Main article Lugdunum, This section needs expansion You can help adding it (June 2017), Parc des hauteurs Fourvières French wines usually made accompany French cuisine. Main articles French language Languages of France Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Napoleon Emperor of French his Grande Armée built vast Empire across Europe His conquests spread French revolutionary ideals across much of Europe such popular sovereignty legal equality republicanism administrative reorganization while his legal reforms had major impact worldwide Nationalism especially Germany emerged reaction against himNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of Republic 1799 becoming First Consul later Emperor of French Empire (1804–1814 1815) continuation of wars sparked European monarchies against French Republic changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars Napoleon's Empire His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz Members of Bonaparte family were appointed monarchs some of newly established kingdoms These victories led worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals reforms such Metric system Napoleonic Code Declaration of Rights of Man After catastrophic Russian campaign ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule Napoleon was defeated Bourbon monarchy restored About million Frenchmen died during Napoleonic Wars After his brief return from exile Napoleon was finally defeated 1815 Battle of Waterloo monarchy was re-established (1815–1830) with new constitutional limitationsThe discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown July Revolution of 1830 which established constitutional July Monarchy that year French troops conquered Algeria establishing first colonial presence Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt 1798 According historian Ben Kiernan French conquest pacification of Algeria from 1830 until early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people French losses from 1831–51 were 92,329 dead hospital only 3,336 killed actionIn 1848 general unrest led February Revolution end of July Monarchy abolition of slavery male universal suffrage both briefly enacted during French Revolution were re-enacted 1848 1852 president of French Republic Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon I's nephew was proclaimed emperor of second Empire Napoleon III He multiplied French interventions abroad especially Crimea Mexico Italy which resulted annexation of duchy of Savoy county of Nice then part of Kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III was unseated following defeat Franco-Prussian War of 1870 his regime was replaced Third Republicanimated gif of French colonial territory world map, EPITECH A Palme d'Or from Cannes Film Festival one of Big Three film festivals alongside Venice Film Festival Berlin International Film FestivalFrance has historical strong links with cinema with two Frenchmen Auguste Louis Lumière (known Lumière Brothers) having created cinema 1895 Several important cinematic movements including late 1950s 1960s Nouvelle Vague began country noted having strong film industry due part protections afforded French government France remains leader filmmaking of 2015 producing more films than any other European countrynation also hosts Cannes Festival one of most important famous film festivals worldApart from its strong innovative film tradition France has also been gathering spot artists from across Europe world this reason French cinema sometimes intertwined with cinema of foreign nations Directors from nations such Poland (Roman Polanski Krzysztof Kieślowski Andrzej Żuławski) Argentina (Gaspar Noé Edgardo Cozarinsky) Russia (Alexandre Alexeieff Anatole Litvak) Austria (Michael Haneke) Georgia (Géla Babluani Otar Iosseliani) prominent ranks of French cinema Conversely French directors have had prolific influential careers other countries such Luc Besson Jacques Tourneur or Francis Veber United StatesAlthough French film market dominated Hollywood France only nation world where American films make up smallest share of total film revenues 50% compared with 77% Germany 69% Japan French films account 35% of total film revenues of France which highest percentage of national film revenues developed world outside United States compared 14% Spain 8% UK France 2013 2nd exporter of films world after United StatesUntil recently France had centuries been cultural center of world, although its dominant position has been surpassed United States Subsequently France takes steps protecting promoting its culture becoming leading advocate of cultural exceptionnation succeeded convincing all EU members refuse include culture audiovisuals list of liberalised sectors of WTO 1993 Moreover this decision was confirmed voting UNESCO 2005 principle of cultural exception won overwhelming victory 198 countries voted it only 2 countries U.S Israel voted against itFashion. BiscayLigurian In addition Marseille has three grandes écoles.
France highly urbanized country with its largest cities (in terms of metropolitan area population 2013) being Paris (12,405,426 inh.) Lyon (2,237,676) Marseille (1,734,277) Toulouse (1,291,517) Bordeaux (1,178,335) Lille (1,175,828) Nice (1,004,826) Nantes (908,815) Strasbourg (773,447) Rennes (700,675) (Note There significant differences between metropolitan population figures just cited those following table which only include core population) Rural flight was perennial political issue throughout most of 20th centuryFunctional urban areas. The oldest traces of human life what now France date from approximately 1.8 million years ago Humans were then confronted harsh variable climate marked several glacial erasEarly hominids led nomadic hunter-gatherer life France has large number of decorated caves from upper Palaeolithic era including one of most famous best preserved Lascaux (approximately 18,000 BC)At end of last glacial period (10,000 BC) climate became milder from approximately 7,000 BC this part of Western Europe entered Neolithic era its inhabitants became sedentaryAfter strong demographic agricultural development between 4th 3rd millennia metallurgy appeared end of 3rd millennium initially working gold copper bronze later iron France has numerous megalithic sites from Neolithic period including exceptionally dense Carnac stones site (approximately 3,300 BC)Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD). Catholicism has been predominant religion France more than millennium though not actively practised today was Among 47,000 religious buildings France 94% Roman Catholic During French Revolution activists conducted brutal campaign of de-Christianisation ending Catholic Church state religion some cases clergy churches were attacked with iconoclasm stripping churches of statues ornament After back forth of Catholic royal secular republican governments during 19th century France established laïcité passage of 1905 law Separation of Churches StateSince 1905 French Government has followed principle of laïcité which prohibited from recognising any specific right religious community (except legacy statutes like those of military chaplains local law Alsace-Moselle) recognises religious organisations according formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine Conversely religious organisations expected refrain from intervening policy-making Certain groups such Scientology Children of God Unification Church or Order of Solar Temple considered cults (sectes French), therefore do not have same status recognised religions France Secte considered pejorative term FranceHealth, Église Saint-Paul Romanesque (12th 13th century) Gothic (15th–16th century) church, Christianity (51.1%) A TGV Duplex crossing Cize–Bolozon viaduct train can reach maximum speed of 360 kilometres per hour (220 mph)The railway network of France which of 2008 stretches 29,473 kilometres (18,314 mi) second most extensive Western Europe after that of Germany operated SNCF high-speed trains include Thalys Eurostar TGV which travels 320 km/h (199 mph) commercial useEurostar along with Eurotunnel Shuttle connects with United Kingdom through Channel Tunnel Rail connections exist all other neighbouring countries Europe except Andorra Intra-urban connections also well developed with both underground services (Paris Lyon Lille Marseille Toulouse Rennes) tramway services (Nantes Strasbourg Bordeaux Grenoble Montpellier...) complementing bus servicesThere approximately 1,027,183 kilometres (638,262 mi) of serviceable roadway France ranking most extensive network of European continentParis region enveloped with most dense network of roads highways that connect with virtually all parts of country French roads also handle substantial international traffic connecting with cities neighbouring Belgium Luxembourg Germany Switzerland Italy Spain Andorra Monaco There no annual registration fee or road tax however usage of mostly privately owned motorways through tolls except vicinity of large communes new car market dominated domestic brands such Renault (27% of cars sold France 2003) Peugeot (20.1%) Citroën (13.5%) Over 70% of new cars sold 2004 had diesel engines far more than contained petrol or LPG engines France possesses Millau Viaduct world's tallest bridge, has built many important bridges such Pont de NormandieAir France one of biggest airlines worldThere 464 airports France Charles de Gaulle Airport located vicinity of Paris largest busiest airport country handling vast majority of popular commercial traffic connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across world Air France national carrier airline although numerous private airline companies provide domestic international travel services There ten major ports France largest of which Marseille, which also largest bordering Mediterranean Sea 12,261 kilometres (7,619 mi) of waterways traverse France including Canal du Midi which connects Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean through Garonne riverScience technology.