000) Main article French cuisine Le Serment du Jeu de paume Jacques-Louis David 1791 France has been centre of Western cultural development centuries Many French artists have been among most renowned of their time France still recognised world its rich cultural traditionThe successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation creation of Ministry of Culture 1959 helped preserve cultural heritage of country make available public Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation granting subsidies artists promoting French culture world supporting festivals cultural events protecting historical monuments French government also succeeded maintaining cultural exception defend audiovisual products made countryFrance receives highest number of tourists per year largely thanks numerous cultural establishments historical buildings implanted all over territory counts 1,200 museums welcoming more than 50 million people annuallymost important cultural sites run government instance through public agency Centre des monuments nationaux which responsible approximately 85 national historical monumentsThe 43,180 buildings protected historical monuments include mainly residences (many castles) religious buildings (cathedrals basilicas churches) but also statutes memorials gardens UNESCO inscribed 41 sites France World Heritage ListArt; Marseille connected Marseille Métro train system operated Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM) consists of two lines Line 1 (blue) between Castellane La Rose opened 1977 Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel Bougainville opened between 1984 1987 extension of Line 1 from Castellane La Timone was completed 1992 another extension from La Timone La Fourragère (2.5 km (1.6 mi) 4 new stations) was opened May 2010 Métro system operates turnstile system with tickets purchased nearby adjacent automated booths Both lines of Métro intersect Gare Saint-Charles Castellane Three bus rapid transit lines under construction better connect Métro farther places (Castellane -> Luminy Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome)The new tramway, Most of attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) located 1st 2nd 6th 7th arrondissements These include, The lion symbol of city display Maison des Avocats!
The entrance Old Port flanked Fort Saint-Jean Fort Saint-Nicolas, Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon fine arts museum housed former convent of 17th century including Baroque chapelle Saint-Pierre, Paris has typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) which affected North Atlantic Current overall climate throughout year mild moderately wet Summer days usually warm pleasant with average temperatures between 15 25 °C (59 77 °F) fair amount of sunshine Each year however there few days when temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F) Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur such heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) weeks reached 40 °C (104 °F) some days seldom cooled down night Spring autumn have average mild days fresh nights but changing unstable Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently both seasonswinter sunshine scarce days cool nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F) Light night frosts however quite common but temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) only few days year Snow falls every year but rarely stays ground city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulationParis has average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in) experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout year However city known intermittent abrupt heavy showers highest recorded temperature 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) 28 July 1947 lowest −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) 10 December 1879Climate data Paris (Parc Montsouris) 1981–2010 averages extremes 1872–present; Combined Arms School, Basilica of St-Martin-d'Ainay one of rare surviving Romanesque basilica-style churches Lyon, France one of biggest contributors European Space Agency which conceived Ariane rocket family launched from French GuianaSince Middle Ages France has been major contributor scientific technological achievement Around beginning of 11th century Pope Sylvester II born Gerbert d'Aurillac reintroduced abacus armillary sphere introduced Arabic numerals clocks Northern Western EuropeUniversity of Paris founded mid-12th century still one of most important universities Western world 17th century mathematician René Descartes defined method acquisition of scientific knowledge while Blaise Pascal became famous his work probability fluid mechanics They were both key figures of Scientific revolution which blossomed Europe during this period Academy of Sciences was founded Louis XIV encourage protect spirit of French scientific research was forefront of scientific developments Europe 17th 18th centuries one of earliest academies of sciencesThe Age of Enlightenment was marked work of biologist Buffon chemist Lavoisier who discovered role of oxygen combustion while Diderot D'Alembert published Encyclopédie which aimed give access useful knowledge people knowledge that they can apply their everyday life With Industrial Revolution 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments France with scientists such Augustin Fresnel founder of modern optics Sadi Carnot who laid foundations of thermodynamics Louis Pasteur pioneer of microbiology Other eminent French scientists of 19th century have their names inscribed Eiffel TowerFamous French scientists of 20th century include mathematician physicist Henri Poincaré physicists Henri Becquerel Pierre Marie Curie remained famous their work radioactivity physicist Paul Langevin virologist Luc Montagnier co-discoverer of HIV AIDS Hand transplantation was developed 23 September 1998 Lyon team assembled from different countries around world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who shortly thereafter performed first successful double hand transplant Telesurgery was developed Jacques Marescaux his team 7 September 2001 across Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg Lindbergh Operation)face transplant was first done 27 November 2005 Dr Bernard DevauchelleTop view of ring of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced first permanent photograph polished pewter plate Paris 1825 1839 after death of Niépce Louis Daguerre patented Daguerrotype which became most common form of photography until 1860s work of Étienne-Jules Marey 1880s contributed considerably development of modern photography Photography came occupy central role Parisian Surrealist activity works of Man Ray Maurice Tabard Numerous photographers achieved renown their photography of Paris including Eugène Atget noted his depictions of street scenes Robert Doisneau noted his playful pictures of people market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of romantic vision of Paris) Marcel Bovis noted his night scenes others such Jacques-Henri Lartigue Cartier-Bresson Poster art also became important art form Paris late nineteenth century through work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Jules Chéret Eugène Grasset Adolphe Willette Pierre Bonnard Georges de Feure Henri-Gabriel Ibels Gavarni Alphonse MuchaMuseums. Like Paris Marseille city of Lyon divided into number of municipal arrondissements each of which identified number has its own council town hall Five arrondissements were originally created 1852 when three neighbouring communes (La Croix-Rousse La Guillotière Vaise) were annexed Lyon Between 1867 1959 third arrondissement (which originally covered whole of Left Bank of Rhône) was split three times creating new arrondissement each case Then 1963 commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe was annexed Lyon's fifth arrondissement year later 1964 fifth was split create Lyon's 9th – and date final – arrondissement Within each arrondissement recognisable quartiers or neighbourhoods are, Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière large 19th-century basilica top of Fourvière Hill. The first book printed France Epistolae (Letters) Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza) was published Paris 1470 press established Johann Heynlin Since then Paris has been centre of French publishing industry home of some of world's best-known writers poets setting many classic works of French literature Almost all books published Paris Middle Ages were Latin rather than French Paris did not become acknowledged capital of French literature until 17th century with authors such Boileau Corneille La Fontaine Molière Racine several coming from provinces foundation of Académie française 18th century literary life of Paris revolved around cafés salons was dominated Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau Pierre de Marivaux BeaumarchaisDuring 19th century Paris was home subject some of France's greatest writers including Charles Baudelaire Stéphane Mallarmé Mérimée Alfred de Musset Marcel Proust Émile Zola Alexandre Dumas Gustave Flaubert Guy de Maupassant Honoré de Balzac Victor Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired renovation of its setting Notre-Dame de Paris Another of Victor Hugo's works Les Misérables written while he was exile outside France during Second Empire described social change political turmoil Paris early 1830s One of most popular of all French writers Jules Verne worked Theatre Lyrique Paris stock exchange while he did research his stories National Library.[citation not found], ESDES Business School Lyon home football club Olympique Lyonnais (OL) whose men's team plays Ligue 1 has won championship of that competition seven times all consecutively from 2002 2008) OL played until December 2015 43,000-seat Stade de Gerland which also hosted matches of 1998 FIFA World Cup Since 2016 team has played Parc Olympique Lyonnais 59,000-seat stadium located eastern suburb of Décines-Charpieu OL operates women's team Olympique Lyonnais Féminin which competes dominates Division 1 Féminine They streak of 11 top-flight championships (2007–present) additionally claim four titles won original incarnation of FC Lyon women's football club that merged into OL 2004 (the current FC Lyon was founded 2009) OL women have also won UEFA Women's Champions League five times including two most recent editions 2016 2017Lyon has rugby union team Lyon OU Top 14 which moved into Stade de Gerland full-time 2017–18 addition Lyon has rugby league side called Lyon Villeurbanne that plays French rugby league championship club's home Stade Georges Lyvet VilleurbanneLyon also home Lyon Hockey Club ice hockey team that competes France's national ice hockey league Patinoire Charlemagne seat of Club des Sports de Glace de Lyon club of Olympic ice dancing champions Marina Anissina Gwendal Peizerat world champions Isabelle Delobel Olivier Shoenfelder Villeurbanne also has basketball team ASVEL that plays Astroballe arenaStreet art. See also Taxation France Universities tertiary education, The Stade Vélodrome home of Olympique de Marseille! See also List of French monarchs France Middle Ages, 3rd arrondissement Guillotière (north) Préfecture Part-Dieu Villette Dauphiné/Sans Souci Montchat Grange Blanche (north) Monplaisir (north), Pierre Mignard Self-portrait between 1670 1690 oil canvas 235 cm × 188 cm (93 × 74 in) Louvre. Median income Paris its nearest departments Rue de Rivoli, Network of highways around Lyon.